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W I I H 

Illustrations and Biographical Sketches, 





^ ■ 

ysi H 


^^Uf i^ 



It is hoped that this book is redeemed from the 
sweeping reproach of Walpole: "Read me anything but 
history, for history must be false;" or the scope of 
Napoleon's question; "What is history, but a fiction 
agreed upon?" It will need, however, the abounding 
charity of De Quincey's eloquent phrase: "Two strong 
angels stand by the side of history, * * as 
heraldic supporters — the angel of research on the left 
hand, that must read millions of dusty parchments and 
of pages blotted with lies ; the angel of meditation on 
the right hand, that must cleanse these lying records with 
fire, even as of old the draperies of asbestos were 
cleansed, and must quicken them into regenerated life. 
Willingly I acknowledge that no man will ever avoid in- 
numerable errors of detail; with so vast a compass of 
ground to traverse, this is impossible." That this book is 
superior, in the points of accuracy and fullness, to all 
others of its class, the compilers do not claim ; but it is 
hoped that in these particulars the History is equal to 
the best of them. It is recommended that every reader, 
before entering upon the perusal of its pages, use the 
table of -^rata, at the end of the work, in the careful 
correction of its pages with pen or pencil. Many errors 
of typography, and some of statement, will thus disap- 

It will be observed, also, that important parts of the 
History supplement each other. Judge Godfrey, for ex- 
ample, has fortunately enlarged the scope of his Annals 
far beyond the limits of Bangor; and if the separate 
sketches of Brewer, Orrington, Hampden, and many 
other towns, seem insufficient, additional matter of 

abounding interest will be found in the Bangor division 
of the book. Further histories of Dexter, Bradley, 
Passadumkeag, etc., received late in the course of print- 
ing, are also comprised in the Appendix. 

It was inevitable, however, that parts of the book 
would scarcely prove equal to the expectation of some of 
its readers. An immense tract was to be traversed, in 
both time and geographical area ; a large General History 
was to be made up, in justice to the most important 
county of Eastern Maine. Separate sketches were to be 
made of the history of one city, fifty-five towns, and 
seven organized plantations — a number of these settled 
by civilization more than a century ago; and it soon be- 
came certain, in the preparation of this work, that, within 
the limits necessarily prescribed for it (large as it is, com- 
prising more than a million of words), it would be simply 
impossible to make the history of all localities equally 
full and satisfactory. It only remained for the compilers 
and their aids to do th': best that was practicable, with the 
materials at hand, and leave the generosity and good 
sense of their readers to accept the result as such. 

Acknowledgments to books and persons are so amply 
and frequently made in the course of the chapters that 
it is deemed unnecessary to repeat them here. The 
grateful thanks of the compilers are due to them, and to 
all others who may have contributed to the literary as 
well as pecuniary success of this important venture. 

For the biographical feature of this book the compilers 
have, with few exceptions, no responsibility. 

January 3, 1882. 








I. —Description of the county . 
II. —The Penobscot Indians 
HI.— The Discoverers 
IV. — Geographical Designations 
V. — Colonization and Settlement 
VI. — The Mission.iries 
VII.— County Organization— Civil List 
VIII.— Land Titles— Growth 
IX. — Military Kecoid of Penobscot County 
X.— Agricultural and other Societies 
XL— The Maine State College 
XII.— Ecclesiastical History 
XIIL— The Bangor Theological Seminary 
XIV. — The Press in Penobscot County 
XV.— Roads, Railroads and Telegraphs 
XVI.— The Bench and Bar uf Penobscot 
XVII. — Bibliography of Penobscot County 



Argyle . 


















Exeter . 







H olden 









Lowell . 






. 247 

• 25' 

. 258 

. 279 







Med way 


Mount Chase . 
















1.-1769 to 1776 . 
U. — 1770 to 17B0 

111.-1780101785 . 

IV.— 1785 to 1800 
v. — 1800 to 1805 . 
VI. — 1805 to 1811 
,VII. — 1811-1812-1813 
VIII. — 1814 

IX.— 1815 to 1816 . 
X— 1817 
XI. — 1818 . 
XU. — 1819 
XllI— 1820 . 
XIV. — 1821 
XV.— 1822 . 
XVI. — 1823 
XVll. — 1824 . 
XVIII.— 1825 
XIX.— 1826 . 
XX. — 1827 
XXI.— 1828 . 
XXII. — 1829 
XXIII— 1830 . 
XXIV. — 183: 

XXV.— 1832 . 
XXVI. — 1833 
XXVII. -1834 . 
XXVIU.- 1835 
XXIX. — 1836 . 


XXXI.— Subsequent History of Bangor, 1838-188 

XXXII.— The Churches of Bangor 

XXXIIl.— The Public Charities of Bangor 

XXXIV.— Associations and Clubs . 

XXXV.— The Water Works 

XXXVl.— Civil List of Bangor 
XXXVl I. -Bangor Biographies . 
XXXVIII— Settlement Notes 

XXXIX.— Township Biographies 


■ 443 

■ 467 

• 478 




. 48B 


• 495 










570 •. 












Appendix to Cleneral History 
Appendix to Br.idley. 
Ucxtcr. . 




Milford . 




Appleton, Hon. John. I.L. D 

Allen, Hon. Frederick H. 

Allen, Hon. Elisha H. 

Abbot, Hon William 

Appleton, Frederick H. 

Appleton, Moses L. 

Appleton, General John F. 

Ayer. Horatio S. 

Brown, Hon. Enoch 

Barker, Hon. Lewis 

Barker, Lewis A. 

Fiarker, David 

Bartlett, Ichabod D. 

Bailey, Charles .\. 

Blanchard, John .\. 

Blake, William A. 

Bond, Francis Eugene 

Burgess, James H. 

Brastow, Captain Billint;^ 

Barker, Hon. Lewis, 

Boutelle, Captain Charles A 

Brown, William H., KL D. 

Beal, Flavius O. 

Bryant, Charles D. 

Bragg, Warren A. 

Butman, Samuel 

Chesley, Samuel 

Cutting, Jonas, LL. U. 

Chandler, Peleg 

Crosby, Hon. Josiah 

Chandler, Theophilus P. 

Copeland, ThoniasJ. 

Crosby, William C. 

Chamberlain, Jlorace B. 

Chamberlain, Lieutenant Colonel 1 humas U 

Chamberlain, Joshua L. 

Comins, Lieutenant L. \L 

Case, Captain Isaac Winslow 

Carleton, Brigadier General James H 

Chapman, AdolphusJ. 

Crosby, Captain Henry 

Dutton, Hon. Samuel E 

Donigan, James \. 

Davis, Governor D. F. 

Emery, Marcel lus 

Eddy, Colonel Jonathan 

Ellis, Captain Osco .A. 

Egery, Hon. Thomas N 

Eddy, Jonathan 

Fuller, Lieutenant Colonel Geoti^e 

Foster, Major Benjamin B. 

Flanders, Reuben 

Folsom, Dr. A. 1'. 

Folsoiii, Major M. M. 

Fcrnald, M. C. 

Fuller, Henry 1). 

Godfrey, Hon. John 

Godfrey, James 

Goodenow, Hon. Henry C. 

Gilman, Hon. Allen 

Oilman, Charles 

Garnsey. Samuel 

Greenwood, Charles 

Gardnur, Hon. John 

Halhawny, Hon. Joshua W 

Hill, Hon. Thomas .\. 

Humphrey, Hon. Samuel F. 


201 and 763 

766 and 915 


216 and 825 








Hamlin, Hon. Hannibal 

Hamlin, Hon. Hannibal 

Hamlin, Hon. Elijah L. 

Hamlin, General Charles 

Hilliard, William T. . 

Hobbs, P>ederick . 

Hill, Joshua 

Hill, Colonel Francis 

Hodsdon, Sergeant Israel 

Hutchings, Colonel Jasper 

Hill, Brevet Brigadier General J 

Hill, Captain Henry V. 

Hersey, General S. F. 

Hunt, Abel 

Haines, Dr. George A. 

Hill, Hon. Francis W. 

H.inimond. John R. 

Huston, Nicholas R. 

Haynes, George H. 

Hodsdon, General Isaac 

Ingersoll, George W. . 

Jewett, Hon. Albert G. 

Jordon. Edward 

Kent, Hon. Edward, L. L. D. 

Kent, Hon. Edwaid, L. L. D. 

Leonard, Oliver 

Ladd, Hon. George W. 

Lord. Henry 

Laugluon, Dr. Sumner 

Laughton, Hon. Frederick M. 

McGaw, Hon, Thornton 

McGaw, Jacob 

Moody, George B. 

McCrilhs, David 

McCrillis, William H. 

Mitchell, Henry L. 

McFadden, T. F. 

Mayo, Captain Ezekiel R 

Mudge Enoch R. 

Morison, Hon. John 

Nichols, Lemuel 

Oakman, Major Ora 

Oakes, Captain Samuel J. 

Plaisted, Hon. Harris M. 

Peters, Hon. John A. 

Perham, Hon. David 

Plaisted, Hon. Harris M. 

Prentiss, Hon. Henry E. 

Paine. Albert W. 

Palmer, Surgeon Alden D. 

Pullen, Colonel Frank D. 

Plaisted, Hon. William 

Rowe, James S. 

Rogers, Jonathan P. 

Rogers, Lieutenant Edwin 

Ruggles, Major Huani 

Ruggles, Lieutenant G. H. 

Sanborn, Hon. Daniel 

Stetson, Hon, Charles 

Stetson, Charles P. 

Sewall, George P. 

Starretl, George 

Sanborn, Abraharn 

Stearns, Lewis C. . 

Sanger, Dr. E. F. 

Seavy, Dr. Calvin 

Sargent, Deacon Daniel 

than A 



. 492 





• 371 


• 311 

ecu 64-65 



■ 449 




• 77t 




Sprague, V'olney A. 

Shaw, Hon. Charles . 

Smith, Hon. Asa . 

Shaw, E. W. . 

Smith, Hon. Joseph I,. 

Thissell, Hon. John 

Vose, Hon. Thomas W. . 

Veazie, General Samuel 

Veazie, Jones P. 

Williamson, Hon. Wilham U. 

Washburn, Hon. Isniel 

Wakefield, Hon. Albert G. 

Wilson, Nathaniel 

Map of Penobscot County . 
Portrait of General Samuel Veazie 
Portrait of Governor H. M. Plnisted 
Portrait of D. F. Davis 
County Buildings 
Portr.iit of Lewis A. Barker 
Residence of .\. F. Bradbury 
Portrait of General Isaac Hodsdon 
Portrait of Dr. E. F. Sanger 
Portrait of Major M. M. Folsom 
Portrait ol Lieutenant G. H. Ruggle-^ 
Maine State Agricultural College 
Portrait of M. C. Fernald . 
Portrait of C. A. Boutelle 
Portrait of Noah Woods 
Portrait of Hon. John Appleton 
Portrait of Hon. John E. Godfrey 
Portrait of Hon. Josiah Crosby 
Residence of Greenville J. Shaw 
Portrait of Charles P. Church 
Portrait of Cyrus P. Church 
Portrait of Thomas R. Kingsbury 
Purir.iit of D. S. Humphrey 
Portrait of Deacon Daniel Sargent 
ResidenceofJ.B. Benjamin 
Portrait of Major Hiram Ruggles 
Potiraitof Thomas J. Peaks 
\iew ol Eureka Mills 
Portrait of Hon. John Thissell 
Portrait of Reuben Flanders . 
View ol Amos Abbott & Co's Mills 
Portrait of Colonel Jonathan Eddy 
I'ortrait of T. P. Bachelder 
Portrait of Hon. William Plaistid 
Portrait of William R. .•\yer 
Portrait of E. W. Shaw 
Portrait of Dr. John Benson 
Residence of B. P. Gilman 
Portrait of Jesse R. W,adleigh 
Residence of Eben Webster 
Portrait of J. L. Smith 
Portrait of Dr. A. P. Folsom . 
Residence of Dr. A. I'. Folsom 
Residence of M. M. Folsom 


. 827 

. 830 

• 832 

• 787 

Weston, Nathan Jr. 
Weeks, Matthias . 
Whitney, George W. . 
Wilson, Franklin A. 
Wilson. Joseph C. 
W.ishbum, Lieutenant Israel H. 
Woods, Hon. Noah 
Webber, John I^rescott 
Wadleigh, Jesse R. 
Wadleigh, Moses P. 
Webster, Eben 
Wilson, Surgeon ). B. 




between 32 

- 33 







between 82 

- 83 





between 112-113 | 



between 15 






between 186-1 87 



















between 2 




between 274-275 





between 3 








between 394-395 















between 454-4=;5 

between 458-459 





Portrait of John Gardner 

Residence of John Gardner 

Portrait of John R. Hammond 

Rcsidenceof John R. Hammond 

Cream Brook Farm . 

Residence of Samuel E. Stetson. 

Residence of Edward and John JorJ.jn 

Residence of Porter G. Wiggin . 

Portrait of Alvin Haynes 

Portrait of Charles A. H.iynes . 

Portrait of George H. Haynes 

Portrait of N. R. Huston 

Residence of N. R. Huston 

Map of Bangor in 1798 . 

Portrait of Hon. Lewis Barker - 

Portrait of Thomas N. Egery . 

Portrait of G. W. Ladd 

Map of Bangor in 1820 . 

Map of Bangor in 1820 

Portrait of Lemuel Nichols 

Portraitof J. E. Chapman . 

Bangor Planing Mill 

Portrait of Hon. Henry Lord 

Poillait of F. O. Beal 

View of Bangor House 

Portrait of Jones P. Veazie 

Portr.iit of .Abel Hunt 

Portrait of F. V. Pullen . 

I'orlrail of F. M. Laughton 

St. Xavier's Convent 

Portrait of Dr. Sumner t^ughlon 

Portrait of J, P. Webber 

Store of Thurston, Biagg & Co. 

Residence of Hon. John Morison 

Portr.ait of Volney A. Sprague 

Portr.iit of Thomas M. Plaisted 

Portrait of George A. Haines 

Dexter Woolen Mills 

Residence of Hon. Josiah Crosby 

Portraitof F. W. Hill . 

Residence and portrait of Asa Smith 

Portrait of Colonel Francis Hill 

Portrait of Mrs. Elizabeth Hill 





between 478-479 
between 478-479 
between 480-481 
between 480-481 
between 490-491 
facing 492 

facing 493 
facing 494 
between 838-839 
between 838-839 
between 838-839 
between 500-501 
between 500-501 
facing 515 

between 524-525 
between 544-545 
between 570-571 
between 590-591 
between 590-591 
facing 592 

facing 600 

facing 608 

between 624-625 
between 644-645 
between 644-64S 
facing 652 

lacing 656 

between 702-703 
helwcen 712-713 
facing 731 

between 734-735 



























Penobscot County, Maine, 



Geographical— Its Silunliun, Size, Boundaries, Subdivisions, and 
I'opulalion— The l'enol>scot Uiver— Seenery of the Hay— Tlie Ac- 
counts of Kozier. Dr. Kohl, Wells, and Williamson— Lumbering on 
the Kiver— The Soil of I'enobscot— Arable and Waste Lands— .\daptation of Wild Lands— Geology of the County — 
Bangor and \'icinity— l-'rom Holden to Charleston— Argillo-niica 
Schist— Mica Schist in Carroll— About Lakeville Plantation— The 
East Branch of the Penobscot- Working the Slate— History of the 
Hrounville (juarries—" Horsebacks "-Marble and Limestones— 
The Manufacture of Lime— Trap Rock— Granite in Northern Maine 
—Sundry Geological Notes — Travelers' Descriptions — Steele— 
Thorneau — Audubon. 


The county ol Penobscot, in the State of Maine, is 
altogciher an inland subdivision, no part of its territory 
abutting upon the seacoast. It occui)ies, however, 
aUnost the whole of the valley of the Penobscot, n.arly 
the whole of the main stream of that river, the entire 
East branch, except its furthest headwateis, and many 
miles of the West branch, lying within the borders of 
this county. The lower part of the county is nearly in 
the middle of the State, on an east and west line from 
Passamaquoddy Bay. On a north and south line, how- 
ever, its boundaries arc much nearer to the sea than to 
the river St. John, the notlherii linnt o{ the State, and 
the entire northern half of the county apiwaches within 
thirty to fifty miles of the State line on the east, while it 
is at all points more than twice as far from the western 
boundaries of the State. It is the principal county of 
Eastern Maine, and one of the largest and most import- 
ant in the Commonwealth. It has a total area of two 
thousand seven hundred and si-xty square miles, or one 
million seven hundred and sixtysi.x thousand four hun- 
dred acres. Its extreme length, from the northernmost 
boundary, the north^line of section eight, of the eighth 
range, to the southernmost point, the projection of Or- 
rington town into Hancock county, is one hundred and 
seventeen and one-half miles. Its breadth varies from a 
little more than eighteen miles, down the county from 
the north line for about forty-five miles, to fifty and one- 
half miles in extreme width, on a belt of eight miles' 
width from Uexter and the north part of Corinna east- 
ward. The breadth from Carroll, Prentiss, and Urew 
Plantation westward, is the same as that of the lower 
part of the county, say the latitude of Bangor— forty 

miles; which is shortened in the southernmost portion, 
from Dixmont eastward, by about three miles. 

The boundaries of the county, although quite irregu- 
lar, are almost wholly in right lines. It has no "natural 
boundaries," except at the southwest part of Orrington, 
where the Penobscot separates its teriitory from the 
northeast corner of Waldo county. Its entire periphery 
or boundary has a length, very nearly, of three hundred 
and fifty-three miles. It is bounded on the north by 
Aroostook and Piscataquis counties; on the east by 
Aroostook, Washington, and Hancock ; on the south — 
that part of the county east of the Penobscot by Han- 
cock county, that west of the river by Waldo county, on 
the west (Dixmont) by Waldo, (Plymouth to Dexter), 
Somerset, and (the rest of the county) Piscataquis coun- 
ties. The farnous eminence of the wilderness, Mount 
Katahdin, is just outside the western boundary, on the lat- 
itude of Stacyville town; also Lake Seboeis, to the west- 
ward of Woodville and Chester. Between these towns and 
the lake is the Mattamiscontis mountain, a height of 
respectable altitude, about six miles from the west line of 
the county. 

The organized towns of Penobscot county are Alton, 
Argyle, Bangor, Ikadford, Bradley, Brewer, ISurlington, 
Carmcl, Carroll, Charleston, Chester, Clifton, Corinna, 
Corinth, Dexter, Dixmont, Eddington, Edinburg, En- 
field, Etna, E.xeter, Garland, (;ienburn, Greenbush, 
Greenfield, Hampden, Hermon, Hoklen, Howland, 
Hudson, Kenduskeag, Kingman, Lagrange, Lee, Levant, 
Lincoln, Lowell, Mattamiscontis, Mattawamkeag, Max- 
field, Medway, Milford, Mount Chase, Newport, New- 
burgh, Oldtown, Orono, Orrington, Passadumkeag, Pat- 
ten, Plymouth, Prentiss, Springfield, Stetson, Veazie, and 
Winn— fifty-six in all. The organized plantations are 
Drew, Lakeville, Stacyville, Webster, Woodville, No. i 
(North Bingham, Penobscot Purchase), and No. 2, 
Grand Falls Plantation-eight in number. Unorganized 
plantations are Pattagumpus, \\'hitney Ridge, West In- 
dian, township A, range 7; No. 3; Nos. 2 and 3, range 
3; No. 2, range 4; No. 2, range 6; No. 2, range 9 ; No. 
3, range i — eleven. 
I The population of the county, according to the census 
of 1880, was seventy thousand four hundred and seventy- 


The great physical feature of tlie county is, of course, 

l'K\()l;SCt)T RIVER. 

The Iniliaii name of this renowned stream, which has 
been taken also by an ancient tcjwn ni H.mcock county, 
and by the gruat c:ounty which nearly lills its valley, is 
I'enobskeag or I'enobscook — the former having the 
well-known termination kcag, fountl in man)' appellatives 
in this State, and meaning pku e the wlujjc word signi- 
fying "the place of rocks." The French, in their efforts 
to represent the Indian sounds by their alphabet, called 
the river Pentacpievett, which became shortened into 
Pentagoet — a designation by which the remains of the 
old fort on the margin of the water at Castine are still 
known. But the men of Plymouth, who established their 
trading-post at or near the same spot in 1S26, are be- 
lieved to have been the first to name the river as Penob- 
scot. It received other titles in the course of civilized 
exploration on these shores—as the river of Norumbega, 
the Rio de ( lome/, and others which will appear hereafter. 
The scenery of the bay and river of Penobscot is widely 
celebrated for its picturesque cheuacter and beauty. The 
lines of Whittier, in his musical verse embodying the 
legend of the I'arratine sachem, Mogg Mcgone, furnish 
a fitting introduction to the scene: 

Beneath the uesiw.ird-turning eye 
A Ihous.iiid wooded isl.mds lie.— 
'1 lieir tmts of beauty glow 
Down ill the restless naves below. 

There sleeps ri.icellli.i's yrolliJ. — 
There, gloomily .ig.imst the sky 
The Dark Isles rear their siimniits hiyii; 
.\nd Desert Rock, abruin .ind bare. 
Lifts its gray turrets 111 tlie air,— 
Seen from afar, like some stronghold 
Built by the oeean-kings of old ; 
.And. faint as smoke-wreath, white and thin, 
Swells in tlie ii,,iih K.italiJii, . 
.\ih1, w.iiiariii,;; |,,„„ 1,^ m.ubliy feel. 
The bi.i.ul l'cii,,l,Mol luiiies to men 
.And ninigle wilh its own bnglit l,,,y 

The historian of Weymouth's voyage, M. Ro/ier, eulo- 
gizes the up win, h the explorer pushed, whatever 
It may have been (piuh.ihly ihc Penobscot), in the warm- 
est terms. His praises are well worthy the Penobscot 

As we passed with a gentle wind up w,th our .hip in this river any „, in 
may coneeive with wh.u admir.ttion we all eonseiited in joy ' M „v ' f 
our eompany, who had been travellers ,n sundry eouniries and'in .lu ' 
most fanu^ts rivers, yet affirmed them no. eomparable to this they no v ' 
beheld. Some that were Sir Walter Raleigh in his voyage to 

■e West indies, ealled Rio Crande, some before the river of I o r 

The first chapter „f (,,,.<, Kohl's "History of the 
n.^overy of tlie East (•,,,,fN,,,U,A,nc,ua.'' pruned 
•n the hrst volume of the se,:ond series of ,he .Maine 
Historical Collections, contains the following interestil., 
remarks upon this great inland water, which Dr. Kohl 

rightly designates as by far the most important river of 
the State. He says further: 

It drains the entire central part of .Maine. .Ml its heads and tribu- 
taries are included in the territory of the St.ite, and this teriitory mav 
be considered as having attached ilself from ,UI sides to this river sys- 
tem. The State of Maine might be called the Penobscot country, this ' 
river being its main artery. 

The reiiobscot, at its mouth, f.jrms the l.irgeM and most be.iuliful of 
all the numerous bays or inlets of the eo.isl. and is very deep, and nav- 
igable for the largest vessels about sixty miles from the ocean upward 
to the city of H.ingor, where tides and vessels are stopped by rocks and 

'1 he widely ojieii mouth attracted the attention of all the e.vploring 
navigators sailing along the coast and it was visited by tlie .Sp.miards 
on tlieir first e.sploring expedition to our regions. We see it depicted 
on the Spanish maps as the longest river of the whole region, and they 
g.ive to it names like the following: ■• Rio Grande" (the great river), 
or ■ ■ Kio Hermoso " (the beautiful river). And the principal of the ear- 
ly Spanish e.vploi-ers of these regions, Gomez, left his name to this 
river, which, perhaps, he considered to be one of his most important 
discoveries. It was sometimes called "Rio de Gomez" (the river of 
Gomez). It was afterwards often visited by French navigators and 
fishermen fiom the Great Rank, and they appear to have built there, 
befijre the year 1555, a fort ur settlement, which must have been the 
first t-:uropean settlement ever made on the coast of Maine. 'Ihe In- 
di.iiis of .Maine, also, thought highly of this river, rheir principal 
chief, according to the well-known Captain John Smith, an early ICng- 
lish describer of the coast of Maine, resided on its shore, and even now 
when everywhere else in Maine the Indians have disappeared, the few 
remnants of them, the little Penobscot tribe, cling to the borders of 
this their old, beloved, principal canoe trail. 

The very full and interesting Report upon the Water- 
power of Maine, made in 1S68 by Mr. Walter U'ells, 
superintendent of the hydiographical survey of this State, 
contains an elaborate and most valuable chapter upon 
the .system of the Penobscot, from which we make the 
following briet extracts; 

The Penobscot IS the only great lluviatile district in Maine which il- 
lustrates in its actual configuration the geographical idea of the river- 
basin— appearing as a mere point at the mouth of the stream, thence 
interior-ward, e.xpanding symmetrically upon both sides of the central 
channel, presently embranching into subordinate basins, themselves 
dis])osed likewise sviniiH-traally .ib,,ul tribill.iry sUe.ims. and tliem- 
seKes vet luilher Im.iklng up inio still sni.illj, l,.,sins located upon 
slill sm.illrr, s, until the whole t.ikes on the .similitude ,;f a 
iniglily lirr, lioiii ,_,ne trunk r.iinilies into iiniuinerable br.inches, 
and tioiii one gr.uid .lort.i div.iric.iles into numberless .irlrii,-.s and 
veins, by which, upon occasion, its entire volume of lluids is conducted 
to and poured into a common cliannel of circul.iiion .nul discharge. 

Gre.iiest length, from north to south, 160 miles; greatest breadth 
115 miles; area, 8,200 scjuarc miles, considerably the largest rivei^ dis- 
trict contained wholly in the State-800 square miles discharge their sur- 
plus water into the main river below its lowest water powx-r.^'at Bangor. 
The so-called west branch is properly only the con- 
tinuation of the main river; it is the upper Penobscot; a name applict- 
ble to the stream from the Mattawamkeag to the "Forks," ,1, Pittston 
townshii., where the Penobscot takes origin. The lower Penobscot 
extends from the Mattawamkeag to Penobscot bay. 

The east branch, so ealled, should be known as the Matta.-tmon 
aftei and in common with the lake from which it issues and the^moun- 
tains II, Its vicinity. The various terms west branch, east branch 
northwest branch, etc., should be reserved for use about the headwa- 
ters of the river, where iiuleed they are already applied. When u.sed 
111 both the mid and upper section, they involve i,s iinm.-nclature in 


The Penobscot, from the confluence of the Mattawamkeag to the 
sea, ,s .about 120 miles long; fiom the junction of the Matt.agamon to 
the sea, about ,32 miles, from its extreme headwaters, .ibout 260 
miles, or, including the loci windings, 300 miles. The main water- 
P0W..1 sec,i„ii extends from l.,d.e Chesiincook to lUngor, 120 miles, 
the fill being ,,oofeet; or v/., tlie M,.ttagamon, from Lake .Maitaganion 
to liangor, 115 miles, and .1 fall of about 850 feel. 

The annual di.sch.irge of the Penobscot is estimated as V9 800 000 - 
000 cubic Icet. Of this, about 31,000,000,000 are reecivJd below the 


lo\M-bt mill-iirivilege, yieliliny on lis p.isiagc to llie nvtr 


The renoliscol nalur.illy, ami «illioul the assistance of man, holds 
a position amongst the most highly fa\ored of the Stale in respect to 
uniformity of volume at different seasons of the year. This is due in 
part to the extent of its tributary aiea, in virtue of which the contribu- 
tions of the various brandies do not reach its chief manufacturmg 
bites at the same time. It is due also to the more uniform surface as- 
pect of the basin, in respect to which it has the decided advantage over 
the Saco, AndroscoggM\, and Kennebec; it is due also, in common with 
the other large rivers of the State, to its c.Mensive system of lakes and 
the vast breadth of forests upon its drainage surface. 

A record covering the period from 1816 to 1866, shows tluil the ear- 
liest opening to navigation of the Penobscot at llangor, for the period, 
was on March 21, and that during the whole time registered it opened 
in January and Kebru.iry but once— naiuely, in i8ji, on January 9th. 
The river remains frozen over for 125 days yearly on the average. 

The following excellent and detailed account of the 
Penobscot waters is derived from the introduction to 
Williamson's History of Maine, than which we find 
nothing better in jjrint for the iiurjwse of full descrijJtion. 
It was written about 1830: 

The Penobscot river is the longest of any one in the State; and in its 
tide-waters it is as l.irge as the Sagad.ihock after the junction of tin- 
Kennebec and the Androscoggin. Its wliole length, as it runs from its 
heads to Kort Point is supposed to be about two hundred miles. It has 
no reservoirs, such as the great lake that yields supply to the Kennebec; 
it is formed by a great number of streams, winch issue from ponds, 
swamps and springs, above and below the foriy-si.\th parallel of lati- 
tude, and spread the whole uidth of the State, its western sources being 
more than ten liumlred miles, in a straight course, from its eastern 
heads; and so much do they all, like branches of one family, converge 
and aim at a general union, as to form a conlluence and constitute the 
main river, ninety-tive miles from its mouth, and with about one-half a 
degree only below tlie parallel aliove mentioned. 

The western liranch of the Penobscot is supposed to be the largest 
It rises in the highlands north of the KenmlHC, r.isl of the C'liaudiere, 
and south of the St. John, .ind wli.a is nuliLiMhle, ilie head-streams of 
the four rivers are tjuite near each other 111 pi. ices. Its sources 
have been explored by the surveyors under the ite.ay of tjhem, and it 
is found that the road from the forks of thc> Kennebec to " Mile Tree " 
crosses three primary branches of the Penobscot, two of which, one 
four and the other six miles below the heights, are large nnll-streanis 
where they cross the road. 

I'roni the northwest branch of the Penobscot, rising between twenty 
and thirty miles northeasterly of '• Mile Tree," the carrying-place into 
the main St. John is only t.vo nulrs, ,ind some streams of the two rivers 
are much nearer each other. This great western branch, after collect- 
in" its waters from the north and south, runs eastwardly, not far from 
the northern margin of Moosehe.ul Lake, and eni|)tie5 into Chesuncook 
Lake, sixty miles from some of its sources. '1 he outlet river of this 
lake, which is fifteen miles in length, runs southwardly and eastwardly 
forty-five miles, till it embraces the great eastern branch, and forms 
what is called the junction, the waters in each being nearly etiual. 

The two main streams of this eastern branch rise about fifty or sixty 
miles, from their heads to its union with the great western branch or the 
Neketow. Twenty miles above this junction, in the west branch, are 
the Grand Falls, where the waters descend over a ledge of smooth 
rocks, 50 feet, through a channel 45 feet wide, into a basin of unknown 
depth. In late years the eastern branch has been explored above the 
junction; and of the other considerable is known to its several sources, 
though neither of them has yet setllemenls on its banks. South of the 
junction, two miles, the Penobscot receives from th.' nortlieasl a brook 
called .Salmon stream. 

Sixteen miles below the juiu tion is ihe niuuth ol the .M.Ulawaiiikcag 
river, which rises on the easic-rn side of tlu- State, and Hows many miles 
southeasteriy towards Schoodic Lakes; llien forms a bow and runs 
southwest twelve miles, and receives the Sebascohegan, through which 
t^ivellers and Indians ascend within three miles of the Schoodic Lakes. 
The Matiawamke.ig is as large as the Piscatatiuis, and larger than two 
of the Kcnduskeag; rapid, very rocky in several pl.ices, and frcciuent 
falls and inlervening still-waters. Its mouth is about 30 miles below 
that of the Sebascohegan; and the mail, first established in 18-25, passes 
up these two rivers through the Schoodic Urkes to Iloulton. 

From the mouth of the M.mawamkeag, the Penobscot descends in a 

cool and inviting current, navigable for the largest rafts, receiving on Us 
west side the Medunk.aunk, a small mill-stream, and the Madamiscon- [ Mattamiscontisl, a large one; and on the east side, the Metanaw- 
cook, two-thirds as large as the Passadunikeag, and 16 miles above it. 

Fiut ihe most important and considerable tributary of the Penobscot 
is the Piscataiiuis, which comes from the west, and, after running too 
miles from its sources, empties itself 35 miles above the mouth of the 
Kenduskcag and 35 miles below the junction. Three large streams 
constitute the Piscatatjuis, \iz: Pleasant ri\t'r from the northwest, which 
rises on the east side of Moosehead lake; Sebcc river from the west, 
which has some of its sources in the same neighborhood, and Sebec 
pond in its course; and Piscataquis proper, which comes more from the 
souiliucst; the killer two embrace the first, and Ihn-v miles further 
tUiuii iliey rrcci\e the third, 12 miles from the mouth of the Pisc.ita- 
quis. Sebec- and Pleasant rivers are about equally large, and a few 
others of their size carefully compare with lliem in beauty and commo- 
diousness. They afford many excellent mill-sites, and in freshets will 
float large lafts. The three branches have low banks, interspersed with 
rich and extensile intervales. The flowing of the Piscaiatjuis, which is 
30 rods wide, is \ery quick and its waters uncommonly transparent and 
pure. At its mouth it descends a fall of 12 or 15 feet in the space o{ 10 
rods; and over a part of the fall the water pours in a thick and limpid 
sheet. In mixing with the Penobscot it adds to it nearly a third part 
of its waters. 

Five miles below the Piscatatiuis, on the cast side, is the Passadum- 
kc.ig, which rises near Schoodic waters and empties itself into the Pe- 
nobscot. It is bo. liable about twenty miles, excepting seven carrying- 
places of inconsidenible length. On this river are extensive ii.ttural 
meadows, where great quantities of hay are cut every year. 

The Penobscot, after flowing south five miles, receives on the east side 
Olemon stream, which is little else than a large brook, and likewise em- 
braces an island of excellent land, called Olemon Island, containing 
three hundred acres; also Sugar Island, of like size, a little below, and 
several smaller ones in a short distance. Sunkh.ize stream is rather 
larger than Olemon stream, and empties into the Penobscot eleven 
miles below, on the same side. Not less than two hundred tons of hay 
are taken annu.iUy from its meadows, fiulh these streams together, 
probably, do not contribute more water to the main river than the Pas- 
sadunikeag docs itself. 

One mile below Sunkhaze, and fourteen from the nioutli of Kendus- 
kcag, the Penobscot is parted in a very remarkable manner, so that 
about half the water next the eastern shore descends in direct course 
southerly, and the other half turns a short corner and runs northwest 
more than two miles, and then turning again almost as short, runs 
southerly seven miles before the two branches form a junction. This 
western branch is c.iUed Stillwater, and the first island it embraces 
after the. divorce is Osson island, of twelve hundred acres. It then has 
intercourse w ith the east branch by a southwesterly reach, tliiee miles in 
length, which separates that island from Marsh island, containing Ine 
thousand acres; and from this reach a passage bounds the southeast 
end of Osson island, and separates it from Oldlown, of three 
hundred acres, where the Indian village is. Besides these three the 
•Stillwater river also embraces another one, c.ilied Orono, of one hun- 
dred and fifty acres. At the upper and lower end of .Stillwater river 
are falls suitable for mill-sites; and on the east br.incli— that is, the main 
river— there are similar falls, viz., at the foot of Oldtown island and at 
Great Works,' a mile or more below ; in each of which the descent may 
be twenty or thirty feet. 

.•\11 four of these islands are excellent land; and, exce|)t .Marsh island, 
which is the souiliernniost one, thev are claimed by the Tarratine tribe 
*of Indians. They also own the other ist.uids mentioned, which are of 
a like fertile soil. 

l-' the reunion of the Penobscot with the Stillwater at the foot of 
Marsh island, the river flows southweslwardly three miles to the head of 
the tide, at "the Iiend,"so called, where its usual el>b and flow are two 
feet. Small vessels may ascend in freshets and spring tides, within a 
mile of it, but ship navigation is not good and safe much above Ken- 
duskcag point, four miles below the liend. 

The Kenduske.ig stream rises near some of the Sebasticook sources, 
and after running in its southeasterly serpentine course fifty miles, and 
turning the wheels of various mills and machinery, it discharges its 
waters into the Penobscot, amid llmgor vill.ige, sixty miles from White 
Ile.icl, iwenty-thiee miles from Fort Point, and seventy from Ihe junc- 
tion. It is generally eight rods wide; its mouth, which is thirty-five 
rods in breadth, and sixty rods higher up at tin- bridge is thirty rods, 
forms a br.inch of the harbor; but here the ground, except in the chan- 
nel, is often bare at low w.iter. Opposite to the mouth of the Kendus- 


kcij!, Ilic water in llic cli.mnd uf llie IVll<)1)^c>.t is sovc-nluLii feet when 
tlie lidi! is out, ami llie widili of the main river lielinv is eighty rods. 

The Peiiobscl thence descends in a deep and steady current, passing 
llie moutlis of Sejicuiikedunk on llie east side, and So«ad,il)scuok on 
the west shore; both beini; niiil-strcMiiis much less than Kenduske.iy, 
one three and the other (nc miles beluw it ; thence one leajjue lu liald 
Hill cove, on the same side, another to Huck's I-edye, covered at high 
«aler; and half a mile more tu Oak Point, where the vs'ater is sixty rods 
wide and deep. Uetiveen tlie latter and Dram I'oint, which are a league 
asunder, is Marsh Hay, which is more than a mile wide, ornamented by 
the village of Frankfort or. llie western shore. Here tlie water is very 
salt, and the river is seldom fro/en as low .is buck's Ledge. Indeed, 
during some winters it euiuiniies open as high as the mouth of Sowa- 

U is about fivemiles from Dram I'oiiii to the head of Orpli.ui island, 
which contains acres or more, and divides the waters of the river 
into two br.inches. The western and main one passes through the Nar- 
rows opposite the northwest curve of the island, and by Oldham's 
Ledge, which is half a league below, .ind a league above Fort I'oint, at 
the mouth of the river. The branch which washes the other side of 
the island is called Kaslon river, safely n.ivigable for small vessels;— the 
island itself, ta.ted in liueks|)ort, is good land, and is owned by the de- 
scendants of an or|)han l.idy who inherited a |)art of the Waldo Patent. 

'I'he general breadth ol the IVnobsioi is from 80 to 100 rods, and it 
is remaikable, uwiiig to absorption and ev.iporation, it should be 
so uniformly wide from Piscatai|uis to Orphan island; though its depths 
are various, being above the tide-waters from 6 to 12 feet, not easily 
fordable by a man and horse below the junction. The udes.ii and 
below liangor are htteeu [eleven feet, and at low w.ilcr lis depth in the 
channel is from three to si.x f.alioiiis, and in some places twenty. The 
banks of the river .ire generally liigli; some projections are rock)' and 
rugged, and others afford a picturesijue appearance. An enchanting ex- 
panse of the river spre.ids itself before Bucksport village, and another 
before Frankfort, and a beautiful country on either side, extending to the 
head of the tide, fills the passengers eye from the river with captivating 
views of nature and culture. As we ascend the river we find the banks less 
elevated, and above the ude-w.iters we pass many extensive intervales 
before we reach the Piscalaiiuis. Tlu> only fearful ledges bcliiW the 
head of navigation are liuck's and Oldham's, before meniioned, and 
Fort Point Ledge, half a mile from the Point, and .Steele's Letige, .1 
league, southeast, covered at high water. 

At and above Bangor, and below it as far as the w.iier is fresh, llie 
river is generally closed by ice from the middle of Deccmher to the fore 
part of April. However, the ice in 1800 did not descend till the eigh- 
teenth ol -April, and on the first of January, 1805, the ruer, after Ijeing 
closed three weeks, was cleai for two days, and 11 may be mentioned 
as a rare instance ih.ii, on itie iweiity-sixtli of M.irch, i8u, the river 
was clear of ice and fro/eii no moie during the spring, .Moreover, 111 
February, 1807, the ice, winch very thick and slruiig, lieing biokeii 
up by an uncommon freshet on the seventeenlh of the inonlli, 
driven down in great cakes, and one hundred rods below Bangor vill.ige 
formed an iimiiov.djle inipedimeiit to the current. By reason of this 
check, the waters rose irn to melve feet higher than was before known, 
filled the lower aparlineiits .,f buildings, and destroyed and in- 
jured a great <iuantity of goods, fnunig the inh.tbit.iiusof one dwelling- 
house to make their ese.ipe from llie ch.imber windows. Three davs 
elapsed before ihe ice fully g.ive w.iy .iiid llie lluuil subsulei-l. 

At the foot of Orphan island ihe Penobscot exp.uids, so that the dis- 
tance across from Fort I'oiiu to the cistern shore is two miles or more; 
and this is the head of the bay. The most noted place 011 the e.islern 
shore is M.-ijor-biguyduce I'oint. fifteen miles below Orphan, a 
place repeatedly mentioned in history. . . point 

is the southerly projection of the peninsula, which constiiules the 
greatest part of the town of Casline. On the north it has Back Co\e; 
north of west it has Penobscot bay, two le.igues over, with Belfast b.iy 
another le.igue on the west, .ulorned by the vill.ige of iielf.tst. On the 
southwest it has the upper end of Long island [Islesborough], two 
miles distant, and at the eastward it has Northern bay. It h.\s alw.iys 
been considered by Kuropeans, as well as by the. Americans and natives, 
to be a very eligible situation. Casline vill.ige is on the southerly side 
of the peninsula; .ind westward of il one hundred rods, at some dis- 
tance from the .shore, are the appearance of the old foriilic.aions. Here 
the Plymouth colony had a Ir.idiiig house as early as A. D. 1626; here 
D'Auhi.iy located himself in 1640; and here B.iron de C.isiine after- 
wards had his residence many years. The United St.ues g.irrison is 
still farther to the west and on higher land, intended to protect the town 
and command the upper section of Penobscot bay. 


.•\ vivid skctcli of scenes on the I'enobscot, as the 
lumbermen approach their ciestination at Bangor, is given 
in the entertaining voUime on Forest Life and Forest 
Trees, by i\Ir. John .S. Springer, himself a native of the 
Pine-tree State. In his i ha[>ter on River-driving the 
writer says : 

Between the mouth of the Pisealaquis and Oldtown, 20 or 25 miles, 
are numerous beautiful islands, some of them large, and generally cov- 
ered with a heavy growth of hard wood, among which the elm abounds. 
When the logs arrive at this point, many of the encampments are fixed 
upon these islands. As the sun sinks behind the western hills, the 
lengthened shadows of the beautiful island forests shoot across the 
mirrored river, casting a deep shade, which soon disappears amid the 
denser curtain of an advanced evening, with which they blend. The 
roar of rushing waters is over, and the current glides smoothly on. No 
sound is heard but the echo of the merry boatman's laugh, .ind of voices 
here and there on the river, with now and then the shred of a song and 
the creaking and plashing of oars. While thus passing down, as the 
boats turn a sudden bend in the river, a dozen lights gleam from the 
islands, throwing their lengthened scintillations over the water. Now 
the ([Uestion goes round, " Which is our light?" "There's one on the 
east side!" " Yes, and there's another on .Sugar island!" "And there's 

one on Hemlock!" says a third. "Why the d 1 hadn't they gone 

to B.mgor and done with it?" " VVangun No. i, ahoy!" shouts the 
lielmsnian, a little exasperated with fatigue and hunger. Now, while 
all the other cooks remain silent, No. i cook responds in turn. Another 
calls out the name of their particular log-maik: "Blaze Bell, ahoy! 
Where in thunder are you?" " Blaze Fielt, this way, this way!" comes 
echoing from Hemlock island, and away the Blaze Belt batteau rows 
with its merry-making crew. Thus each crew, in turn, is finally eon- 
ducted to its respective camp-fire. 

The prospect of a release from the arduous labors on the drive at 
this point of progress raises the thermometers of feeling, which im- 
parls a right merry interest to everything. Like sailors "homeward 
bound," after a three- or nine-month's cruise, and within one day's sail 
of port, relaxation and pastimes only are thought and talked of. 

The mine of song and story is opened, and the r.irest specimens 
of inatch-songs and stretched stories are coined and made current by 
Ihe members of ihe different crews. "The smartest," "chopper,' 
"barker, "" the largest tree, " the biggest log, the giealest day's shirk, 
bear or moose story, the merits of crews, teamsters, brooks, creeks, and 
swamps, falls and rapids, stre.iins .iiid rivers, all, all come upas themes 
of coinerse, song, and story. There is less hurrying in the morning 
now III, 111 111 Ihe fijiiiier p.irt of the driving. Let the water rise or fall, 
Il IS .ill tin- s. line thing at this point, for the driver has reached the ample 
ch.innel of the river, where neither falls nor rapids occur. A dav, and 
the work is consummated — 'lis done. Crews are disbanded; they 
disperse, some to their homes and farms, some to idleness ami recrea- 
tion, some to hire in the mills, to saw the logs thus run others lo take 
rafts of boards to the head of tide-navigation, where hundreds of vessels 
are in waiting to distribute the precious results of the lumbermen's toil 
lo the thousand parts of the Atlantic and Pacific coast; where the 
sound of saw, planes, and hammers of a million house-wrlglils, cabinet- 
m.ikers, coopers, and joiners make the air vocal with the music of 
cheerful labor, giving bread to the millions, wealth 10 thousands, and 
comlort .iiid convenience lo all. 


In Mr. Whipjile's Geograjihical View of the l)i.strict of 
Maine, [lublished in 1816, occur the following remarks, 
which need not be gieatly changed for our dav: 

'that p.iri of the district of Maine which is iieaiest to the sea-coasl, 
and extending its whole length and about ten miles back, is 
inclined today, and in many pl.aces rocky, i his is reported as the nios, 
oidinary part of Maine; but many parts of it, uhere well culiiv.ated, 
produce most abundantly. That part of this section which exlertkls 
from Penobscot to Piscalaqua is by far the most po|mlous, and piob.ibly 
the best cullivated division. The next section, which is east of the 
Penobscot and north of the sea-coast, comprising the million acres 
called the Lottery Lands, with the land to the norlhward, has not so 
good a reput.ition as many other divisions. There are some pans of it. 
however, that are eullivaled, which yield hay, beef pork, buller, and 



liul ihe sipil of 

cllcf.M', as :ilnin(hiiul\ a-> .inv p.ul of Ni-\s l-jiulanil 
Ihis section lias Ixtn iiuikiraU-d. On a i.l-w road, wliicli is 
locfticd by itic I'omiiuiiiHraUli from I'uiiobscol rivi;r toward dii- St 
John, and uxli-ndirig tlironi;li lliis section, tlic land is rc[)Utcd to lie 
gencniUy of llic lirst (lU.ility. The next section, which is comprised lie- 
tween the and Kenneliec, and exter.dini; northerly to the 
height of land, has a higher reputation than any other division of 
Maine. It is about fifty miles in breadth by one hundred miles in length, 
and contains all the variety of soil which is found in Maine. The iich- 
esl part of this land is between the upper iiart of the two rivers. 

The soil of the ranges of townships, north of the W.ildo Patent, which 
are comprehended in this section, has generally been estimated as the 
best in the district of Maine. The States land, which is nearest to the 
['enobscot, is rather fiat and low, except a ridge which extends nearly 
parallel with the river, over which a road has been opened at the 
State's expense. It is expected that, when this tr.act is cleared, tile 
high land will prove the best for tillage, and the low land for grass. In 
the townships marked No. i on Carleions map, and which adjoin the 
States land, the country is generally higher, and a small part of it is 
inclined to be rocky, but not too much so. as it produces corn and 
wheat in abundance. From this section westerly the land is rather low, 
extending to the townshijis marked No. 2, wheie the land rises and 
continues about llie same for many miles westerly, in swales and gradual 
swells, and is generally free from ledges, and contains probably less 
waste land than any other part of New Kngland. The low land, in 
some inst.inees, is fouml to be wet; but the u|il.ind is gener.illy a wann 
loam, incliiie<l to sand or grav.l, ami not only very congenial to grass, 
but ei|ually so to tillage. Near the I'iscatacpiis and its branches are ex- 
tensive intervals, which are particularly productive. The Waldo Patent, 
although an excellent tract of land, probably will not average so good 
as the nine ranges. 


In Moses Greenleaf's Statistical View of the District 
of Maine, published at Boston the same year, an esti- 
mate is given of the ([uantity and proijoriions of arable 
and waste land in the incorporated towns and plantations 
of the several counties of Maine, in whu h I'enobscot is 
set down as having four hundred and fifty-five thousand 
four hundred and ninety-three acres of aiable pasture 
and woodland, to but twenty thousand five hundred and 
fifty-nine of waste land, six thousand two hundred and 
ninety-eight covered with water, and four thousand si.\ 
hundred and ninety used for roads. 'I'he proportion of 
improvable land was nine hundred and twenty-nine 
acres in the one thousand, of waste land forty-eight, of 
water covered fourteen, and occupied by roads nine. 
The author says that in this county instances had oc- 
curred of crops of wheat exceeding forty bushels to the 
acre being harvested on land no better tlian is usually 
cultivated, and, "in one or two instances, near sixty 
bushels of wheat have been produced on an acre." Of 
potatoes seven hundred bushels, and of tuinips thnteen 
hundred bushels to the acre, had been gathered. 


The following statements occur in the repoits ol State 
Geologist Hitchcock, made in 186 1-2. 

The Penobscot, passing in its general direction from a northerly 10 a 
southern point, through an extent of two and a half degrees of laii- 
tu<le, and in that course also rising to ciuite an elevation (rom the sea, 
must exhibit, in various sections of its course, a considerable range of 
climatic difference, and, consequently of agricultural capability. The 
hrst c|uestion usually asked by a f.irmer, when wishing to ascertain the 
agricultund character of any northern location, is-" Can you raise 
Indian corn tlieie?' 'Ihis crop seems, by common consent, to be the 
ciil.-rion by which to judge of the climate ami its ,,griciillural v.ilne. 

We lind that the hue which bounds the northern limit of Indian 
corn maturing in Maine, is a very irregular one, as, indeed, might be 
expected, coinciding, as it does, with the isothermal line, and not with 
the line of latitude. We find that the elevated or mountain district— 

which, as we have in a former part of our report mentioned, formed a 
part of a triangular belt, having its base on the western border of the 
State, south and north of L'mbagog, and stretching easterly to its 
apex in Mars-hill -is not a sure corn-iii,uuring region. Corn can be 
r.iiscil with certainty within a few miles south of L'lubagog. It is 
raiseil with less certainty on the Like shores, anil again with more cer- 
tainty on the northern side, as the slope sinks down toward the shores 
of the St. Lawrence. The Penobscot exteiuls into this belt, and 
hence, while in its lower sections corn is a safe and profitable crop, in 
its upper section we find it a precarious one; while further east, on the 
same line of latitude, it is again found more cert.iin. 

At the Trout Brook Farm we found two parcels of corn growing — 
one of them (27tli .August) nipped by frost, while the other, on a more 
elevated piece of land, was not touched. At .Monroe's farm, on the 
Alleguash, we found, as we liave before stated, a small patch which 
had not been frosted, but were told by Mr. Monroe that he had not 
bc-en able to mature it. Still further north, .\lr. Uolton, who, as we 
stated, has a fine farm at the confluence of the .Mleyiiash and St. John, 
informed us that he had some years r.iised as good corn as ever he had 
raised in .Augusta (his native place), although it was not a sure crop. 
.Some have attributed this trouble to difference of soil, but it is more 
attriliutable to mountain and lake influences on the temperature, as 
well as to the fact that, owing to the immense extent of the forest, the 
earth, for a great breadth of territory, is kept cool and moist. The sun 
cannot penetrate among the leaves and branches of the trees to warm 
the soil to any , extent. Hence it is f.iir to infer that the climate, 
in this respect, will be in.iti-rially ch.iiiged should the country become 
cleared. The experience of "old settlers." we beluvi.-. will corroborate 
this. and. therefore, although there will probably always be a tract of 
country where corn will be uncertain and unprofitable of culture, we 
may predict that this anti-corn locality will be mucli reduced in extent 
by the clearing up of the land, and opening it to the sun and the warm 
southern breezes. 

lI'/nM/. — The soil over which we passed is as a general thing well 
.idapted to wheat-growing, and the climate is also favor.ible. The first 
crops on burns is gener.dly heavy and remunerating, but after a year or 
two the natural enemies of this valuable crop begin to multiply as on 
the older f.irms. sometimes m.iking such inroads as to reduce the profits 
\ery maleri.illy. Hence not so much wheat is raised where there have 
been clearings is there is of some of the other cereals. In one or two 
instances on the St. John we saw veiy fine fields of wheat growing in 
he.dthy luxuriance in isolated clearings on top of high hiils. where a 
* 'chopping" had been made in the forest and burned off for this very 
purpose of wheat-growing. The reason given for growing wheat in 
such out-of-the-way places was the fact that the midge and the fly and 
aphis would not find the spot for several years, and the crop would not 
suffer from their depredations. Still wheat is not so much cultivated as 
one would suppose it would be. because the other grains, such as oats 
and barley, are more productive, arc more in demand by the lumber- 
men, and being, in proportiipn to the cost of r.iiMiig. a l.irger and more 
remunerative price per bushel. 

O.its and liarhy are therefore the gr.iin crops grown. These 
grow vigorously on the new lands, have but few enemies to contend 
with, often produce enormous crops, and sell readily at large prices. 

Lliickwhcat. — This will grow almost spont.ineously on these lands. 
It is a staple crop among the French or .Ac.idian settlers. The rough 
variety, or " Indian wheat." as it is sometimes called, is the only kind 
cultivated. It is a sure crop, yields large amounts to the acre, is easily 
gathered and cleansed, and is much used by them as an aiticle of diet 
and for fattening their hogs and poultry. It may be a m\tter of fancy 
on our part, but we thought we could see some connection between the 
physical energy of the fanners in that section and the crops they raise. 
There was an apparent listlessness and lack of physical stamina in 
those Acadians who cultivated little else than buckwheat for bread, 
compared with those who paid attention to the culture of wheat and 
other cereals. Whether the buckwheat diet was the cause and the de- 
bility the effect, or vice versa, we will not here attempt to decide. The 
flour or meal from this grain is much used by the settlers for fattening 
pork, and some of the fattest hogs we ever saw were fed principally 
upon buckwheat gruel. 

A'w>/ t'/v/j.— The various esculent roots, such as potatoes, turnips, 
rulaba"a5. parsnips, carrots, beets in all their varieties, onions. &c.. are 
"at home" throughout the whole extent of the region we traversed. 
Any amount of them can be produced, and would be produced for ex- 
port, did the facilities of transportation warrant their being c.irried to 
market at a reasonable expense. Not only is the crop generally large 
in quantity, but excellent in i)uality. 



Small Ftitil^ Mubi nf ilif small fruits f;row lu.vuriuiuly in thih sec- 
lion of llie cuuiiti V, and their cultivation would be eminently success- 
ful. Strawberries, currants, gooseberries, blackberries, blueberries, are 
all indigenous to all these lands. The wild currants, however, are not 
so palatable as some others. t)iit the fact of their being native to the 
laud if proof that the irnproveil and cultivated varieties will find conge- 
nial soil and climate. * "heri'ies .md plums will also nourish well, tliough 
we could not prouuse that the " Black-knot" would let them alone. 
This singular disorder is by no means confined to civilized life. It was 
frequently met with far aw.iy in the forest, thirty or forty miles from 
any gardens of cultivated fruits, fastening itself upon the wild cherry 
trees and disfiguring and blighting them as severely as any ever seen in 
the gardens ih the oldest sections of the country. 

The "high or bush cranberry" [I'iburiium Opitlm), and the com- 
mon lowland cranberry {I'ltit iiiium 0.iyi'oit-iis), are found abund.iiuiy, 
the first by the side of streams and swampy lands and the latter on the 
wet meadows and bogs. 

Stiuk A\iisi»i^^. — The wild lands which we examined, arc capable of 
making an excellent stock-growing country when cleared and laid down 
to grass. It is true that the length of the winters and the consequent 
longer time rcc|uired to feed from the crib serve in the minds of 
some as a drawback, but there is a compensating principle in the su|5e- 
rior advantages for grass and hay during the summer season, brought 
about in part by the covering shelter of snow, which piotects the earth 
and the herbage until the se.ison is too far advanced for any injury to 
arise from too much freezing and thawing, during the tiansition from 
winter to summer. If it were not for the losses often occasioned by 
wolves and other wild animals, the Upper Madawaska section might 
grosv almost unlimited amounts of wool and mutton. The rich inter- 
vals and upland, so welt .^d.qiicd for forage crops, would yield ample 
supply for winter ferding, and the cool and breezy slopes and tops of 
their hills would give the best of p.isturage for them. It is to be 
hoped tliat in time this important branch of husbandry will receive 
more attention in that part of the Slate, and their flocks increased as 
fast as is compatible with safety in the investment from beasts of prey. 

The abundance of pasturage and the good condition of the cattle 
and horses on the few clearings now to be found along the route we 
travelled, is a pr.ictical demonstration that such stock may be advan- 
tageously raised in those tounships as soon as the forest can be 
changed into a grass-grovMiig lield, ,uh1 that cm be done in two vears 
I'rom falling and burning of trees. 


A vast amount of interesting matter is presented by 
the geology of the great I'enobscot valley. It has as yet 
been but partially e.xplorcd; but tnough has been ob- 
served and described to enable an inquirer to form a 
pretty good idea of the topography and rock-structure of 
this county. The chief source of information is, of 
course, the re[)orts made by tlie State Geologists -first, 
by Dr. Charles T. Jackson, in 1838; second, by Dr. 
Charles H. Hitchco( k, son of the eminent scientist. Dr. 
Edward Hitchcock, of .\mhcrst College, and his co-labor- 
ers, made in 186 1-2. The loUowing descri|itions and 
narratives are e.xclusively from one or the other of these 
sources, and generally in the very words of the authors: 

The rocky strata on which rests the tertiary formation of Bangor and 
Brewer are argillaceous talcose, plumbaginous and pymiferous slates. 
These various slates pass into each other by imperceptible shades, so 
that it is extremely difticult to define their boundaries. In some places 
the slate rocks are charged with numerous quartz and calcareous spar 
veins, and they frequently coiil.iin a sufficient quantity of carbonate 
of lime to cause them to elti-riesce with acids. When the rock con- 
tains a large proportion of silex, it passes insensibly into quartz rock 
of a blue color, and occasionally beds of it are found containing a 
sufficient quantity of fine scales ol nuci to convert it into mica slate 
of an imperfect kind. 

On the summit of Thomas's Hill, in Bangor, the slates may be seen 
cropping out, their upturned edges appearing above the soil. On the 
Kenduskeag, at a high ledge overhanging the river, may be seen several 
varieties presented by this rock. It is there observed to be charged with 
calcareous spar, and is sometimes of a green color, owing to the pres- 
ence of cliloritc. 

In the city the sl.ite may be (observed passing into (juartz rock on the 
side of Exchange street, where the strata run E., N. li., and W. S.W., 
and dip to the N. N. W. 80". On the S. W. side of the river the strata 
di|> to the north. Near Brewer bridge they lun E. by N. and dip N. 
by W. 70'. A little above the bridge on the south side of the Penob- 
scot, in Brewer, there is a cliff of argillaceous slate, which runs to the 
tieiglu of about eighty feet, and there the strata may be obser\ed to run 
N. N. E. and S. S. W. , and dip N. N. W. 65". About half a mile 
south of Bangor the slate strata run N. E. and S. W., dip N. W. 60°. 
There are many other places in the vicinity of Bangor where these 
rocks may be seen, but it would be tedious to enumerate all the locali- 
ties. A sufficient number have been noticed to show that the whole 
substrata of Bangor and Brewer are composed of this class of rocks. 
In some cases the surface of the plumbaginous slate is glazed with 
plumbago or graphite, and owing to this circumstance such rocks have 
sometimes lieen mistaken for coal. The whole mass of strata which are 
above described, bear evident marks of having been exposed to the 
action of heal and pressure, while from the great variety of substances 
which enter into a sedimentaiy deposit, there would evidently result the 
\arious metamorphic varieties of stratified rock which I have described. 
It will be observed th.U all the strata now rest on Iheir edges and are 
highly inclined to the horizon, and this position could not have resulted 
from their original deposition, for all strata which are deposited by 
water are arranged horizontally. Now it is clear that these rocks were 
deposited from water in horizontal beds, and that since lime they 
have been thrown up by a violent subteiranean cause into their present 
position. These sl.ites belong to the oldest transition form.Uion and 
are generally destitute of organic remains. 

The tertiary formation in Maine consists of a series of layers of clay 
and sand, which have been deposited by water upon the various solid 
rocks beneath. This deposit is evidently a sediment of clayey and 
silicious matter, and is arranged in regular strata showing the effect of 
tranquil subsidence from the waters by which it was deposited. 

These beds of clay contain distinct remains of marine shell-fish in 
the various strata, arranged in such a manner as to evince their having 
lived and died exactly in the spots where we find them. This shows a 
slow and gradual deposition of the clay, for the shell-fish lived near the of ihe different strata, and must have had time to live, grow, 
and multiply in each stratum before the next was ileposiled. 

The lower tertiary at Bangor is composed of blue clay, very ten- 
acious in ils structure, tough, and .adhesive. It contains so much veg- 
etable matter, derived from decomposed seaweeds, as to give it in 
many places the odor of marsh mud. The shells characteristic of this 
deposit are the Nucula, Saxicava, and Mya dehiscens. 

There are a m.ajorily of recent species of shell-fish in this deposit, 
and hence we consider it as equivalent to the pliocene formation of 
Lyell. .Mjove this deposit we come to anothei mass of clayey strata of 
a yellow color, and remarkable for the curious casts of vanous forms 
winch it contains. Nearly all these casts have a long cylindrical tube 
luniiing through them from one extremity to the other. 

In Bangor, the greatest elevation which the tertiary clays attain is 
not more than 100 feet above the level of the sea, or 75 feet above the 
level of the I'enobscot river at that place. The hill upon which the 
First Congregational church is built is tertiary, and is the highest point 
which that formation attains in Bangor. The lower portions of this 
clay-bed contain distinct remains of the marine shells Nucula Port- 
landica, Mactia. and Venus. The upper beds contain a great abun- 
dance of those strange cylindrical and conical casts, terminated some- 
1 lines by a large bulb or tuber, which fossils resemble in their general 
structure the siphoniie described and figured in Rozet's Geology. 
There are, however, in this deposit a number of different species, and 
their peculiar shapes have caused them to be mistaken for almost every 
variety of plant and fruit. There is, however, good reason to believe 
that they are of animal origin, and were probably once molluscous or 
soft animals, having but little consistency, so as not to leave any solid 
matter indicative of their comj)osition. 

According to the later report of Mr. Hitchcock, the lower clays of 
this group [the marine clays] at Bangor are very tenacious and adhe- 
sive, with the peculiar marine odor or marsh mud, and contain as char- 
acteristic shells the Nucula, Saxicava distorta, and Myaarenaria. The 
upper portions of the deposit are more sandy. The clayey strata are 
of a yellowish cast, containing numerous yellow, soft concretions of 
clay of a cylindrical shape, and jjerforated by a long tube. Ferrugin- 
ous and silicious sands alternate with the clays The lower portions of 
the upper beds contain Leda I'ortlandica, Mactra and Venus. The 
upper portions are filled with the concretions. Some of these cl.iys in 
Bangor dip 10 degrees southwest, and others 15 degrees southeriy. 



The highest of ihem is about 100 feet above the ocean. Above the 
clays are found coarse drift deposits. 

There are beds of ferruginous and silicious sand, which here and 
there oJternate with the upper clay-bods. In some places it is of gocid 
quality for moulding. IC.xamples of this kind of sand may be seen on 
the side ol Exchange street, where the strata of the clay dip to the 
south 25°. 

In Cumberland street the lower tertiary dt-posit may he seen with the 
upper beds resting directly upon it. The strata dip to the S. W. 10*. 
This deposit attaiub an elevation of fifty or sixty feet above the river's 

Crossing the Penobscot we enter the town of Brewer, whnre the same 
tertiary clays may be seen. .A, little above the bridge, onthe river's bank, 
occurs a high cliff of sand attaining an elevation of eighty-bixfeet above 
the high-water mark upon the I'enobscot. 

At the various brick-ynds in this town we had an excellent opportu- 
nity of examining the nature of the clay and the various shells which 
are contained in it. They are identical with those found in liangor. 

The clay generally selected for making bricks belongs to the upper 
tertiary, and is of a yellow color and contains but very few marine 
shells. The blue clay answers very well for the same purpose, when 
there are not too many shells, but it is lough and hard to work. 

The silicious sand found alternating with those clays is used also in 
brick-making. Thc-^e materials are so common in Maine that little ac- 
count is made of their value, Imt they are nevertheless sources of a very 
considerable mcome. Thus, for instance, in the eight brick-yards of 
Brewer during 1837 no less than 3.000,000 of bricks were made and 
sold — 1,100,000 machine-pressed bricks were marie in three of these 
yards during the same year. 

So abundant is the brick clay in Bangor that, in digging the cellars 
for inoi^i of the buildmgs, a sufficiency of it is dug out to make the 
bricks retjuired for the edifice, and Dr. Jackson, from whom we had 
these remarks, understood thai this is frequently done. 

Brick-makers are fully aware of the fact that, if clays contain any 
considerable proportion of lime, they will not answer for brick-making, 
since the lime is rendered caustic during the operalitjn of burning, and 
when tlie bricks are moibtened by water the lime flakes, and they crack 
or burst to pieces. On that account they carefully avoid any admixture 
of shells, since they are composed chiefly of carbonate of lime, and pro- 
duce the same effect. 

These clays form extrentuly tough soils, and are hahle to bake or 
harden by the action of the solar heat, so that the rools of plants are 
completely imprisoned by the hardened clay, and therefore the plant 
does not thrive. 

In order to improve a clayey soil when it is found practicable, sand 
should be mixed with it, so as to break up its cohesive properties; and 
it often happens that hills of sand are found close at hand. After the 
texture of the soil is sufficiently broken up, air-slaked lime may then be 
used for a lop-dressing, and it will be retained for a great length of 
lirae since the clay is so ini|H.Tmeuble to water. 

his certainly, said Dr. J.ackson in 1838, worth the l.djor reqmrcd to 
bring into a high slate of cultivation those tracl-^ of land which are in 
llie immediate vicinity of the city, and their improved produce will 
amply repay llic moderate expenditures which would be requisite for the 

Above the tertiary formation we have a confused mass of rounded 
stones and pebbles, which bearevidenl proofs of their diluvial disposi- 
tion. The current of diluvial waters, in rusliing over this district, ex- 
cavated deep valleys in the tertiary deposits, and transported the detri- 
tus far to the south. Near ihe court-house in Bangor may be seen beds 
of coarse pebbles at the base of the hill, and the sediment becomes finer 
as we ascend, until we meet wilh perfectly fine clay. This locality 
shows that coarse pebbles were deposited by swift-running water, while 
the fine sand and clay prove a gradual subsidence in the force of the 
current. On examining these pebbles, il will be remarked ihat they 
are mostly those composed of varieties of slate, which occur in places 
north of the spot where ihey are now found. 

FKO.M holl>p:n to CHARLKSTON. 

Dr. George L. Goodale, one of the assistants of State 
Geologist Hitihcock^ about the year 1S61 surveyed <:are- 
fuUy a geologic section from Mount Desert west of north 
and northwest across the State to the Canada line, nearly 
at right angles to the strata recorded. His route crossed 
the towns of Holden, Brewer, Bangor, Glenburn, Ken- 

duskeag, Corinth, and Charleston, in this county, and the 
results of his observations are here subjoined. 

\'ery near ihe boundary line between Dedliam and Holden. the 
granite disappears and ([uart^ rock succeeds, dipj)ing 70° S. 70* li., 
as it were, beneath the granite. Some planes of a jointed structure 
dipped 70' S, 20^ W. in this vicinity. This rock merges into silicious 
slate. At Graves' coffee-house, in the east part of Holden, considerable 
mica is present in the quartz rock, with a dip of 88° S. 60"" E. Beyond 
this hotel the rotk is very much contorted, and a local variation in the 
dip 75^ N. 60^ W. But the real northwesterly dip is apparent near A. 
B. Karringlon's house, two miles west. Here we have an argillo-mica- 
ceous rock dipping 50° N. 40'' W., and a few miles furilier the ledges 
are entirely ([uartz rock as far as the middle of Holden, dipping 65"" N. 
40" W. Cleavage planes are also present in abundance, dipping, 80° S. 
K. We regard all the rocks mentioned thus far, away from the granite 
as essentially one formation of cjuartz rock and forming an anticlinal 
axis. The rock in the centre of the axis is somewhat micaceous, and 
more nearly resembles the rocks west of Holden village. If this is the 
true order of things, then we have found a (juart/ rock underlying the 
great mass of schists between Holden and Dover. Hence, if future 
researches shall reveal occasional bands of quartz rock among these 
schists, especially if they have an anticlinal form, we shall have a safe 
criterion to inform us respecting the number of foldings in the whole 
area. We do not suppose the more micaceous axis can be of precisely 
the same age with the miaiceous rocks to the westward, because it un- 
derlies (hem in association with quartz. 

We suspect that this quartz rock is in the continuation of the cjuartz 
rock of the Taconic series in Belfast, described in a previous part of 
the report. That was associated with schists just like this, and we find 
on a comparison of various disconnected observations made between the 
two places, that a quartz rock, more or less obscure, can be traced with 
its associate schists all the way from Belfast to Holden. This is a dis- 
covery of some importance, as will be seen hereafter. 


We next come to the largest and widest-spread of any formation in 
the State, — ^to a rock that would receive different names from different 
geologists. It would be called clay slate, talcose schist, or mica schist, 
according as the observer happened to inspect different portions of il. 
Last year we ranked it all as clay slate, specifying many localities 
where talcose and micaceous varieties abounded. But this year, after 
a further examination of this rock, we shall call it argillo-micaceous 
schst, coloring it on the map as mica schist. Inspection of all the var- 
.ieties discloses the presence of minute scales of mica. Tney are found 
even in ihe roofing slate of Brownville, which is associated with the 
schists, and by their presence throw light upon the mineral structure of 
the whole series, showing it to be micaceous rather than talcose. 
What we described as one formation of clay slale lasl year, we now 
divide into two, the clay slate proper and ihe argillo-niicaceous schist. 
The manner in which the boundaries of this suhdivision were sug- 
gested to us is (juite interesting and valu.ible, as indicating the direction 
to be taken in studying these rocks in future. We possessed a series 
of observations on the position of the strata, crossing llie whole argil- 
laceous bell in several pl.i^^ ., and mostly radiating from Bangor. L'pon 
comparing these sections with one another, we found lliem to agree es- 
sentially at the same distances from Bangor, or from the southeast side 
of the formation. The material from which we drew is mostly con- 
tainetl in our last year's report. We there der>criljed a .section from 
Bangor to Patten; another branching off at Mattawamkeag up the Kast 
Branch of the Penobscot; another from Bangor to Brownville. This 
year we explored one from Bangor to Moosehead I^ke; and also an- 
other from Shirley to Brighton. At Bangor the dip is northwesterly, 
but at a few miles' distance on every route il changed to southeasterly, 
thus making a synclinal axis. Hiis synclinal line, then, we found to 
run (so far as our meagre observations allowed us to judge) from llie 
mouth of Sunkhaze stream in Milford westerly through the norili parts 
of Oldlown and Pushaw Lake, thence curving southwesterly it passes 
west of Kenduskeag village, and probably to Carmel and N. M. Dix- 
mont. Upon the e;ist side of this line the dip is northwesterly, on the 
line of our principal section, as far as Holden Center; and upon the 
west side the dip is southeasterly as far as the north part of Charleston, 
thus making an enormous basin iwenty-nine miles wide, whose thick- 
ness must be seven miles on the lowest estimate. The anticlinal line 
west of the first synclinal was first observed near Passadumkeag village, 
and can be traced westerly through Edinburg, Lagrange, and Brad- 
ford, till we find it rising into a range of mountains which continue 
t.irough Charleston, Garland, and Dexter. This is a very distinct axis, 



as it is coincidunl with a nioiiiitainous range for so great a distance. It 
runs toward llie niahS of yraniie in ICnficId, which most probaljly was 
forced up alon-^ tile anticiuial line, as the rock would n.uurally be weal<- 
est tliere. \'ery lii^ely ttie aniieiin.d described List year in Weston is 
the coniniuation of this aniiehnal hne. 

'Ihe next basin i>. very u.irrou, .uid ilie rocl% i^ more argdiaceous 
than in the previous b.i^iii. llie -lynchnal line runs along the valley of 
the Piscataquis river, even as far up as I'arkman, and then it must run 
on the west side of I'enobscot river a great ilistauce. We think that 
its position is indicated near the Kive Iblands in Winn, by the change 
111 the dip. Of course these lines must e.stend further in both direc- 
tions than we have in both indiciled, but we point out the hnes only so 
far as we have knowledge of them. 

Ne.vt we come to .iniither change in the dip, uilli clay si. lies |)re\ail- 
ing on one side and argillo-micu schists upon the other. Hence we do 
not regard it as, bin a change in the di|) incident to different 
formations, the slates overlying the schists, perhai>b unconformably. 
'I'his line, which upon our l.irge ni.ip we have tor the present estab- 
lished as ihe boundary liiie betuirn llie Iwo form.itions, is first recog- 
nized in the northeast, in .\o. i R. 5, in .Aroostook county, on the 
.Aroostook road. It can be traced through Molunkus, the southeast 
corner of Medway (formerly called .N'ickaion), thence in a straight line 
to .Mcdfoid, hIrii 11 t.ikes ul .1 westerly course through Mi- 
lo, Sebec, l-o.\eroft, (Juiif.Md, .md .Abbott. Here it resumes the 
southueslerly dir.cti.Mi, .iii.l we have traced it ilirough Kingsbury, 
iiriglilon, ,ind liingli,iiii, lo ihe Kennebec river. The a.\e5 on the vari- 
ous radi.iting sections corres|jond with one anollier no fuilher than to 
this boundary, but the rock on the norlhwest side of ihis line is 
most entirely clay slate, and is the only bell in Maine Inun which roof- 
ing slate is now obtained. The v.irialions in dip in ibis cl.iy-sl.ite fnr- 
malion we conceive lo Ij.- diie u, ^.lru>lls c.iuses ni,,re i.r less, and 
not to,-d uf luuv .inylliing been discnered dur- 
ing ihe survey which nucn us gie.iter ple.isure ih.m these 
hues. It is a \eiy iiiip..rl.inl oUH.ird step in il 
knowledge of Maine rocks, .ind .1 I.hiu sh.idow of 
veloped by a series of coinpiehciisnr seelions. 

Returning to the del.nis iipun ou. seelion, we hnd the dip 
to vary soinewliat over the Insl half uf Ihe hrsl smicIumI basin. We 
h.ul just said good-bye lo ihe ,|n.,ru lock of HoUlrn; ,iii,l on the roiile 
of the section to liiewei we luld sciieely any ledges, ihe comilry brm- 
covered to a considerable deplh by,, lluvi.ildepuslls. as 11 is upon the 
easl bank of IVnobscl river. .\l liivwer the rock is very qu.ul/.ose 
dipping from 3o'-6o" .\. 20" W. .Acin,s ilie river ,n li.mgor Ihe rock 
IS similar, dijipiiig from 45-50 .\. jo W. .,„d N. \v. n 
li.m nf the leriii l.ilcose lo lliese sjiisis would be mor.,.iiy..lherlr,lg,-s,,n ll,e ul„,|c seeliun. Vn ihc rock here is 
not really lalcnse, ,1 l,,,s no i,i.,g,ic„,, m 11, as Ihe .maljsis shows and 
.Ul i.ispevuon ul ni.inv uf il„. Uy,-, ,.,|„l,iis p.,rliei,-s uf ma., ,,„„„|, 
slu»ed.,w,,y (.|,,n ,|„. „,,„., ,„ |.„,„„, ,,|„,„^ „,„,,,,i,„. ,^,;.;_ 

lures. I'luf.-ssurl). T .s,„„|,, ul iL,- I h,,,!,,..,,.,! .s,„ .,/pu„,iol 

onl une such mslance to us .,l,ui,l iw,, „„l,.s wcsl .,| ihe c„v, ul„eh w ,s 
ve,v „,-,U,„liv,-, shuwing .,l„, l|„, dlllelenee belw. 
slMlilic.uioii .,,,.1 lull, ,!,„,, |ur ile.ii.igr). .Siiel 
luon along ihc liiii' o| il„- .„■, i,,,,, 

Three miles norihwesi lium I'.nubscut river ,ii 
lliaise, the schists dip at ,ibuul llie -..nue .iiigli.-, N' ju 
/.ler's, ,1 iiille fiiilhi'i, iiiiy br si l-ii 
and slaly l.dcuse (pi.trl/. luek, ilqij 

edge of Glenburnthe rock is 111., re compact, wiih ihicke 
i;ienbi,rn and Kendu.ske.ig iheiv are v.ui uh, 
normal norlhweslerly dip, bul these supposed lo be I, 
The section, thus far, runs un th 

progress ui uur wuuld be de- 



in eviiibi 



"IclSll-.itlllCltlull uf I 
5'-;o' llultljwrslclly. 



.\l I. To- 

ly si. lie 

111 the 

■Is In 



he stage-ro.iil lu K.'iiduskeag villa-e 

crossing the kcmhiske.ig river in Kenduske.ig. 

■ Igc dnft-ileposlls obscure the ledges fur a 
■hulseb.nU " from the vib 
sl.ui.e of three iiii|,.s. At a 
school-house and coopers shop nearly four miles frun, Kendnske ,e i„ 
Boutin orililh, the first ledge with the .southeaslerlv dip of the test 
sldeof the greal synclinal a.sis appe.irs, allliough 1, pribabiy bcin 
much sooner. Observations on both sides of the lu.ul, which we h id 
not time 10 make, will settle Ihe e.vael point where the middle of the 
basm IS. Ihe .schists at llie school-liouse deeoiiipuse readily perl, ips 
coii,ammgaca,T,on„ie,.i,idd,p 80 S. .5-1, A,l,,e,.|,t l.^'s l,!, 
a sm.iller dip. Near ICasUonnih Ihe rock is more sl.ity .,nd aigill i- 
ceous. 0,.pos,le J. M. .Sh.iw's house the layersare very much coiivolul d 
o asn,.iUsc,i,,vvi,,anave,,igedipof,5.S. .5"!. .About ,1 m.le 
•-'1 ■' lulf iioiil, uf l.,isi ( uiiiiih, ,,ppear ledges of bright green schiM 

lieyond KendlisKi'.i distance. The lo.iil p.isses uv 
lage toa cemelerv in South 1 iMiiilh, 


argillaceous, and often quite micaceous, precisely idenlical lithologi- 
cally wiih the gre.iler pail of the slaly rocks on the East branch of the 
I'enobscol above M.iU.iwamkeag. Like them, also, these strata are 
very much contorted, and their average ihp is about 55- S. E. 'Jhese 
peculiar rocks continue for two or three miles. 

In the norlhwest part of Charleston, at B. Bradley's, a compact 
schist, resembling lalcose schist, but really a quarlzite, occurs, dipping 
from 70° 75° S- 3°" K. The land here is higher than anything passed 
over west of the Penobscot, and it continues to rise till the summit of 
the mountain is reached, about 800 feet above the ocean. Upon the 
county map it will be noticed that a r.inge of mountains extends 
through Charleston and the towns adj.aceiii. The range is the one we 
are now crossing, and it must all be an aiuielin,d ridge, marking the 
line of Ihe most imjjorlaut of all the lines specified above. Pass- 
ing down the north side of this range (for which we have no name), we 
find the opposite dip, making the anticlinal. We are coming into a 
narrower basm than the one just left, it being only ten miles wide, and 
it has almost an east and west course. The first ob.servalion taken is 
of a ledge just north of Rieker Hill, in the southeast pan of Dover; 
an argillo-mieaceous schist dipping 72° N. 10° \V. In this rock the 
mica is quite abundant and distinct. The dip is similar to this all Ihe 
way lo the Piscataquis river. 

The traveller sees at once the superior fertility of the soil 1,1 ilie Pis- 
cal.uiiiis valley, when comp.ired with that passed over since leaving 
Bangor. It seems to be due lo the character of the rock, and to be 
confined to this b.ism of schist. The rock is often calcareous, and in- 
deed certain l.iyers ,11 1 uveiolt are real limestone, and have formerly 
been burnt in kilns for lime. .\s in so many other instances, the char- 
acter of the rock here determines the qu.iliiy of the soil in meas- 
ure. By calling this superior to that in Penobscot county, we do not to underrate the latter-only that this is belter. 'Ihat in Penob- 
scot county is far superior to much that is found along Ihe seacoast and 
covering granitic and gneissic regions. .And most excellent farms are 
common on the all the way from Bangor. 

In the town of Cairoll, the principal rock is mica sehiM li js the 
only rock seen up,,n the east ,iiid west road rimiiiiiL; ihicHigh ihe luwn 
At Mr. H. Gatess, in the west jxirt of ihe town, is a very fine bed of 
dark-bluish hmesloiu-, whose layers dip 4^" .\. W. The bed is several 
rods wide and of unknown len.L;,l, Mr ( ;,,ie, m.inufaclures from 100 
to 300 barrels of quicklime annu.illy out of this bed. It is capable of 
producing much more, and furnishes lime equal lo the best. Ii can be 
produced cheaper here than al Rockland, and can successfully com- 
liele Willi ,n the in.ukel liere.ibuuls. Hints of oilier beds of lime- 
stone 111 C.rrull re.iehed us ,11 both directi,,ns, parlie-.ilarlv in Ihe nortli- 
c.isl. -I here IS s.iid to be a bed un the l.ind uf .Mr. .\i„es. .A similar 
bed .ilsu may be found on .Mr. Coffins l.iiid the centre of the 
luwn. These hmeslones correspond belter lu Ihe beds in ,,z,„c schists 
ih.iii Willi the l:ulian limestone on Penobscot bay. 

The mica sehisi uf ( ■..null extends unintcrrupledlv .,s f ,1 .,s .Xhisqu ish 
l.ike in lopsliehl, 1,1 an e.isl.rly direction. In Ihe e.isl p.ui uf Carroll 
there is an a.M.s, the limeslone being iip„n the western side 
I he dip evleiids lu .Musquash Like, and iiilu ,i„| 
the Indian township. Ihe norlhwest dips occur ,it the saw-mill' in 
1 .ihiKidge and about three miles from Prmcclun m the other tuwnshiu 
These observ,iiiuns indicate the presence of a 

.\ high range of mountains in the southern part of C.irioll is evi 
dently granitic, and connects as a mountain range with the syenite or 
.Musquash lake, and has been traced into New Brunswick" and the pro 
viiicMl geological map carries Ihis granitic bell entirely through the 
Ijrovince lo the Uulf of St. Lawrence. 

.\liUl i l..\Kl.vll,l.t ei..\.\TAtlu.N. 

•Ihe general oiilhnc of Sclagly is given on the Penobscot county 
m.ip, but It should he i^rily in No, o. We ascended a short ihorough- 
f.ue lioiii the easl |..irl of .Scragly to Shaw lake, and found no lediTes 
bul an immense number ul boulders of granite and trap This is a 
very pretty lake, bul miieh smaller than Pleasant. It ,s not repre 
senled at all on the stale m.ip. There are many islands in .Scragly and 
Junior l.ikes, and a few ledges of granite. 

Junior lake is connected by a short ihuroughlaie with .Scragly and it 
IS six miles in length and jierhaps four miles wide. It is represented 
correctly upon no published ni.qi. Two small lakes are situated near 
Its north end, Duck lake ..nd .Mill Privilege l,ike, which are either omit- 
ted or not named upon the maps. No ledges occur either upon luiiior 
lake or any of its small tributary lakes upon the and west sides 
ol which there are five, which are incorrectly located or else omiiied 


„pon all Ihe maps. Nearer ll.e south end of Junior lake the boulders 
become small and much water-worn, consisting of an mlereslmB con- 
glomerate, trap, schist, and granite. Close by Junior stream they ap- 
pear to be piled up in a ridge, much like a rampart. Magnil.cenl ven.s 
jn.iy be seen upon any of these lakes. 

Upon Junior stream l.irge boulders of gr.inite occupy the bed so 
much that it is difficult to manage a heavily loaded cmuc among tliem. 
Two interesting boulders attracted our attention, as they had been 
w(.rn into ihc shape of an hour glass. We suppose the neck of the stone 
«.is worn most because the strongest currents chiefly exert their powers 
at that altitude. As is common to almost every thoroughf.ire. so here 
on Junior stream the upiier part is very stony, with <|uick water, and 
the lower part with very dee]i water and marshy bank, insomuch that 
chietly sedges grew upon them; while the surface of the water aboumls 
in white and yellow w.iter-lilies and pond-weed. .At the mouth of the 
stream the land is a little higher, a coarse be.ich separ.iting the thor- 
oughf.ire from Grand I..ike. in which we found boulders of metalliferous 
trap, [lyrites. conglomer.ite. granite, clay skue, and schists. 

Ihe char.icter of the shores of both expansions of Crand or W'ilte- 
guergu.igum. I'ocumpus, and Sysladobsis lakes is uniform and may be 
described as a whole. The ininiedl.lte shore is composed of angular 
blocks of granite, often of maininolh dimensions, with scarcely any soil 
over them. They are covered » ilh moss, and the trees of the forest shoot 
down their roots among them with difficulty. The shores rise up grad- 
u.dly to hills and mount.iins. without a .single clearing to give evidence 
of civili/ation. Hut no ledges .iiipear, although their fragments are so 
common. Ihese boulders often lie in the lakes aw.iy from the shores, 
and m.iy project above the One such in Sysladobsis lake must 
weigh many hundred tons. Where the summits of the boulders just 
come to the surface they render the navigation difficult. It is extremely 
rare to see any rock represented among the boulders u|)on these lakes, 
except the angular granite fr.igments. Most of them are of the por- 
phyrilic variety. 

On Sysladobsis lake m.iy be seen die finest views of .my of the west- 
ern Schoodic lakes. That part which lies in No. 5 is correctly repre- 
sented upon the county map, showing the ■'Big island" at the south 
end. That part of the lake which lies in .No. 4 has a due north and 
south course, its northern extremity being only lialf a mile distant from 
Bottle lake. The Chain lakes in 4 and 5 are mostly small and swampy, 
e.xcept a single ledge of granite upon the upper or third Chain lake, 
which is the largest of the three. 


The latest, and probably the best, summary of this re- 
gion was made by another of Professor Hitchcock's 
assistants — Dr. E/ekiel Holmes, of Winthrop, the chief 
naturalist of the ex[)loration. He was assisted, as he re- 
cords, among otliers by Messrs. A. 15. Farrar and William 
A. Johnston of liangor, Henjamin Thomas of Maxfield, 
Manley Hardy of Brewer, and Louis Rett hum of Old- 
town. Deane Murch and his canoe were also engaged 
after the Hunt farm was reached. 'I'he narrative of Dr. 
Holmes, aside from its scientific value, possesses consid- 
erable interest. The language of the nairative is pre- 
served with little change. 

On the 7th of .August, 1861, the party embarkeil at Oldtown for the 
contemplated survey in a balteau and three birch canoes, furnished 
with the necessary tiiiantity of supplies, comprising e(|uipmeiUs and 
apparatus required to facilitate researches and in<iuirieson the rivers and 
lakes in the forest to be traversed. 

The progress up in such a primitive craft, m a fa\or.iblc 
pilch of water, must necessarily be slow and toilsome, but at low 
stages it must be slower yet by reason of the delays in looking out the 
deepest channels and the lime lost in working over bars and shoals where 
there is scarcely sufficient depth, even for the light dr.ift of canoes. On 
account of the low stage of the water at the time of embarkation, the 
steamers which then plied between Oldtown and .Mattawamke.ig were 
hauled up, and the facilities of transportation which they would have 
afforded and the consec|uenl saving of time were denied the explorers. 
They had theiefore to depend u|)on their own navigation for convey- 
ance through that section of the route, thereby conMiining three il.iys of 
their lime, when one would h.uc been sufficient, could they have .ivailed 

themselves of the agency of steam, as is usual in the early and later 
parts of the season. 

On the third day from departure they arriveil at Nickatou (now Med- 
way), on the west branch of the Penobscot, which, 10 those bound up 
the east branch of the river, m.iy be considered the end of the road, and 
the point where you bid adieu to eivili/..ation and take your plunge into 
Ih; wild country. There were then but four settlers on faims above 
Nickatou village and the Hunt pkrce in No. 3. and but nine in the whole 
range of country between Nickatou (west branch) village and die mouth 
of the AUeguash on the upper St. John— a stretch of not less than 150 
miles. The cause of this was attributed to the fact that every township 
in this route was owned by proprietors who had hitherto held it for 
lumbering purposes. The .State, having disposed of its interest in the 
lands, had not, of course, been called upon lo aid in opening it up to 
settlers. The proprietors, content with llie gains given them from the 
lumber, were not desirous of having them settled, thereby avoiding any 
calls of taxation for or risks from fires which might take place in 
cle.iring the lands. 

No particular obsiruclion was met with in the canoe progress until 
the party came to Whetstone 1-alls, where it became necessary 10 un- 
load and carry by, a distance of half a mile. At this place the geolo- 
gist met with boulders of ••encrinal" or fossiliferous limestones and 
other boulders cont.uning fossil remains which had been brought down 
from sections above. 

Aftei getting by Whetstone Kails, a few hours brought iliem to Hunt's 
I'arm, which is situate about midway of No. 3, Range 7. For more 
than thirty years diis farm had been a welcome station or resling-plate 
lor the lumberman and voyageur as he passed up or down the river, 
and the probability was that it would continue, for years to come, to 
offer the same conveniences as iherelofore, holding the monopoly ol af- 
fording entertainment to the traveller for of a rival establishment 
of the kind in the neighborhood. A road was some time before made 
from diis place into the Aroostock Hoad .at No. 3, Range 6, some 
iwelve miles dist-mt. The soil and agricultural capabilities of this farm 
gave a good criterion by which to judge of the surrounding lands in 
regard lo their value for agricultural purposes. A large portion of il 
was interval, or alluvial soil on the margin of the river. The remain- 
ing portions in the rear were high swells or ridges. The interval is well 
ailapted to grass, being in its lower parts inundated in the spring of 
the year, and thus fertilized by the fine particles left on the subsidence 
of the waters. The higher portions are easily cullivaled and very pro- 
ductive, and the swells or uplands afford excellent pastur.igc for slock. 
There are immense tracts of similar interval on the Tenobscot and its 
br.mches near by (the Was?aia<iuick and the Sebois), covered with 
forest and wild grasses which grow there in the rankest luxuriance, 
.iw.iiting the hand of hiture settlers to subdue and convert them to 
smiling and productive meadows and fields, and thus enable them to 
contribute to the subsistence of man and to the wealth of the Slate. 

liy previous arrangement the party were here met by the Rev. Marcus 
K. Keep, of Ashland, who had done so much as a pioneer explorer of 
Katahdin, and made known to the public the characterisiics of that old mount.iin, in regard to the sublime and extensive prospect 
Teen from its summit, its peculiar geological structure, and the nigged 
loil required to ascend to its pinnacle. A portion of the party immedi- 
ately on arrival pl.iced ihemselves under the guidance of Mr. Keep, 
who was also accompanied wilh Mr. Maxwell, of Ciolden Ridge, and 
left for the purpose of ascending the mountain and making a recon- 
noismce of the country on the way to and from il. As this would take 
them three or four days, the remainder agreeil lo wait for them and 
employ ihemselves in repairing boats, ex]>loring the vicinity of the farm, 
and such other business as the fiirlherance of the expedition might de- 

As befori! st.ited, the I'enobscot and the W,issatai|uick, which comes 
in on the west side, and the Sebois, coming in on the eastern side 
further up, are bordered with l.irge tracts of interval land, made up of 
ilic fine alluvium brought down by the waters of Ihe respective streams. 
The uiilands in ihe rear are rather stony or rocky, on account of the 
boulders which have lieen strewed over them at some former period. 
Among these boulders are found limestone of the description before 
mentioned, and cimglomerates and old sandstone of large size, indi- 
cating that they had not been removed far from their parent bed, 
wheiever it might be. 

The Katahdin parly returned on .Saturday afternoon, well satisfied 
with the labors, as well as the results and fruits of their expedition, and 
on Monday morning (181I1) all again pursued iheir voyage up the river, night they c.iine to the fool of IJr.inil f.ills. ami llieie camped. 
The Grand falls, so c.illed, .ire a .-.erics of r.ipids and cascades exiend- 



ing several miles, with occasional intervals of slack-water between 
some of the |)itches. The whole form the most formidable obstruction 
in the river between Oldtuwn and (}iand Lake. It was a good day's 
work to get "luggage" and boats up to the foot of the first or upper 
pitch, and it was found necessary to encamp, leserving fur the next 
morning the remainder of the "carry " and the getting up tu " tamp 
Johnson" in No. 5 in the 8th range. 

The ne.xt morning and day proved somewliat ramy. but t.iking an 
early start they accomplished the rest of the portage, and once more em- 
barked. They found for a mile or two slack-water, after which a pretty 
smart current met them .and continued until they came to ".Stair 
Kails." An entirely different rock formation is found from the head of 
Grand Falls. Granite has entirely disappeared and given place 10 trap- 
rock and sandstone. Stair Falls are formed by ledges ol the latter 
cro.ssing the river at right angles, and for nearly or quite a mile flooring 
the river in successive steps or "stairs," In the rock of the lower step, 
on the east side, were found " trilobites " and other fossil remains very 
interesting to the geologists of the party. Even Louis— who. by the 
way, is a shrewd and active member of the I'enobscot tribe, and no 
mean representative of the aboriginal race— became very e.vperi in 
hunting up specimens of the kind. 

On the 23d they arrived at Johnson's Camp, in No. 5 of the 8ih. 
This camp had teen constructed two years previously by one of tlie 
paity (William A. Johnston) and his partner for the accommodation of 
their men while lumbering on this township, and it found a very 
convenient stojiping-place for a few days, from which difterent parties 
could proceed to e.vamine the several localities in the neighborhood 
which promised to be interesting. These were the adjacent mountain, 
called the "Traveller," and .some of its spurs; the rock formation at 
the dam at the outlet of the lake a mile or two above; the Stair F.dls 
below and liowlin I'ond; jerry Lake and Murchs or Horseshoe Lake 
on the eastern section of the township. The trap-rock of the moun- 
tains, the "Silurian rock of the Stair F.ills," and the fossiliferous lime- 
stone in and about Murch's Lake afforded localities of interesting re- 
search and employment to the geologist. Suites of specimens from 
each were collected, all of which were enumerated and described in 
Prof Hitchcock's final report. They also obtained many interesting 
specimens in the several departments of natural history, especially in 
ornithology, entomology and botany. 

The ami {Corviisomx), the large red-headed woodpecker {/'/,■„, 
piUatui). and several other rather rare birds, were here procured. 
While I'rof H. with a parly proceeded up Grand Lake (Mont.igamon)! 
the rest proceed to the exploration of the eastern portion of the town- 
ship and the lakes in that section. The first point of ex.imin.iiion was 
liowlin Hond. Nothing very interesting presented itself in this vicinity 
except the remains of immense pines which were destroyed by the fires 
m 1825, the trunks of which were mostly fallen to the ground and l.iy 
quietly mouldering away. .\!1 of them were large, .md some of tliJiii 
of enormous dimensions. 

This was once undoubtedly one of the must he.ivily timbered sec- 
tions of any part of Maine, In threading their way slowly over the 
fallen inonarchs of the forest, they could not but be struck with evi- 
dences of the vast loss that had accrued to the State by the sweeping 
of fires through its forests and timber-lands. Millions of dollars could 
not repKice the yalue or m.ike good the destiuction thus made. Some 
who pretend to know the facts, asserted that the ores which caused the 
destruction of the timber in this particular locality, «ere intentionally 
set by w.ay of revenge for the loss of some hay burnt by some of the 
employes of the Laiid.\gent, which hay belonged to .some of the tres- 
passers on the public lauds. If this be true, it was a revenge the ef- 
fect of which will live long after us perpetrators have passed aw.iy 
and which mor.- than one generation will look upon with regret. Miidi 
of this timber cut and earned away soon after its being bui 111 but 
thousands and thousands of these once stately jnnes l.iy strewed about 
h.iving fallen m every direcuon. 'j-iie growth that has newly sprung 
up on the ground thus divested of its former m.ignihcent growth is 111 
strange contrast with the sue and grandeur of the dead trunks below 
them. It consists principally of white birches, poplars, and wild cher- 
ries. If the theory of alteriiaiiiig growth be true, thought Ur Holmes 
it would well if another conllagr.ition would clear the present incum- 
bents of the soil, and allow a new race of pines to begin their "rowth 
and to make good, in the coiiise of years, the loss of their ancestors 
The shores of this lake are low anil rocky. The rocks are principallv 
tr.ip-rock. broken and strewed in profusion over the surface. 
signs of moose, deer, and be.u were met with, and occasionally an otter- 
slide was seen on the margin of the lake, but the animals themselves 
were careful 10 keep themselves out .,f the »ay. Sm,il.,r rock forma- 

tions b-it not quite so many decaying trunks of heavy pines, were found 
on the way from Howlin to Jerry Lake. The western shore of this lake 
was the terminus of the r.iiiiblee.isiwar.l from the camp. Turning to a 
northwesterly course, they traversed the section betueen tliis° and 
" Murchs" (Horseshoe) Lake. About a mile east of the stream, ..r 
outlet of the lake (the waters of which pass into Bowlin), 
uhile travelling over a well-timbered hard-wood ridge, the party sud- 
denly came to one of the l.ngest boulders they had ever seen. It stands 
comparatively alone, isolated, as it were, in the midst of the forest. It 
is closely surrounded by a thick and heavy growth, while from its top 
have grown up another forest of stately tree,, far overtopping those of 
the forest around and below them. This boulder is composed of the 
encrinal or fossiliferous limestone, the site of which was afterwards 
found further west. It was ascertained on measurement to be 200 feet 
in circumference. Its walls or sides were nearly perpendicular, though 
worn and furrowed by the abrasion of water, either before or since its 
removal from its parent-bed. The height was 18 feet, and the area on 
the top nearly as large as at its base and quite level, and was covered 
with a small wood-lot. A soil had, by some means, been formed there 
and birches, maples, and ced.ars had sprung up and grown, some of 
them, to the sue of eight or ten inches in diameter. In one ot its clefts 
a family of hedgehogs [ErMizon donatus] had taken up their resi- 
dence, but were too snugly ensconced in their "lair" to allow intruders 
to reach them. It was found that, although a "feeble folk," like the 
cony of old they had "built their liouse in the rock,' and defied ene- 
mies to dislodge them. So the ex|)lorers "left them .done in their 
glory." and passed on. 

llelore starting on this expedition they received several v.igue 
accounts <.f an island iua lake somewhere in the neighborhood of Bow- 
lin, m which uere sundry galleries and a cave of curious form and con- 
struction, "not in.rde with hands." At the Hunt farm Deane Murch 
gave a new edition of the story about as indefinite as those they had be- 
fore heard, ,iik1 also stated that he had himself, some thirty years be- 
fore, when out hunting, seen that same island, and thought he could 
again find it, and that it was in one of the Bowlin chain of lakes As 
he was with the party, it was one of the objects, when they arrived "at 
Camp Johnston, in No. ,. to make an exploration and ascertain the 
truth in regard to the island cave, and fix its location more definitely and 
certainly, if location it had. On account of the uncertainty of its 
whereabouts It was thought acKisable to begin the search at the lower 
li.iulin, and proceed upward, exploring the kikes u, course until they found the island, the rock, and the eve in qii, s.iun, provided any- 
thing ol the kind uere there. L'p to this point of the search they had 
found nothing that the most distant indication of anythin- of the 
kind, and poor Murch began to think that his sight of the rock^that he 
had told of was a dream or a delusive vision thrown over him by I'o- 
moola [the Indian devil, who. unless i)ropitiated by s|) service was 
always bringing hunters into trouble], on account of some deliniiuency 
111 his service. They judged, however,, from the frequent and pt 
cuh.irly emphatic use of Ih. iiinie of th.u venerable old demon and the 
accompanying unmistakably expressive anathemas uttered by him in 
his disappointment thus fu, Pomoola could have no fault to find with 
him on that score. The discovery of the huge boulder just described 
confirmed the belief of the existence of the island. It «as concluded th it 
this was one of its fragments, and that, judging from its sue the parent 
bed could not be far oft'. It was near night when they h.ul finished the 
examination. They therefore went on about a half a inile to the stream 
before mentioned, and camped. 

E.,iiy ne.xt morning Louis and Murch uere directed to follow up the 

stream until they came to the lake, while the rest were eng.iged at the 

camp, and to return and report. In the course of a couple of hours 

Murch returned, .umouncing, glee, that he had found Jus 

l„kc and the island they were 111 pursuit of-that Ins ch.iracter for truth 

and ver.Kity was fully vindicated, for, strange as ,1 may seem it was 

the very spot where he seen it thirty years ago. The party ac 

cordmgly went back with him to explore the locihty. Leaving the 

stream, and |)roceedmg ,n a noithwesteily direction over a low rid"c 

of hard-wood lanti, they found an abundance of boulders and also'a 

Icdg.- of the fossiliferous limestone of the same ch.iracter as the large 

boulder just described and as those found at the Grand Falls the 

Hunt I'.irm, and as low down the river as 'Whetstone Falls After a 

w.ilk of about three-fourths of a mile from camp, they came to Murch's 

L.ike, usually called, from its shaiJe, Horseshoe Lake. At the westerty 

end of this l.ike, and a few rods from the shore, was the long sought for 

isl.ind. -I he water sufficiently low to allow wading to the spot It 

proved to be a portion of the limestone ledge they had just passed r,s 

ing from the water about 20 feet, and say from 200 to 300 feet m cir- 



cumference. Its lop was covered with bushes and small trees. The 
caves talked about proved to be large tubes or tunnels from three to 
four feet in diameter, worn smoothly, as if by running water, in a hori- 
zontol position, completely through or across the island. These tunnels 
are'at the base of the island, and, of course, when the water in the lake 
is high, are nearly or quite submerged. They are at right angles to 
each other. The water was sufficiently low to allow the visitors to 
creep through them. At the place where they cross each other is a 
room, or cavity, not C|Uite eight feet in diameter and about five feet in 
height. There are three others commenced, but they pass only a little 
way before they run mto one or the other of the main tunnels. This 
lime-rock, as before stated, is fossiliferous, and contains several species 
of organic remains, and the whole of this portion of the lake is floored 
over, as far as e.tamined, with the same rock, the flooring being quite 
level, and is covered with a fine silt or deposit of limestone particles, 
which render the water turbid when disturbed at the bottom. Here, 
then, is the site or parent bed of the limestone boulders, which had 
Ijcen found scattered along the pathway from Whetstone Falls to the 
lake. The questions, which an examination of the place gave rise to. 
are: What has worn these tubes or tunnels through this solid rocky 
islet? There is no current of waters in the lake, and if it had been 
done by currents of water, why are they woin at right angles to each 
other? Was the site of this lake, or this portion of it. once a ridge or 
mountain of limestone, which has been carried away by some tremen- 
dous sweep of waters and ice, and a basin thus excavated down to the 
present flooring of the lake, leaving only the lonely island before us as 
a witness of its former location? These queries and others of similar 
import can be answered only, if answered at all, by facts obtained by 
more extended and rigorous observation and research than we were 
able to make at the lime of this visit to the place. 

Havmg finished the brief examination, and collected specimens of the 
rock, the scienti-sts went back to their tent, packed up, and started on 
the return to Camp Johnston. On their arrival, they met Prof. Hitch- 
cock, who, with Messrs. Goodale and Packard, had gone up the river to 
Trout Brook Farm, and returned, leaving the others to await their ar- 
rival. They had examined the sides and summits of the Traveller and 
other mountains near by, the rock formations at the outlet of the lakes 
and its shores, and the next day started again m company with others. 
Two miles above the camp above the camp they came to the dam at the 
outlet of the Grand Lake (Montagamon). This dam had been built by 
a company of the proprietors of townships above, and was as firm 
and durable a structure as could be built of timber. At this place 
commences the extensive chain of lakes which are found in this 
section of the wild lands, and which occupy so large a portion of the 
summit territory betvseen the waters of the Penobscot. Aroostook, 
Keimebec, and St. John. They also found here the commencement of 
a series of dams and other improvements, built at great expense by the 
proprietors above named, extending from the foot of this (Grand) lake 
to the foot of Church Lake, at the head of the Alleguash, one of the tit. 
John tributaries, giving them control of the waters of eight or ten lakes 
and extending more than eighty miles. By ihese dams and one or two 
locks, they not only husband the waters in these vast reservoirs, but are 
enabled to bring great quantities of lumber from the St. John waters, 
which would otherwise have to float down that river, instead of run- 
ning down the Penobscot, as it now does. They are enabled to do this 
by the slack water caused by the flowage of the several dams, by which 
immense rafts of lumber are floated across the lakes and through their 
several connecting thoroughfares. When all the logs of the winter's 
operations have thus been brought down to the lower dam, the gates 
are all opened and the accumulated waters let loose, which gives a 
freshet sufficient to float them down to the booms above Oldtown. 
where they are caught and secured for use until they are called for. 
The thorough structure of these fixtures, and the liberal expenditure 
over so large an area of country, reflect much honor on the enterprise 
and energy of the proprietors, and the doctor had no doubt were found 
to be profitable investments in a pecuniary point of view. At any rate 
they are instrumental in giving the Penobscot lumberman successful 
triumphs over the obstacles of nature, hardly rivaled in any other 
country. They noticed, however, another inevitable result of such flow- 
age. Thousands of acres of splendid interval land, on the banks of the 
streams flowing into and the connecting thoroughfares of these lakes, 
are submerged a great part of the year. As a natural consequence, the 
beautiful forest growth, with which they were once covered, was killed 
and falling in every direction. This gives an unpleasant appearance to 
the otherwise beautiful scenery, and to the eye of an agriculturist seems 
to be rather a wanton destruction of so much valuable soil. But it 
belongs to those who flow it, and they have a right to use it in such 
way and manner as shall give them the most profit. 

Between Grand and Second Lake, or, as the Indians call them, Mon- 
tagamon and Montagamonsis, is a wide extent of tliis now submerged 
interval land. On the western upland margin of one of these tracts, 
on Trout Brook, No. 7, in R. 9, the Messrs. Pingree & Co. have made 
an excellent farm (Trout Brook FaJm). We found this farm under 
the management of Mr. Berdeen. assisted by three hired men. It is 
in rather a retired situation, being about thirty miles from any other 
human abode. The soil is excellent and very productive. It is prin- 
cipally devoted to the production of hay, but grain and roots are also 
raised in abundance. 

This is the farm more lately owned by Mr. E. S. Coe, 
of Bangor, which will be found mentioned by and by, in 
the narrative of Mr. Steele. The party had now passed 
out of Penobscot county, beyond which we need not 
follow them. 


The description of the geology of this section of country includes 
the geology of the East Branch of the Penobscot; of Mt. Katahdin; 
of Webster Creek and Lake; of the Alleguash lakes, and the Alle- 
guash river, or the district travelled over in August and September by 
our large exploring party, whose history has already been given. 

We use only that part falling within this county. 

The rock at Mattawamkeag is talcose schist, a member of the clay- 
slate formation, dipping 64 degrees southeast. In ascending the Pe- 
nobscot we find alternating layers of clay slates, occasional talcose 
schists, and grits, all the way to the Pond Pitch of the Grand Falls. 
At the mouth of Salmon Stream, in the southeast corner of Nicatou, 
these grits and slates dip 70 degrees northwest, making an anticlinal 
axis with the rocks at Mattawamkeag. A mile above Salmon Stream 
the dip is 50 degrees northwest, and still further 60 degrees north- 

Boulders of marble, along with slate, granite, etc., are everywhere 
seen in the bed of the river. A mile and a half below the village of 
N'icatou there are two small and very pretty alluvial terraces on each 
side of the river. The island at the junction of the two branches of 
the Penobscot is the remnant of a high gravel delta terrace, deposited 
by the West branch. Another part of the same terrace is at the fork 
itself Back from the river coarse drift with boulders everywhere shows 


Two miles up the East branch, at Ledge Falls, the rocks are slate, 
grit, andconglomeiate, very much distorted, but with an average dip 
of 60 degrees northwest. It is an interesting locality for examples of 
small plications of the strata, and also for examples of cleavage planes 
and lamiuje crossing the strata. The two planes cross the strata at 
various angles from 30 to 40 degrees. The strata stand upon their 
edges at the north end of the Falls. Some of the strata are bent, so 
that portions of them resemble a row of fossil upright trunks of trees. 
The layers are both thick and thin-bedded. A conglomerate composed 
of large pebbles of calcareous slates is imbedded in the grit. A short 
distance north these pebbles are flat and elongated. A quarter of a 
mile north of the Falls the strata are perpendicular, running north 70 
degrees west. 

Two terraces are found on both sides of the river through most of 
the town, and at Mr. Hiram Fish's house they are remarkably beauti- 
ful. Their material is gravel. Higher up there are three and four ter- 
races rising above one another in regular succession. In the south part 
of No. I, "there is a patch of clay a rod long and rising 10 feet above 
the water, which is set into coarse and fine gravel just as if it had been 
elevated from beneath. It was probably deposited in a deep hole in 
the gravel bed. 

The solid rocks grow more slaty in ascending the river. At the lo- 
cality of the clay in No. ., the clay slate dips 88 degrees northwest. A 
few rods above is a gray grit having the same position. At the Rocky 
Rips, above the mouth of Meadow Brook, the grits dip 75 degrees 
northwest. Half a mile above is a band of clay slate, with the strike 
north 28 degrees east, and a southeasteriy dip of 80 degrees, or making 
a sharp svnclinal axis with the strata at Rocky Rips. At Grindstone 
Falls the'rocks are alternating strata, as before, of clay slates, fine grits 
and quartz rock, dipping from 85 degrees east to 90 degrees south- 
easterly. Numerous boulders of granite fill the bed of the river at the 


On the east side of the river at the I'alls are crushed ledges of slates, 
analogous to interesting examples found in Vermont. The ledge on 
the east side of the river is high-say 3ofeet-and ncariy perpendicular, 



but at its bottom at the water's edge are fragments of slate whicli have 
been broken off, scattered along at intervals of 20 rods. This pile of 
fragments is several feet thick, but is greatly reduced in size from what 
it has been, because the spring freshets have washed away many pieces 
from year to year. The force breaking off the strata appears to have 
come from the southeast. If one could imagine that a great rock 20 
rods long happened to fall from the skies upon this particular spot, the 
results would be similar to wliat may now be seen. 

The theory has been proposed that these ledges were crushed by the 
toppling over of icebergs when the country was under the ocean, or 
that a huge wave elevated an iceberg, so that wlien the wave receded 
the iceberg fell upon and crushed the ledges. Professor Hitchcock 
thought the present case could be ascribed to frost and gravity. The 
water at the base wears away the bottom of the cliff and weakens the 
rocks there. The water which enters the fissures of the rock weakens 
the ledges still more by freezing. And as a heavy mass of snow and 
ice has accumulated in the winter upon the top of the cliff, it may be 
that its weight, combined with the weakening of the strata beneath, 
will cause the upper part of the ledge to fall down and present this 
crushed appearance. A similar example he had seen had removed all 
the debris before that time. Where these examples of crushed ledges 
occur upon the southeast slopes of hills, it is conceivable that the strata 
were broken off by the drift. 

This is a fine region for terraces, as compared with the rest of the 
State. One upon the west side of Godfrey's Falls is 72 feet above the 
river. From its top there is a fine view of Mt. Katahdin. 

At the upper part of the falls the strata dip 60 degrees northwesterly. 
At Crowfoot Rips m No. 2, R. 7, the slaty rocks dip 80 degrees south- 
east. The lapids here are produced by the fall of the water over nu- 
merous blocks of granite. Beautiful blue clay is found in this township. 
About Brown's island the sand is cemented into alluvial sandstone by 
the peroxides of iron and manganese. -At the Bear Rips the slates dip 
75 degrees southeast. A large number of boulders of the Lower Hel- 
derberg limestone were found at Whetstone Falls, containing in great 
abundance encrinal remains and the coral Favosites Gothlaniica. 
These boulders in the township above are very large, one of them being 
14 feet in diameter, and it would seem as if their souice could not be 
far distant. The clay slates and grits at these falls dip 65 degrees 
southerly. The prevailing dip thus far is northwesterly, but we have 
passed over two anticlinal .and two synclinal axes at least, since leaving 

From Mr. Hunt's place Professor Hitchcock made a 
visit to Mt. Katahdin, guided by the Rev. M. R. Keep. 
He notes that — 

The path traveled from the Hunt farm _to the loi> of Katahdin was 
struck out by Mr. Keep, to whom the State donated a quarter of a 
township in consideration of his services upon the mountain lands. 

On the east bank of the river, just above Mr. Hunt's house, there is 
a bank of gravel and sand whose strata are inclined at an angle of 
twenty-five degrees south, and must have been deposited over a steep 
slope. Some of the strata are consolidated by a ferruginous cement. 
At this place we found in boulders of loose sandstone a number of 
fossils of Lower Devonian type, coming probably from the Devonian 
cocks above. These boulders are different from those seen on the west 
side of Mount Katahdin. We suspect the range of mountains west of 
the East Blanch, in Nos. 3 and 4, to be composed of trap-rock. They 
have also somewhat of a sandstone aspect. 

A short distance above Hunt's farm, in No. 3, the same clay slates 
that were described below No. 3 occur, running north lo degrees east 
and dipping 80 degrees east. Beyond, the strike is north 20 degrees 
east and the dip 73 degrees east. There is a large amount of clay 
along the river at the mouth of the Seboois. The boulders on the 
river's banks are now mostly sandstones, conglomerates, honestones, 
and slates, very rarely any of granite. A few miles higher, the granite 
disappears altogether. 

Professor Hitchcock ascended Lunksoos Mountain on the west side 
of the river, and found its top to be 1,378 feet above the river, by the 
aneroid barometer. This mountain forms the boundary line between 
Townships Nos. 3 and 4, and appears to be composed of the same 
rocks as the range of peaks in No. 3. Lunksoos mountain is entirely 
composed of trap, a tough variety without any columnar seams. He 
had a fine view of the country all about this mountain, and in his 
note-book speculated "a considerable" about the geological character 
of the various hills and valleys observed, but did not give his surmises 
in his report. He was sure, however, that a mountain five or six miles 

northwest from Lunksoos is composed of granite, as he coidd see thg 
white rocks composing it both from here and from Katahdin. 

In Number Four of the Seventh range, the grit-rocks dip 60 degrees 
southeasterly. .A similar ledge, called Suffer's Rock, has strata dip- 
ping 65 degrees southeast. At the mouth of Big Spring Brook in No* 
5, R. 8, a horseback commences, which extends rather more than a mile 
to Bowlin Falls. Its material is unusually coarse, and boulders of 
granite predominate in it. Here the strata of slate and grit dip 50 de- 
grees northwesterly, forming an anticlinal with the strata previously 

The surveyors had now arrived at the Clrand Falls, which consist of 
seven difterent smaller falls, all of which have different names, and are 
found m a straight line, in a distance of three miles, but more than 
this if the course of the river be measured. The following are their 
names, in ascending order; Bowlin Falls, Hull Machine, Grand Pitch, 
Pond, Upper Pitch, and Stairs Falls, which consists of two parts. 
The same clay slates and grits at the Hull Machine dip 12 degrees 
northwesterly. At the Grand Pitch the grits prevail, alternating with 
thin bands of clay slate, standing perpendicular and running north 40 
degrees east. The fall of water here is quite great and very beautiful. 
Large boulders of conglomerate are common here, such as are presently 
described in place. The strata of slates above the Grand Pitch dip 54 
degrees southeast. Close by the Pond Pitch the last of the slates ap- 
pears, running northeast and standing perpendicular. It was thought 
there are two anticlinal and two synclinal axes between Hunt's Farm 
and Pond Pitch, or four anticlinal and four synclinal axes observed in 
this group of strata above Mattawamkeag. Hence they had crossed 
the same strata eight times on this section. 

.■\t the Pond Pitch trap rock is found in place, which continues to 
the L'pper Falls. In climbing a hill w'est of the falls they found a few 
rods' thickness of slate and quartz rock before reaching the trap con- 
stituting the hill, which appears to be the continuation of the trap of 
Lunksoos Mountain. The junction between the trap and conglomer- 
ate above was not noticed, but they suspected the trap to be bedded 
and related to the conglomerate, just as the trap rocks of Perry under- 
lie the Devonian conglomerates and sandstones of that region. In a 
figure of the Report is represented the relative positions of the under- 
lying slates, the trap rock, and the coarse conglomerate about to be de- 

At the bottom of Upper Falls the party were struck at once by the 
great change in the character of the rock. They found an exceedingly 
coarse conglomerate composed of pebbles of various hornstones, jas- 
pers, slates, and occasionally grknite, averaging two inches in diame- 
ter, and sometimes three feet through. Rarely seams of slate, and in 
one place several feet thickness of a calcareous rock, occur with the 
pebbles. It is difficult to ascertain the true position of this rock, but 
Prof Hitchcock considers the following as the normal one : Strike 
north 65 degrees west , dip 45 degrees north. The same layers are trav- 
ersed by cleavage planes running north 18 degrees east and inclined 
83 degrees east. This rock must be about 150 feet thick, and is evi- 
dently the base of the following series of rocks to be described. Very 
large boulders of fossiliferous linrestone abound in the vicinity of the 
Falls, whose course must be quite near. 

.Above the Upper Falls, the rocks consist of fine-grained, dark-col- 
ored sandstones, having a peculiar conchoidal fracture, like clay. On 
account of the rain he had no time to stop and examine them closely. 
At Stair Falls, the ledges cross the river so as to make a series of falls, 
like a pair of stairs. The strata dip 40 degrees northwesterly, and are 
composed of sandstones of different textures and colors. Some of the 
ayers contain a Irilobite, a new species of the genus Dalmanitcs, At 
the upper pitch of the Stair Falls, the dip of the strata is a httle higher. 
A little yellow ochre is found in the sand ou the banks. 

The party staid a few days at Johnston's Camp, in the central part of 
No. 5, R. 8, partly to recruit and partly to explore the vicinity. At the 
camp is the finest locality of Devonian fossils yet seen in Maine, but 
the ledges do not appear — the specimens are entirely in loose frag- 
ments, whose source must be very near. Among the specimens are 
such characteristic forms of the Oriskany sandstone as i\\eRt-» /ischna 
ovoidcs. The fossils are entirely marine mollusca. The rock is a 
loosely cemented sandstone, very much like the Oriskany sandstone of 
New York, but unlike the Oriskany sandstone of Maine, as already de- 

A very high range of mountains appeared west of the camp, one peak 
of which was ascended. Boulders, frequently of enormous size, of red 
sandstone, are abundant between the camp and the mountain. They 
are so large that no can doubt that they came from the base of the 
mountain. The mountain itself is composed of a beautiful drab-colored 



silicious slate, weatlieriiig grayish while, whose strata at the summit 
run north 70 degrees west and dip 40 degrees northerly. This Traveller 
•» is the isolated conical peak lying to the northeast of a much higher 
range of mountains, which has received the same name, but must be 
nearly a thousand feet higher. The peak is 1,622 feet above the river 
at its base; 625 feet below the summit is the lowest at which the Liri- 
dta geogritphica is found. The same silicious slates were found a small 
pond in No. 5, R. 6. just over the line. 

Dr. Holmes made an excursion to the east part of No. 5. R. 8, and 
found at Horseshoe Pond, in the northeast corner of the township, a 
large mass of hmestone containing the Favositcs Golhhindica and 
crinoidal joints, which belongs to the Lower Helderberg group of 
Upper Silurian rocks. This rock probably crosses the East branch, 
but escaped notice in consequence of being covered by alluvium. Its 
strike is northeast and southwest. There is a small island in the pond, 
composed of this white limestone, in which there is a cave. About a 
mile west of the pond, the doctor reports an enormous boulder of 
limestone, upon which trees 10 inches in diameter are growing. It is 
r8 feet high, and 198 feet in circumference. It is on the top of a hil 
300 feel above the pond. Between the limestone and Stair Falls, the 
rocks are fine, dark-brown sandstones, somewhat similar to those at 
Stair Falls. 

Approaching the dam at the fool of Matagamon or Grand Lake, m 
No, 6, R. 8, we find red sandstones, which are still more abundant 
and bright-colored at the dam itself, although black argillaceous seams 
are found with it. The strata dip 40 degrees northwesterly. Numer- 
ous fossil marine mollusca are found at the dam, several of them very 
large, together with some marine vegetation, while remains of land 
plants are fouud further north on the west side of the lake. Half a 
mile below the dam are fossils resembling those collected at Johnston's 

Passing northerly, is found a steep, high ledge or mountain, known 
by an inelegant name, which is a little back from the lake, and proves 
to be silicious slate, being a continuation of this rock from the Travel- 
ler. Calcite, chalybite, or spathic iron, and traces of manganese oc- 
cur m this slate, often in nodular masses. These slates would seem to 
be the results of the alternation of the sandstones, unless there has 
been a great dislocation of the strata, for the sandstone layers do not 
seem to have been disturbed at all by them. The sandstone is found 
to continue on both sliores about half-way up the lake. The most 
northern strata seen have the strike north 70 degrees east, and dip 15 
degrees northwesterly. 

The geologist supposed these sandstones to be the equivalents of the 
Gaspe sandstones of Canada. Theie is a very fine opportunity for 
studying this group, both lithologically and paleontologically, in the 
region of Grand Lake, and also its connection with the Katahdin 
rocks. The Gaspe sandstones are 7,000 feet thick. The Grand Lake 
strata are certainly as thick as the Gaspe. 

He next came to a class of rocks entirely different from the sand- 
stones, consisting of black slates and slaty limestones, often very much 
permeated by cleavage planes. He referred this rock in his map to 
Silurian in part and Devonian in part, with a very indistinct notion of 
its proper place. The first ledge of it has the strike of north 55 de- 
grees east, and its strata are perpendicular. The rocks in the neigh- 
borhood are very much contorted, while the sandstones are not, just 
as if the slates were largely disturbed and elevated before the deposi- 
tion of the sandstones. Further north the slates dip from 45 to 50 de- 
grees northwest. Numerous small curves are found among them. On 
Louis Island the slates dip 42 degrees south, making a synclinal with 
the strata first observed. The cleavage planes are developed in these 
ledges at right angles to the strata. 

On the south side of Trout Brook Farm in No. 5, R. 9, upon a hill, 
a hornstone is developed, apparently dipping 45 degrees southerly. 
The hill appears to be the northern terminus of the Traveller range. 
It is probably underlaid by the slates just described on Grand Lake, 
which crop out upon the same hill. 


The Seboois river joins the East Branch of the Penobscot in No. 3, 
R. 7. At its mouth the banks are alluvial. The rock first seen is the 
clay slate series, which on the East branch is found to extend as high 
as the Pond Pitch. This extends to the upper part of No. 4, dipping 
80 degrees east. Peaked Mountain in this township is composed of a 
conglomerate, i)robably a part of the series found between the Grand 
Falls and Grand Lake. Large beds of limestone, containing the 
Favosites Ciothlaiidica , which are probably the Lower Helderberg 
series, arc also found about the mountain. The mountain has been 

cut through by a huge mass of trap, which has produced changes on 
the adjacent strata. The southern peak is composed of amygdaloid 
and hornstone. This is supposed to be the same with the trap below 
Pond Pitch. The central peak is comjrased of coarse conglomerate 
traversed bv veins of calcite. Boulders of red sandstone are fijund on 
the surface. The top of the mouittain is 660 feet above the river. 

Above this mountain, the river finds its way among precipices of 
sandstone, 200 or 300 feet high. .At the mouth of Jerry Brook, on the 
west bank of the Seboois, in No. 5, K. 7, red sandstone appears, dip- 
ping 75 degrees southeast. Sugar Loaf, on the east side of the Seboois, 
1900 feet high, is composed of sandstone and clay .slate cut through 
by a dike of trap 500 feet wide. The slates adjacent to the trap have 
been changed into jasjjer, hornstone. and compact feldspar. Nodules 
of calcite and epidote occur in the amygdaloid part of the ti-ap. The 
jasiier bed is 10 feet wide. 

At Chegalapscagos F'alls, red slate rocks are found, dipping north- 
westerly 80 degrees. Above the falls luimerous dikes of trap rock and 
masses of jasper abound. Large boulders of the fossiliferous Helder- 
berg limestone are also found in the vicinity. In the south part of No. 
6, the red slates dip 60 degrees N. W., then to the S. E., and presently 
to the N. W. again. At Godfrey's Falls, in about the middle of No. 
6, the rocks are slates. Near the first Seboois Lake in No. 7, there is 
a fine development of the Lower Helderberg limestone. It is 90 feet 
wide, a bed inclosed in sandstone and brecciated by the intrusion of 
scoriaceous trap. Encrinites and the common favosite coral abound in 
the rock. Some parts of the bed are described as a good marble. 

The rocks upon the third Seboois Lake are argillaceous limestones, 
sandstone, and trap. No rocks are observed upon the La Pompique 

Dr. Holmes, in passing from Matagamon Lake, on the East Branch, 
up Hay Brook, found perpendicular seams running through slate, with 
an east and west direction. About a mile above the mouth of the 
Mooseluck stream, in No. 8, R. 8, he found a ledge of coarse conglom- 


Dr. Holmes made a report upon these ,to Professor 
Hitchcock, from which we extract soine paragrajjhs: 

.Among other objects of this expedition, I was requested to trace 
what I could of the localities and boundaries of the lower Helderberg 
marbles, or limestone formations that occur in this section of the State, 
and report to you. I have done in regard to it what the shortness of 
the time and the lack of some facilities allowed me. The more and 
further I searched into this branch of our geological formations, the 
more impressed I became of the ultimate value they will be to this sec- 
tion, and indeed to the whole State, and of the importance of longer 
time being devoted exclusively to their study and examination. .\ 
belt or formation of rock which, as I found, stretches in a continuous 
direction across not less than fi\e townships, occasionally cropping out 
and at each locality of its appearance exhibiting surroundings and ac- 
companiments each of different character, could not be thoroughly 
explored and all its characteristics .ascertained in the three or four 
weeks allotted to this section, and that lime interrupted by a search 
for objects pertaining to other branches of natural history. 

On page 364 of your first report, in speaking of the geology of the 
VVassattiquoik while on yout way to Katahdin, you observe that 'on 
the Wassittiquoik, near its mouth, we found ledges of a blueish quartz 
rock very evenly stratified. . . . .Above them, on the 

bank, the boulders and large masses of limestone similar to those seen 
at Whetstone falls are so numerous that we believe the rock to be in 
place close by, certainly less than half a mile, if indeed we did not find 
it in place.' 

Your conjectures were right. Had you turned and gone up the 
north branch of the Wassitticjuoik a little way into townshi]) 4, in the 
9th range, you would have found the site from which the boulders you 
saw started. It is the first locality, or cropping out of this belt of the 
lower Helderberg formation, east of Mt. K.atahdin.* 

I was not able to give this locality a personal examination, but ob- 
tained reliable description of its location from a person (Mr. David 
Malcolm, of Pattenj who had visited the spot, clambered over the 
bluff it formed on the bank of the siream, and showed me specimens 
of the rock identical in their composition and structure with the rock 
which I visited last year in March's lake, in the next township north- 
east of this (No. 5, R. 8.). 

• This is undoubtedly the first belt of rock from which the boulders of fine 
statuary marble, discovered in 1861, were derived. C. H. H. 



Considering its geological position and surroundings this locality is 
one of peculiar interest, situated as it is almost at the base of Katah- 
din, with its granite battlements guarding it on the west and south — 
the trap rocks of the Lunksoos range on the north, and the quurtz rock 
of the Maine Wassattiquoik on the east. I leave it to you and other 
geologists to decide the seniority of age and priority of occupation of 
these several formations, and to explain by what arrangement of nature 
this rock, so full of the remains of organic life, was placed in almost 
juxtaposition with such azoic neighbors. The one full of tangible 
proofs of an age teeming with aquatic animal and vegetable life and 
ex'liibiting through its structure the outward forms and shapes of former 
living tenants of an ocean in which they existed, and from which they 
drew their sustenance ; the others the very reverse of this — hard, crys- 
talline in feature — silent as to any definite condition of the past — giving 
no sign of any association with life at any period — their clearest mani- 
festations being those of an escape from heat of great intensity, and of 
convulsive earthquakes which have shaken and shivered the neighbor- 
ing mountains and scattered their rough and angular fragments on 
every side. Whatever may be the theoretic speculations on this subject" 
one thing is certain. When the advance of settlement up the Penob- 
scot shall bring mankind in grearer numbers into this section, and the 
accumulations of thrift and industry shall enable them to erect mills 
and houses and public buildings, they will here find no dearth of most 
durable material for the same — no scarcity of granite and lime and 
marble to meet all the demands and purposes that may be ever required 
for architectural strength, endurance and beauty.* 

The general direction of the strata is northeasterly. The extent of 
the formation I am not able to give. It becomes covered by the soil, 
and is hidden from view. Pursuing the general course of the strike, 
which leads you in a direction across the township diagonally, it 
again turns up at the Tunnel rocks in Murch's or Horseshoe lake in the 
next township. No. 5, R. 8. As a pretty full description of this local- 
ity has been given in last year's report, it will not be necessary to sav 
more here in regard to it. It is well, however, to note it, as being the 
next link in the chain of these Helderberg formations, the existence of 
which this survey has been instrumental in discovering. 

The next show of it, on this line of strike, is that discovered by 
Dr. Jackson, at the foot of first Seboois lake, an extract from whose 
description you gave in your first report (page 413). On his authority 
It is stated to be in township No. 7. I did not arrive at the rock in 
place when at that lake, but judging from the range of the boulders 
and other observations, 1 think, instead of being in No. 7, it is in 
upper, or northeast part of No. 6 of the 7th range. + 

Dr. Jackson also describes a locality of this rock on Peaked moun- 
tain, in No. 4 of R. 7. I have not seen this, but if it is identical with 
the rock in question, it must belong to another belt, as it is east of the 
range of the belt we are describing. 

Continuing our course, we next find a splendid locality of it crop. 
ping out near the northeast corner of lot 16 in No. 7, R. 6. I explored 
this ledge some years ago. It breaks up from a comparatively levej 
plain, forming an abrupt, precipitous ledge on one side, fifteen or 
twenty feet in height. Its true location had been lost for several years, 
and some who had sought for it were unable to find it, until last autumn, 
when from directions given them Messrs. Baston and Chase, of Rocka- 
mabe, succeeded in again discovering it, a description of which he gave 
in a letter to me published in your report (page 320). I look upon this 
ledge as a very valuable one. Specimens from it were put into the 

hands of a marble-worker, who found that it received a good polish 

worked free and made good corners, and was compact and even or 
uniform of structure. Its proximity to the Aroostook road, and the 
ease with which it can be quarried, render it a feasible and valuable 
source from which to obtain marble or lime, to meet the wants of a 
growing community. 

The next indication of this formation occurs in a line of the course 
hitherto pursued fiom No. 4, on or near the northern line of No. 8, R. 
5. Boulders of Helderberg rock are found here, but the true spot of 
their original site has not yet been ascertained, and future explora- 

"* .'Vt Whetstone Falls a kw miles below, on the Penobscot, is a splendid water 
power with a good site for buildings. Had the State reserved the fee of the soil 
in itself, and given proper enconragement to .settlers, there would long since have 
been a thriving village here. E, H. 

t It is very difficult, if not impossible, in a dense forest and in the absence of a 
correct plan based upon an actual survey, to give the true geographical position 
of any rock. In this particular we realized the truth of the remark of Sir Wil. 
Ham Logan, Principal of the Canadian Geological Survey, in which he declares 
"accurate topography is the foundation of accurate geology." 

tion will be needed in that place to make it eertain. Here ended my 
hurried and of course imperfect search for this species of rock forma- 
tions in this part of the State. They are deserving a longer and more 
careful scrutiny, which shall develope more fully both their geological 
and economical characteristics. I consider these formations, or beds, 
to be exceedingly interesting, not only on account of the intrinsic value 
of such rocks, in and of themselves, as affording a source from which 
to obtain marble for monumental or ornamental purposes, or excellent 
lime for cements or agricultural applications, but also for the geological 
teachings and testimonials they give of the period far back in the ages 
when this portion of Maine was submerged 'neath the ocean, and 
crinoid and coral and sea-fern and mollusk flourished on its shores aird 
in its deep soundings, as they now do in the tropical seas of the South 
— interesting, too, for the story they tell of the singular changes that 
have taken place in the condition of the materials which compose them, 
of the hardening into stone of the soft ooze, while full of animal and 
vegetable life, embracing and still exhibiting their organic remains as 
clearly and distinctly as when they flourished in it in the vigor of actual 
life, for the unmistakable evidences they give of the mighty upheaving 
of this ancient bed of the sea, and its disruption into mountain masses 
in obedience to the laws and commands of Him 

"Who thundered, and the ocean fled." 


Dr. Holmes says in his report to Professor Hitchcock : 

.As it required some little time, after arriving at Patten, to prepare 
for a tour in the forest, what leisure I had was spent in excursions in 
that vicinity. The rock formation in this neighborhood, as you have 
stated in a former report, I found to be slate. In some localities I 
found it to exhibit good qualities for roofing slate. 

On the premises of Hon. Ira Fish, about a mile and a half from the 
village, and on the north bank of the Mill stream, this slate crops out 
in the form of a bluft'of moderate height, from which we obtained ex- 
cellent specimens. From a cursoiy examination, as far as the sur- 
rounding forest would allow, I am led to the conclusion that a good 
quarry might be opened here, with a prospect of its yielding a large 
supply of this useful material of very fine quality. It cleaves leadily, 
giving a smooth, even surface, and possesses the requisite tenacity to 
allow of its being dressed and pierced, or punched in the usual manner. 

A large portion of the boulders found around the village of Patten 
are conglomerate. None of this rock is found here in place except in 
one locality, 'i'his was in the bed of the stream, near the lower grist- 
mill. One of the abutments of the bridge, which crosses the stream 
diere, is built upon it. The extent of it is not manifest, as if soon dips 
below the bank and is hidden deeply in the earth. But little granite is 
seen after you pass above Lincoln. 

Professor Hitchcock adds the following: 

Dr. Holmes has described opportunities for ciuariying roofing slate 
near Patten. Our own scientific researches have led us to define more 
closely the limits of the roofing-slate belt, upon which the best tjuarries 
are located, from Patten to Pleasant Ridge on the Kennebeck river. 


Among the metamorphic rocks along the coast southeast from 
Portland, patches of clay slate are occasionally seen, as in Biddeford, 
Saco, and Scarborough. It was noticed by the State geologist to ex- 
tend from the west line of Scarborough (on the Saco road) to a point 
beyond Dunstan corner. The strata run northeast and southw'est, and 
are nearly vertical. 

The next deposit of clay slate is of immense extent. Beginning in 
the southwest part of Waterville, it proceeds thence into Winslow, and 
probably through Unity and Jackson, to the north part of Frankfort. 
On the east side of Penobscot river it appears in the north part of 
Bucksport, running down into the west part of Oriand, northeasterly 
through Orrington, Holden, and Eddington. From this point it is not 
known whether the southern border-line of the clay slate extends direct- 
ly to Princeton, or whether it passes to Princeton around the west and 
north sides of Hancock county. The belt of clay slate in the northern 
part of Washington county is probably connected with the main de- 
posit, but it must make the northeastern termini of the slate fork- 
shaped. After taking up the line again at No. 10, R. 3, in Washington 
county, we can carry it but a short distance on account of the unex- 
plored region in the south part of Aroostook county. The slate, how- 
ever, disappears before reaching Houlton. Upon the Aroostook road 
we can find the northwestern side of the clay slate and carry it westerly. 
The western border is found in the village of Patten, where it lies side by 



side with talcose schist. It passes over toward the East branch of the 
Penolwcot. then runs up the Seboois river to Godfrey's Falls, and crosses 
over to the west side of the east branch of the Penobscot river at the 
Grand'Falls. Thence it returns down the &ist branch to No. 2. when 
it runs over to the North Twin Lake. Thence it proceeds in a direct 
course to the south end of Moosehead Lake. From here it runs to the 
forks of the Kennebec river. Changing its course it runs down the 
Kennebec (or perhaps to a point near Mt. .\braham| to Bingham; 
thence eastwardlv to the vicinity of Parkman; thence southwesterly to 
Norridgewock, and southeasterly to Waterville, whence Professor Hitch- 
cock commenced to draw the line. Those who follow this Ime upon 
the map will perceive that a vast territory is enclosed by it. 'hough of 
an exceedingly irregular shape. It includes all the settled portions of 
Piscataciuis and most of Penobscot counties. 

Much of the clav slate over this area is of a fissile and easily de- 
composing character, so that it is useless for economical purposes. In 
the northeastern portions it is often more properly a fine-grained sand- 
stone, associated with layers of clay slate, and rarely of limestone. In 
Piscataquis county there is much limestone connected with the slate. 
The most valuable portion of the slate, or the variety called roofing 
slate, is in Piscataciuis county, passing into the counties adjoining. 
The relations of the clay slate to the more thoroughly metamorphic 
rocks of the southwest and south sides, are yet unkno« n, e.fcept at 
two or three localities, which are of too little value to allow of general- 
ization. Occasionally a mass of granite has protruded through the 


We give a few details respecting the occurrence and position of the 
slate at various localities. The strata on the west side of Penobscot 
river below Bangor are inclined to the northwest, and aie underlaid at 
Frankfort by mica schist. The clay slate in southeast Bucksport and 
tlie west part of Orland foims an anticlinal axis, which is overiaid on 
both sides by hornblendic rocks— possibly metamorphosed clay slates. 

The following observations of the strike and dip of the clay slates in 
Penobscot county were taken by Mr. Houghton during the season of 
1862 : Brewer, strike north 50 degrees east, dip 27 degrees northwest. 
Orrington, north part 70 degrees east, dip from 50 to 70 degrees north- 
west. Further south, strike north 80 degrees east, dip 60 degrees 
northerly. Just north of the village of South Orrington, strike east and 
west, dip 75 degrees north. Argillo-micaceous slate from West 
Bangor to Carmel %vith the folloNving positions :— In Bangor, near J. 
Eastman's, strike north 55 degrees east, dip 30 degrees northwest; in 
Hermon. at Craig's house, dip 60 degrees northwest; west of do., 
strike north 63 degrees east, dip 60 degrees northwest ; at Hermon 
Centre, strike north 60 degrees east, dip 75 degrees north-west ; at 
East Carmel, strike north 73 degrees, dip 60 degrees northwest ; fur- 
ther west, strike north 45 degrees east, strata vertical; at Carmel 
Centre, strike north 70 degrees east, dip 75 degrees southeriy ; at North 
Etna, strike north 70 degrees east, dip 70 degrees northerly, and also 
strata vertical. The common clay slates have the following positions : 
in the northeast corner of Plymouth, strike north 45 degrees east, dip 
75 degrees southeast; in Northwest Plymouth, strike north 55 de- 
grees rast, dip from 70 to 83 degrees southeast; in South Plymouth, 
strike north 70 degrees west, dip 45 degrees southerly; in North Di.x- 
mont, strike north 50 degrees east, dip 75 degrees southeast, also 
north 55 degrees south; at the Newburg line, dip 70 degrees north- 
west, and strike north 70 degrees east, dip 78 degrees northwest. In 
Hampden Centre the dip is 35 degrees northwest. Thus it is seen 
that the northwest dip is the most common for the slates near Bangor; 
but it is not the only one. The presence of axes will enable us to 
reduce greatly the supposed thickness of the slates. 

This point is illustrated by examining the observations in a line cross- 
ing the clay slate from Patten to Bucksport. From Patten to a point 
three miles' north of Molunkus village the dip is northwcsteriy. Thence 
to the Five Island Hotel in \\'inn the dip is southeasterly. From this 
point to three-fourths of a mile below the village of Passadumkeag the 
dip is northwesterly again. Thence to the south part of Milford the 
dip is southeasterly. The strata for the distance to Bucksport pro- 
bably dip northwcsteriy. But they dip southcasteriy as they disap- 
pear in Oriand. On this section there are then five axes— three 
anticlinals and two synclinals. 

Some of the slates about Bangor are so thickly glazed with plumbago 
as to have been mistaken for coal. They are largely talcose. and are 
occasionally traversed by dikes. The following is the general structure 
of the formation between Bangor and Barnard: At Bangor the dip is 
the northwest. This changes soon to southeast, which continues to 
Charieston. There it changes again and dips northwest. This dip is 
not continued long, for the rocks soon dip southcasteriy, and do not 

change again till we arrive at a point two and a quarter miles north of 
the south line of .Atkinson. Then the dip is to the northwest, which 
continues to Barnard. The character of the rock as far as .Atkinson is 
very much like that of the strata in Bangor. The layers are often ir- 
regular, and are traversed by veins of quartz. Beyond Atkinson the 
strata-planes are more regular and better adapted for (luarrying. The 
strata at the quarries are nearly perpendicular, and incline northerly. 
The character of the rocks at Brownville and in the vicinity of the Ka- 
tahdin Iron Works is essentially the same. 

Rev. M. R. Keep, of .Ashland, wrote as follows to the Geologist 
concerning some of the roofing slates of Northern Maine: 

"There seems to be in Aroostook county a distinct variety from the 
Brownsville slate and others in common use.. That which has the most 
rift and seems likely lo be worked some day for use and for market, is 
of a light blue color, and veiy soft, much like the Rutland freestone 
pencils, that are much preferred to the bUick pencils for their softness, 
and have come into use lately. My attention was first drawn to this 
fact in noticing some specimens in No. 9, R. 5, near what is called the 
'Hews Place,' on the Aroostook Road near Masardis. In that region 
considerable quantities are found scattered over the surface, and the 
main ledge is visible in several places, but has not been opened yet. 
So far as the stone is concerned, some of the best writing slates I ever 
saw have been made from that owned by Mr. Robert Ready and men 
in his family. I have one of them in my possession, which as a speci- 
men indicates the best (juality of stone for writing as \vell as roofing 
slates that I ever saw. The rift is most perfect, free and even, and the 
texture soft, so as to make good pencils for use on the same or other 
slate. This same kind of slate and neariy the same quality is found in 
No. 5, R. 5. also in Patten." 


Some notice of the extensive slate quarries near Brown- 
ville, Piscataquis county, a locality formerly in this county, 
seems proper in this history. 

The Bangor or Piscataquis Slate Company opened the 
first slate quarry at Brownville in 1843. I's annual pro- 
duct soon amounted to twelve thousand squares, which 
readily sold in Bangor for an aggregate sum of thirty to 
forty thousand dollars. Sixty men were employed, and 
about twenty-five thousand dollars a year were paid out 
in wages. 

The famous quarries of A. H. Merrill, Esq., mainly at 
Brownville, were opened for trial in 1846, Mr. Merrill 
then owning one fourth share. The tentative efforts 
made soon warranted the expenditure of larger sums and 
the production of an increased quantity. With the 
changes of the year Mr. Merrill finally became sole 
owner, and remains such to this day. The latest statis- 
tics from his works we have seen represent a force of 
eighty men as steadily employed, and a yearly i)rodu(:t 
of thirty thousand squares as being turned out, invoking 
an annual expenditure of seyenty-live thousand dollars. 
Fifteen hundred acres of land arc occupied in the vari- 
ous operations of Mr. Merrill. His quarries are two 
miles from Brownville village. Until the railroad is 
completed to a more convenient point, he sends his pro- 
duct by teams lo Milo Station, on the Bangor & Pisca- 
taquis railway. 


We quote from Professor Hitchcock as follows: 

A curious class of alluvial ridges are found in great abundance in 
Maine, and scarcely occur out of the State, which are known by the 
provincial name of "horsebacks. " They are found mostly in the un- 
settled districts, and have never been carefully explored by geologists. 
We are not ready to theorize upon their origin until more details of 
their structure and distribution are known. In general they may be 
described as narrow ridges of coarse gravel and sand, from thirty to 
forty feet high, situ.tted in a level conntry, with sometimes an undulat- 



ing summit, and the two ends are of nearly tlie same elevation above 
the ocean. With this general statement, we proceed to specify their 
localities so far as they are known to lis. 

The horsebacks are not common in the western counties. 
In Charleston there is a horseback running north 15 degrees west, cor- 
responding with the course of the drift stride in the neighborhood, 
which is four miles long. On each side of the ridge are peaty swamps 
of great e.\tent. A branch strikes off from this ridge in a curvilinear 

Mr. Houghton gives tlie following account of a horseback in the 
south part of Plymouth: "The horseback that runs through Plymouth 
pond, over which the road passes, is interrupted just south of the pond 
by several gravelly knolls, presenting an interesting field for investiga- 
tion. One has an abrupt hollow in the top of it, extending, I should 
think, to near the level of the pond, in the bottom of which is a clayey 
puddle. To the south of tliese the horseback is continued with greater 
height and steeper sides, and is said to e.ttend uninterruptedly to near 
the centre of Troy. It is interrupted in the north part of Plymouth 
pond, and its place as a road is supplied by a floating bridge. It is 
hardly discernible to the north again till we arrive on the north side of 
Plymouth hill, which has cut acioss it. From this hill it e.Ntends to 
Newport pond. Its general direction is north and south. It runs a 
few degrees west of north in Plymouth pond. Its total length, so far 
as examined, is ten miles. In North Dixmont there is a large meadow 
on the west side, and a mill stream on the east side of the ridge. Upon 
the east side of the ridge there is an unfailing mineral spring eight feet 
above the mill stream. It appeared to me that this spring could not 
have come from the meadow upon the west side of the ridge, because 
it is higher up. What, then, is its origin?" 

The writer was informed of a very long horseback on the west side 
of Penobscot river, commencing at Orono, and extending through 
Oldtow, n.^lton, Argyle, Edinburg, Howland, Maxfield, and two N6. 
3 townships to the West branch of the Penobscot. This would make 
the horseback fifty miles long. Part of its course would lie along Se- 
boois stream. 

One of the scientific reporters says: 

We rode over a large horseback in Enfield for an eighth (jt a mile, 
and the ridge extended further. A smaller one runs from Lincoln into 
Enfield. Rev. Mr. Keep informs us that there is a horseback extend- 
ing from the Indian township at Mattawamkeag Point to Bradley, on 
the other side of the Penobscot; another in Nos. 2 and 4 of Penob- 
scot county west of Sisladobsis Lake, .nnd a third in Levant and 

The stage road passes over an interesting horseback between Ken- 
duskeag and Corinth. The road first strikes in the west part of the 
village of Kenduskeag, and continues upon it for three miles to a cem- 
etery in South Corinth, It appears to extend somewhat further in both 
directions. Its general direction is northwesterly; but there are changes 
and curves in it, whose precise nature may be ascertained by noticing 
upon the map of Penobscot county the course of the stage road. This 
ridge is wide and not so high in proportion to its width as is most com- 
mon. It is of the whaleback type, like the example in Aurora, Hancock 
county. Its altitude is estimated at from twenty to fifty feet, and its 
width from six to fifteen rods. It starts from the lee side of a large but 
low hill, and the northwest end is higher than the soutffeastern. A cut 
through it reveals a section of gravel j^recisely like the ideal sketch of a 


The marbles lo be found in Maine occur chiefly upon the belt of Hel- 
derberg limestone running from Matagamon (East Branch Penobscot) 
river northeasterly. Other localities of good limestones were visited 
during the geological survey. That at Carroll, says Professor Hitch- 
cock, surpassed anticipation; and similar beds can be fonnd in the 
vicinity and in adjoining towns. Here lime was manufactured exten- 
sively, three to five hundred barrels being then produced annually upon 
the farm of Mr. Gates. The State Geologist also found on the east 
branch of the Penobscot boulders of a very fine statuary marble, speci- 
mens of which may be seen at the State House. It is, he said, one of 
the most promising specimens of marble we have seen anywhere in the 
State. Without doubt these boulders were derived from a strip of 
Lower Helderberg limestone, running through the whole of the north- 
ern part of the State, and very possibly in two or three different belts. 
It may belong to the same belt with that discovered by Dr. Jackson in 
No. 7, R. 7. 

Beds of azoic limestone occur in Dexter, Hampden, Oldtown, Carroll, 
and in boulders uiion the Penobscot river. in Dexter and Car- 

roll are of great value. In Dexter the beds are numerous. One upon 
Mr. Crowell's land is blue, very extensive, with only 10 per cent, of im- 
purities. It runs nearly east and west, and dips 80 degrees southerly. 
Mr. Fish's limestone is similar to the preceding, but contains veins of 
calcite; 89.1 per cent, of it is carbonate of lime. Another blue com- 
pact of limestone, containing 78. i per cent, of carbonate of lime, is 
found upon L. PuUen's farm. That on John Puffers farm contains 84 
per cent, of carbonate of lime. A few calciferous slates are interstrati- 
fied with these beds, but the prevailing rock is clay slate. The explorers 
found boulders of a beautiful azoic marble on the Penobscot river, be- 
tween Winn and No. 3. Their source cannot be far distant. 

Th;re are seven patches of the Lower Helderberg group, "mostly lime- 
stone;, in the north part of the State. One is at the base of Squaw 
Mountain at the southwest end of Moosehead Lake, adjacent to mica 
schist, and not unlikely of the same age. It is a calciferous slate, 
nearly vertical, containing the Favosites Gothlandica. The character 
of Squaw Mountain is not known. Another locality of the Lower 
Helderberg is on an island at the lower end of Ripogenus Lake. The 
rock consists of beds of gray limestone m slats, and appears both at 
the lower end of the island and on the opposite shores. The limestone 
contains the same coral as before. .Some of the rock is brecciated. 
This locality is adjacent to novaculite slate and to granite. The report 
did not say whether these two localities are isolated parts of one belt, 
l)ut presumed that careful exploration would connect them together, as 
well as trace the rock a great distance northeasterly beyond the Pe- 

The other localities exhibit a limestone as the characteristic rock of 
the group. Probably some of the slates and sandstones adjacent are 
of the same age. One locality was discovered by Dr. Holmes, at 
Horse Shoe pond, in No. 5, R. 8. It contains the characteristic coral 
in abundance, and there is a great cave in the limestone. Another 
limestone, probably of this age, is in No. 7, R. 7, near the mouth of 
the Seboois river. It is 90 feet thick, and has been partially altered 
by a trap dike. It may produce a marble when the demands of the 
county shall require its use. This bed probably extends down the 
East Branch of the Penobscot river, as boulders of the rock were found 
as far down as Winn, which did not appear to have been transj^orted 
very far. 


A table of localities where lime is made, with the 
percentage of quicklime in the stone quarried there, was 
prepared for the geological report. The finest limestone, 
it was stated, can afford but little inore than fifty per 
cent of lime. From this statement the relative values of 
the different beds of stone may be easily ascertained. 
Dexter is the only Penobscot county town named in this 
table. I'Vum the stone at E. Crowell's quarry, 50.6 per 
cent of quicklime was manufactured; from the Fish 
quarry, 50.1 per cent; from John Puffer's, 47.2. Hamp- 
den is enumerated among many places where a lime of 
poorer quality, but still suitable for agricultural purposes, 
may be obtained. 

Observations had also been made of a belt of very 
excellent lime-making limestone at the following points: 
On Moosehead lake, at Ripogenus Falls on the West 
branch of the Penobscot, in boulders on the East branch 
of the Penobscot all the way from Winn to the Grand 
Falls, on Horseshoe pond in No. 5, R. S, in No. 4, R. 7, 
in No. 6, R. 7, in No. 7, R. 7, in No. 7, R. 6, in Ash- 
land, in No. 13, R. 5, in No. 13, R. 7, and on the west 
side of Square Lake. 


We quote: 

On the Aroostook ri\er, trap appears near Ashland and at the falls, 
where it joins the St. John River. Another mass of trap appears 
between the Pond Pitch and the Upper Falls on the East branch of the 
Penobscot. It appears to correspond in its general character and posi- 
tion with the trap in Perry, which underlies the Devonian sandstone, 
for the rock at the Upper Falls, overlying the bedded trap, is a coarse 
conglomerate of the same age as that m Perry. 



Boulders of a fine amygdaloidal trap are common all along the East 
liranch, the Seboois, and the Upper Aroostook rivers. East of Mount 
Katahdin, upon the East branch of the Penobscot, and upon the Sc- 
boois-river, there are immense masses of trap, forming mountains and 
perhaps ranges. Lunksoos mountain, on the Penobscot, and Peaked 
mountain, on the Seboois, are examples. 

Trap dikes were noticed in the following localities: In Hanipilen. 
on the west side of Penobscot river, and in Hancock and Ellsworlli. 

Most of the granite in Maine is found in its western and southeastern 
counties, yet is by no means wanting in the more northern portions. 
The region of Mt. Katahdin shows an immense development of it, 
from the unexplored region cast of Mooseliead Lake to the East 
branch of the Penobscot. The Katahdin mountains, rising suddenly 
out of a rolling country to a great height, illustrate the topographical 
mode of the development of this rock very finely. 

There appears to be a range of granite and syenite from Island Falls, 
N'o. 4, R. 4. on the Mattawanikeag river, to Linneus and New Limer- 
ick. Boulders of granite are exceedingly numerous at the north end 
of Churchill Lake, and the ledges cannot be far distant. The general 
absence of granitic boulders in Northern Maine shows, as well as the 
nature of the rocks in place, the great difference in the geological and 
agricultural character of the two districts. The absence of granite is 
generally partial evidence in favor of a good soil, which evidence is 
strengthened by other considerations in the case. 

We venture to assert that there is not a mountain in Maine, frag- 
ments of which will not be found scattered over the country to the 
south or southeast. The granite of the Katahdin region is scattered 
over the soutliern part of Penobscot county, and the rocks of Mt. 
.Abraham and Mt. Blue may be recognized among the boulders of 
Kennebec county. 


From various parts of the later State Geological Re- 
ports, are selected remarks concerning Penobscot county, 
which have not been used hitherto in this chapter. 

Terraces are not very abundant in Maine, although they 
are sufficiently common to excite attention. They are 
often chosen for the sites of villages or of tasteful private 
dwellings. All the large streams of the State are lined 
by them more or less — as the Piscataquis, the Saco, Pre- 
sumpscot, .\ndroscoggin, Kennebec, Penobscot, St. John, 
and St. Francis rivers. They are well develojied in Ber- 
wick, Brunswick, Waterville, Lewiston, between Bangor 
and Lincoln on the Penobscot, and on the east branch of 
the same river between Medway and No. 4. 

There is doubtless a large amount of talcose schist in 
the immense clay slate formation in the central part of 
the State. Over much of this area the two rocks are in- 
terstratified, the latter predominating. The rock between 
Mattawanikeag Point and Lincoln, on the Penobscot 
river, is really more like the schist than the slate. There 
is talcose schist also in Charleston and Dixmont. 

The fossils from the loosely consolidated red sand- 
stones of the Washington county group are scattered 
along the east branch of the Penobscot river. But we 
do not find them in |)lace until we arrive at the Grand 
Falls in No. 5, R. 8. 

.'^rgyle is named as one of several points where occur 
extensive deposits of bog-ore, often of sufficient extent 
for the manufacture of iron. 

In Dixmont are found sulphated chalybeate springs, 
containing carbonate acid in solution. 


Some of the most vivid sketches of scenery and civili- 
zation along the Penobscot and its branches are com- 
prised in the narratives of tlie tourists. They arc often 


men of culture, who see things with the eye of the artist 
or scientist; and their relations are replete with pictur- 
est|ue character and information. One of the best of 
these is one of the most recent — Mr. Thomas SedgwMck 
Steele, writer, artist, and active business man, of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, whose little book on Canoe and 
Camera: A 200-mile Tour through the Maine Forests, is 
one of the most entertaining sketches of travel in the 
language. He entered the wilderness by way of Moose- 
head lake and the west branch of the Penobscot, passing 
across Chesuncook and Chamberlin lakes to the chain of 
small lakes and rivers that brought him to the borders of 
Penobscot county at Lake Matagamon. Between this 
and the Matagamonsis water, upon a site just west of the 
Penobscot line, Mr. Steele claims the discovery of a small 
lake, about two miles in extent, not yet upon any other 
map thin his, and which fitly, from him, takes the name 
of Steele lake. The tourist makes pleasant notice of the 
fine farm on the Trout Brook stream, owned by Mr. E. 
S. Coe, of Bangor, who has extensive luinber interests in 
this region. His narrative thenceforth lies altogether in 
Penobscot county. We make enough extracts from it to 
convey a good idea of the character of the East Branch 
of Penobscot and the adjacent scenery : 

.After dinner at the house, our party bade our new-found friends adieu 
and paddled down the Thoroughfare into Grand or Matagamon lake, 
which is about one-third longer than Lake Matagamonsis, and went 
into camp at its foot, on the right bank, near another old dam. 

The eastern shore of this lake (the largest body of water on our 
course smce leaving Chamberlin lake) is not especially attractive to the 
artist, being low and covered with meadow grass. But the western is 
decidedly picturesque, being bold and rocky, which, climbing from ele- 
vation to elevation, finally culmmates in the precipitous and rugged 
peak of Matagamon moutain, towering above one's head to the height 
of 600 feet, and is almost divested of foliage. We halted but one night 
on this lake, but were well rewarded by the number and size of the fine 
trout captured, adding also to our creel a small salmon. 
From Grand lake to the junction of the East with the West branch of the 
Penobscot it is 60 to 75 miles, the river being shut in on all sides by 
lofty mountains, or heavy belts of grand old forests, through which the 
swift river tumbles, with only an occasional suggestion of the lumber- 
man's axe. 

There are eleven conspicuous falls in this interval, varying from 20 to 
00 feet in height, while the charming cascades are too numerous to 
mention. The abrupt descents bear the names of Stair, Haskell Rock, 
Grand, Pond Pitch, Hulling Machine, Rowling, Spring Brook Gravel 
Bed, Whetstone, Grindstone, Crowfoot, and Ledge Falls, their names, 
ill many cases, suggesting their wild and rugged formation. 

The water swept so swiftly through this section that, with the excep- 
tion of the last 20 miles, it was hardly necessary to use our paddles, but, 
keeping an eye to the rocks in our path, we could silently enjoy the 
many lovely changes constantly opening in the landscape. 

But this also was decidedly the hardest part of the entire excursion. 
.'\t most of these falls, our whole camp equipage, provisions, and canoes 
had to be "packed" around the falls from one to two miles, and in 
manv cases there was hard climbing along the steep, rocky sides of the 
mountains which followed the river's course, while each one of us car- 
ried his portion of the load. , . Along the river's bank 
to the west, for many miles, are the lovely Traveller mountains, whose 
rambling appearance and daily companionship are fully represented by 
their name. 

Stair Falls the Quartermaster and my.self ran in our canvas canoes, 
but the guides, tending their birches as if they were glass, dropped them 
from step to step by means of ropes. . . . After passing 

Spring Brook Gravel Bed F.alls, we paddled through a mile or two of 
luavy "rips " and entered some two miles of " dead water." 

On turning a beautiful bend in the river, what was our surprise to ob- 
serve the rugged growth of pines gradually disappear, and the landscape 
immediately softened by the introduction of a forest of maple, 
elm, ash. and noble oak trees, whose gnarled trunks puslieil themselves 



far into the stream, the branches overlocking above our heads and 
forming a canopy that darkened the water. 

Exclamations of surprise rang from our lips as all the canoes, in 
"Indian file," drifted through the enchanting bower, and we thought to 
ourselves, if in the quiet dress of summer this is so lovely, what must it 
be when clothed in autumnal foliage ? 


One of the most remarkable tourists who ever inade 
an excursion up or down the Penobscot valley was 
Henry I). Thoreau, the self-taught naturalist and hermit- 
philosopher of Concord, and author of several books — 
Excursions, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack 
Rivers, Walden, and The Maine \Voods — which are re- 
markable for their descriptive power, and the minuteness 
and clearness of observation they display. Thoreau was 
here in 1846, on his way to the ascent of Mt. Katahdin. 
He left Bangor in a buggy September ist, with one 
companion, for Malta wamkeag Point. His narrative 
proceeds : 

Within a dozen miles of Bangor we passed throngh the villages of 
Stillwater and Oldtown, built at the falls of the Penobscot, which fur- 
nish the principal power by which the Maine woods are converted into 
lumber. The mills are built directly over and across the river. Here 
is a close jam, a hard rub, at all seasons; and there the once-green tree, 
long since white, I need not say as the driven snow, but as a driven 
log, becomes lumber merely. Here your inch, your two- and your 
three-inch stuff begins to be, and Mr. .Sawyer marks off those spaces 
steel which decide the destiny of so many prostrate forests. Through this 
riddle, more or less coarse, is the arrowy Maine forest, from Ktaadn 
and Chesuncork, and the headwaters of the St. John, relentlessly sifted, 
till it comes out boards, clapboards, laths, and shingles such as the 
wind can take, still perchance to be slit and slit again, till men get a 
size that will suit. Think how stood the white-pine tree on the shore 
of Chesuncook, its branches soughing with the four winds, and every 
individual needle trembling in the sunlight; tliink hew it stands with it 
now, — sold, percliance, to the New England Friction-Match Co. ! There 
were in 1837, as I read, 250 saw-mills on the Penobscot and its tribu- 
tories above Bangor, the greater part of them in this immediate 
neighborhood, and they sawed 200,000,000 of feet of boards annually. 
To this is to be added the lumber of the Kennebeck, .'\ndroscoggin, 
Saco, Passamaquoddy, and other streams. No wonder that we hear 
so often of vessels which are becalmed off our coast, being surrounded 
a week at a time by floating lumber from the Maine woods. The mis- 
sion of men there seems to be, like so many busy demons, to drive the 
forest all out of the country, from every solitary lieaver-swamp and 
mountain side, as soon as possible. 

At Oldtown we walked into a batteau-manufactory. The making 
of batteaux is quite a business here for the supply of the Penobscot 
River. We e.\arrined some on the stocks. Tliey are light and shapely 
vessels, calculated for rapid and rocky streams, and to be carried over 
long portages on men's shouldeis; from twenty to thiity feet long, and 
only four or four and a half feet wide, sharp at both ends like a canoe, 
though broadest forward on the bottom. .... There 
was something refreshing and wildly musical in my ears in the very 
name of the white man's canoe, reminding me of Charlevoi.\ and Cana- 
dian voyagers. The batteau is a sort of mongrel between the canoe 
and the boat, a fur-trader's boat. 

The ferry here took us past the Indian island. As we left the shore 
I observed a short, shabby, washerwoman-looking Indian — they com- 
monly have the woe-begone look of the girl that cried for spilt milk 

just from "up river," land on the Oldtown side near a grocery, and, 
drawing up his canoe, take out a bundle of skins in one hand and an 
empty keg or half-barrel in the other, and scramble up the bank with 
them. This picture will do to put before the Indian's history — that is, 
the history of his extinction. In 1837 there were 362 souls left of this 
tribe. The island seemed deserted to-day, yet I observed some new 
houses among the weather-stained ones, as if the tribe had still a design 
upon life; but generally they have a very shabby, forlorn, and cheerless 
look, being all backside and woodshed, not homesteads, even Indian 
homesteads; but, instead of home or abroad-steads, for their life is 
domi aut militia:, at home or at war, or now rather venatus — that is, 
a hunting, and most of the latter. Tha church Is the only trim-looking 
bnilding; but that is not Abenaki, that was Rome's doings. Good 

Canadian it may be, but it is poor Indian. These were once a power- 
ful tribe. Politics are all the rage with them now. I even thought that 
a row of wigwams, with a dance of poww'ows and a prisoner tortured 
at the stake, would be more respectable than this. 

We landed in Milford, and coasted along on the east side of the 
Penobscot, having a more or less constant view of the river and the 
islands in it; for they retain all the islands as far up as Nicatou, at the 
mouth of the East Branch. They are generally well-timbered, and are 
said to be better soil than the neighboring shores. The river seemed 
shallow and rocky, and interrupted by rapids, rippling and gleaming in 
the sun. 

It was the Houlton road on which we were now travelling, over which 
some troops were marched once toward Mars' Hill, though not to 
Mars' field, as it proved. It is the main, almost the only road in these 
parts, as straight and well-made, and kept in as good repair, as almost 
any you will find anywhere. Everywhere we saw signs of the great 
freshet, — this house standing awry, and that where it was not founded, 
but where it was found, at any rate, the next day; and that other with 
a water-logged look, as if it were still airing and drying its basement, 
and logs with everybody's n;arks upon them, and sometimes the marks 
of their having served as bridges, strewn along the road. We crossed 
the Sunkhaze, a summery Indian name, the Olemon, Passadumkeag, 
and other streams, which make a greater show on the map than they 
now did on the road. 

At sundown, leaving the river-road awhile for shortness, we went by 
way of Enfield, where we stopped for the night. This, like most of 
the localities bearing names on this road, was a place to name, which, 
in the midst of the unnamed and incorporated wildness, was to make 
a distinction without a difference, it seemed to me. Here, however, 
I noticed quite an orchard of healthy and well-grown apple-trees, in a 
bearing state, it being the oldest settler's house in this region; but all 
natural fruit, and comparatively worthless for want of a grafter — and 
so it is generally lower down the river. It would be a good specula- 
tion, as well as a favor conferred on the settlers, for a Massachusetts 
boy to go down there with a trunk-full of choice-scions, and his graft- 
ing apparatus, in the spring. 

The next morning we drove along through a high and hilly country, 
in view of Coldstream Pond, a beautiful lake four or five miles long, 
and came into the Houlton road again, here called the military road, 
at Lincoln, 45 miles fi-om Bangor, where there is quite a village for this 
country — the principal one above Oldtown. Learning that there were 
several wigwams here, on one of the Indian islands, we left our horse 
and wagon, and walked through the forest half a mile to the river, to 
procure a guide to the mountain. It w-as not till after considerable 
search that we discovered their habitations — small huts, in a retired 
place, where the scenery was unusually soft and beautiful, and the 
shore skirted with pleasant meadows and graceful elms. 

There were very few houses along the road, yet they did not alto- 
gether fail, as if the law by which men are disjsersed over the globe 
were a very stringent one, and not to be resisted with impunity or for 
slight reasons. There were even the germs of one or two villages just 
beginning to expand. The beauty of the road itself was remarkable. 
The various evergreens, many of which are rare with us — delicate and 
beautiful specimens of the larch, arbor-vita;, ball-spruce and fir-balsam,' 
from a few inches to many feet in height — lined its sides, in some 
places like a long front yard, springing up from the smooth grass-plats 
which uninterruptedly border it, and are made fertile by its wash; 
while it was but a step on either hand to the grim, untrodden wilder- 
ness, whose tangled labyrinth of living, fallen , and decaying trees only 
the deer and moose, the bear and wolf, can easily penetrate. More 
perfect specimens than any front-yard plot can show, grow there to 
grace the passage of the Houlton teams. 

About noon we reached the Mattawamkeag, 56 miles from Bangor by 
the way we had come, and put up at a fret[uented house still on the 
Houlton road, where the Houlton stage stops. Here was a substantial 
covered bridge over the Mattawamkeag, built, I think they said, some 
17 years before. We had dinner — where, by the way, and even at 
breakfast, as well as supper, at the public houses on this road, the 
front rank is composed of various kinds of "sweet-cakes," in a contin- 
uous line from one end of the table to the other. I think I may safely 
say that there was a row of 10 or 12 plates of this kind set before us 
two here. To account for which, they say that, when the lumberers 
come out of the woods, they have a craving for cakes and pies and 
such sweet things, which there are almost unknosvn, and this is the 
supply to satisfy that demand. The supply is always equal to the de- 
mand, and these hungry men think a good deal of getting their mon- 
ey's worth. No doubt the balance of victuals is restored by the time 



Ihey reacli Bangor— Mattawamkeag takes off the raw edge. Well, 
over this front rank. I say, you, coming from the "sweet-cake" side, 
with a cheap, philosophic indifl'erenee though it may be, have to as- 
sault What there is behind, which I do not by any means mean to 
insinuate is insufficient in quantity or quality to supply that other de- 
mand, of men, not from the woods, hut from the towns, for venison 
and strong country fare. After dinner we strolled down to the Point, 
formed by the junction of the two rivers, which is said to be the scene 
of an ancient battle between the Eastern Indians and the Mohawks, 
and searched there carefully for relics, though the men at the bar-room 
had never heard of such things: but we found only some flakes of 
arrow-hrad stone, some points of arrow-heads, one small leaden bul- 
let, and some colored beads, the last to be referred, perhaps, to early 
fur-trader days. The Mattawamkeag, though wide, was a mere rivers 
bed, full of rocks and shallows at this time, so that you could cross it 
almost dry-shod in boots; and I could hardly believe my companion, 
when he told me that he had been fifty or sixty miles up it in a bat- 
teau, through distant and still uncut forests. A batteau conld hardly 
find a harbor now at its mouth. Deer and caribou, or reindeer, are 
taken here in the winter, in sight of the house. 

Early the ne.\t morning we had mounted our packs, and prepared 
for a tramp up the West Branch, my companion having turned his 
liorse out to pasture for a week or ten days, thinking that a bite of 
fresh grass and a taste of running water would do him as much good 
as backwoods fare and new country influences would his master. Leap- 
ing over a fence, we began to follow an obscure trail up the north bank 
of the Penobscot. There was now no road further, the rivet being the 
only highway, and but half a dozen log-huts, confined to its banks, to 
be met with for 30 miles. On either hand, and beyond, was a wholly 
uninh.abited wilderness, stretching lo Canada. Neither horse nor cow, 
nor vehicle of any kind, had ever passed over this giound; the cattle 
and the few bulky articles which the loggers use being got up in the 
winter on the ice, and down again before it breaks up. The evergreen 
woods had a decidedly sweet and bracing fragrance; the air was a sort 
of diei-drink; and we walked on buoyantly in Indian file, stretching 
our legs. Occasionally there was a small opening on the bank, made 
for the purpose of log-rolling, where we got a sight of the river — always 
a rocky and rippling stream. The roar of the rapids, the note of a 
whistler-duck on the river, of the jay and chickadee .around us. and 
of the pigeon-woodpecker in the openings, were the sounds that we 
heard. This was what you might call a brand-new country; the only 
roads were of Nature's making, and the few houses were camps. 
Here, then, one could no longer accuse institutions and society, but 
must front the true source of evil. 

There are three classes of inhabitants who eithei frequent or inhabit 
the country which we had now entered — first, the loggers, who. for a 
part of the year, the winter and spring, are far the most numerous, 
but in the summer explorers for timber completely desert it; second, 
the few settlers I have named, the only permanent inhabitants, who 
live on the verge of it and help raise supplies for the former; third, 
the hunters, mostly Indians, who range over it in their season. 

.■\t the end of three miles we came to the Mattaseunk stream and mill, 
where there was even a rude wooden railroad running down to the Pe- 
nobscot, the last railroad we were to see. We crossed one tract on the 
bank of the river, of more than a hundred acres of heavy timber, which 
had just been felled and burnt over, and was still smoking. Our trail 
lay through the midst of it, and was well-nigh blotted out. The trees 
lay at full length, four or five feet deep, and crossing each other in all 
directions, all black .as charcoal, but perfectly sound w ithin , still good for 
fuel or for timber; soon they would be cut into lengths and burnt again. 
Here were thousands of cords, enough to keep the poor of Boston and 
New York amply warm for a winter, which only cumbered the ground 
and were in the settler's way. And the whole of that solid and inter- 
minable forest is doomed to be gradually devoured thus by fire, like 
shavings, and no man be warmed by it. . . . 

I walked through Salmon River with my shoes on, it being low water, 
but not without wetting my feel. A few miles farther we came to 
"Marm Howard's," at the end of an extensive clearing, where there 
were two or three log huts in sight at once, one on the opposite side of 
the river, and a few graves, even surrounded by a wooden paling, 
where already the rude forefathers of a hamlet lie, and a thousand 
years hence, perchance, some poet will write his " Elegy in a Country 


The next house was Fisk's, ten miles from the Point, at the East 
Branch opposite to the island Nickatou. or the Forks, the last of the In- 
dian islands. I am particular to give the names of the settlers and the 
distances, since every log hut in these woods is a public house, and such 

information is of no little consequence to those who may have occasion 
to travel this way. Our course here crossed the Penobscot, and fol- 
lowed the southern bank. One of the party, who entered the house in 
search of some one to set us over, reported a very neat dwelling, with 
plenty of books and a new wife, just imported from Boston, wholly 
new to the woods. We found the East Branch a large and rapid stream 
at its mouth, and much deeper than it appeared. Having with some 
difficulty found the trail again, we kept up the south side of the West 
Branch, or main river, passing by some rapids called Rock Ebeeme, 
the roar of which we heard through the woods, and, shortly after, in 
the thickest of the wood, some empty loggers' camps, still new , which 
were occupied the previous winter. . . While's farm, thirteen 
miles from the Point, is an extensive and elevated clearing, from which 
we got a fine view of the river, rippling and gleaming far beneath us. 
We reached Shad Pond, or Nolisumack, an expansion 
of the river. Hodge, the assistant State Geologist, who passed thro' 
this on the 25th of June, 1837, says: "We pushed our boat through 
an acre or more of buck-beans which had taken root at the bottom and 
bloomed above the surface in the greatest profusion and beauty." 

We took here a poor and leaky balteau, and began to pole up 
the Millinocket two miles to the Elder Fowler's, in order to avoid the 
Grand Falls of the Penobscot, intending to exchange our batteau there 
for a belter. The Millinocket is a small, shallow, and sandy stream, 
full of what I took to be lamprey-eels' or suckers' nests, . lined 
with musquash cabins, but free from rapids, excepting at its outlet 
from the lake. 

Old Fowler's, on the Millinocket, six miles from McCauslin's, and 24 
from the Point, is the last house. Gibson's, on the Sowadnehunk, is 
the only clearing above; but that had proved a failure, and was long 
since deserted. Fowler is the oldest inhabitant of these woods. He 
formerly lived a few miles from here, on the South side of the West 
Branch, where he built his house sixteen years ago, the first house built 
above the Five islands. Here our new batteau was to be carried over 
the first portage of two miles, round the Grand Falls of the Penobscot, 
on a horse-sled made of saplings, to jump the numerous rocks in the way. 
This portage probably followed the trail of an ancient Indi- 
an carry round these falls. By two o'clock we, who had walked on be- 
fore, reached the river above the falls, not far from the outlet of Quak- 

ish Lake, and waited for the batteau to come up 

We were soon in the smooth water of the Quakish Lake, and took our 
turns at rowing and paddling across it. It is a small, iiregular, but 
handsome lake, shut in on all sides by the forest, and showing no traces 
of man, but some low boom in a distant cove, reserved for spring use. 
The spruce and cedar on its shores, hung with gray lichens, looked at 
a distance like the ghosts of trees. Ducks were sailing here and there 
on its surface, and a solitary loon, like a mere living wave.— a vital 
spot on the lake's surface, —laughed and frolicked, and showed its 
straight leg, for oui amusement. Joe Merry Mountain appeared m the 
northwest, as if it were looking down on this lake especially: and we 
had our first but partial view of Ktaadn, its summit veiled in clouds, 
like a dark isthmus in that quarter, connecting the heavens with the 
earth. After tw o miles of smooth rowing across this lake, we found our- 
selves in the river again, which was a continuous rapid for one mile to 
the dam, requiring all the strength and skill of our boatman to pole it 

up. . ■ • 

This camp, exactly 29 miles from Mattawamkeag Point, by the way 
we had come, and about 100 from Bangor by the river, was the last hu- 
man habitation of any kind in this direction. Beyond, there was no 
trail; and the river and lakes, by batteaux and canoes, were considered 
the only practicable route. U'e were about 30 miles by the river from 
the summit of Kmadn, which was in sight, though not more than 20, 
perhaps, in a straight line. 

It being about the full of the moon, and a warm and pleasant even- 
ing, we decided to row five miles by moonlight lo the head of the North 
Twin Lake, lest the wind should rise on the morrow, .\fter oue mile of 
river, or what the boatmen call "thoroughfare,"— for the river becomes 
at length only the connecting link between the lakes,— and some slight 
rapid which had been mostly made smooth water by the dam, we en- 
tered the North Twin Lake just after sundown, and steered across for 
the river "thoroughfare, " four miles distant. This is a noble sheet of 
water, where one may get the impression which a new country and a 
"lake of the woods " are fitted to create 

■VVe could distinguish the outlet to the South Twin, which is said to 
be the larger, where the shore was misty and blue, and it was worth 
the while to look thus through a narrow opening across the entire ex- 
panse of a concealed lake to its own yet more dim and distant shore. 
The shores rose gen«Jy to ranges of low hills covered with forests; and 



though, in fact, the most valuable white-pine timber, even about this 
lake, had been culled out. this would never have been suspected by the 
voyager. The impression which, indeed, with the fact was, as if we 
were upon a high table-land between the States and Canada, the nor- 
thern side of which is drained by the St. John and Chaudiere, the 
southern by the Penobscot and Kennebec. There was no bold, moun- 
tainous shore, as we might have expected, but only isolated hills and 
mountains rising here and there from the plateau. The country is an 
aichipelago of lakes, — the lake country of New England. The levels 
vary but a few feet, and the boatmen, by short portages, or by none at 
all, pass easily from one to another. They say that at very high water 
the Penobscot and the Kennebec flow into each other, or, at any rate, 
that you may lie w ith your face in one and your toes in the other. Even 
the Penobscot and St. John have been connected by a canal, so that the 
lumber of the Allcgu,ash, instead of going down the St. John, comes 
down the Penobscot; and the Indian's tradition that the Penobscot 
once ran both ways for his con\'enience, is, in one sense, partially real- 
ized to-day. 


In August, 1 83 1, the yet more celebrated naturalist, 
John James Audubon, made a journey overland through 
Eastern Maine, with his wife and two sons, to inquire as 
to the birds of the wilderness. We are able, from his 
narrative, to determine pretty nearly how much of his 
journey lay in Penobscot county, and copy that portion 
of the diary from his Life, edited by his widow and 
published in 1873. The party was now on its return 
from New Brunswick: 

Hiring a cart, two horses, and a driver, we proceeded in the direction 
of Bangor. Houlton is a neat village, consisting of some fifty houses. 
The fort is well situ.ated, and commands a fine view of Mars' Hill, 
which is about 13 miles distant. A custom-house has been erected here, 
the place being on the boundary line of the United States and the British 
provinces. The road which was cnt by the soldiers of this garrison, 
from Bangor to Houlton, through the forests, is at this moment a fine 
turnpike of great breadth, almost straight in its whole length, and per- 
haps the best now in the Union. It was incomplete, however, for some 
miles, so that our travelling over that portion was slow and disagree- 
able. The rain, which fell in torrents, reduced the newly raised earth 
to a complete bed of mud; and at one time our horses became so com- 
pletely mired that, had we not been extricated by two oxen, we must 
have spent the night near the spot. Jogging along at a very slow 
pace, we were overtaken by a gay wagoner, who had excellent horses, 
two of which a little "siller" induced him to join to ours, and we were 
taken to a tavern at the "cross-roads," where we spent the night in 

While supper was preparing, I made inquiry respecting birds, quad- 
rupeds, and fishes, and was pleased to hear that all of these animals 
abounded in the neighborhood. Deer, bear, trouts, and grouse, were 
quite plentiful, as was the great gray owl. When we resumed our 
journey next morning Nature displayed all her loveliness, and autumn 
with her mellow tints, her glow ing fruits, and her rich fields of corn, 
smiled in placid beauty. Many of the fields had not yet been reaped; 
the fruits of the forests and orchards hung clustering around us; and, 
as we came in view of the Penobscot river, our hearts thrilled with 
jay. Its broad, transparent waters here spread out their unruftied sur- 
face, there danced along the rapids, while canoes filled with Indians 
swiftly glided in every direction, raising before them the timorous 
waterfowl that had already flocked in from the north mountains, which 
you well know are indispensable in a beautiful landscape, reared their 
majestic crests in the distance. The Canada jay leaped gayly from 
branch to twig; the king-fisher, as if vexed at being suddenly surprised, 
rattled loudly as it swiftly flew off ; and the fish-hawk and eagle spread 
their broad wings over the waters. All around was beautiful, and we 
gazed on the scene with delight as, seated on a verdant bank, we re- 
freshed our frames from our replenished stores. 

A few rare birds were procured here, and, the rest of the road being 
level and firm, we trotted on at a good pace for several hours, the Pe- 
nobscot keeping company with us. Now we came to a deep creek, of 
which the bridge was undergoing repairs, and the people saw our 
vehicle approach with much surprise. They, however, assisted us with 
pleasure, by placing a few logs across, along which our horses, one 
after the other, were carefully led, and the cart afterwards carried. 
These good fellows were so averse to our recompdising them for their 

labor that, after some altercation, we were obliged absolutely to force 
what we deemed a suitable reward upon them. 

Next day we continued our journey along the Penobscot, the coun- 
try changing its aspect at every mile ; and when we first discovered 
Oldtown, that village of saw-mills looked like an island covered with 
manufactories. The people are noted for their industry and persever- 
ance; any one possessing a mill, and attending to his saws and the 
floating of the timber into his dams, is sure to obtain a competency in 
a few years. 

Speculations in land covered with pine, lying to the north of this 
place, are carried on to a great extent; and to discover a good tract of 
such ground many a miller of Oldtown undertakes long journeys. 
Reader, with your leave, I will here introduce one of them. 

Good luck brought us into acquaintance with Mr. Gillies, whom we 
happened to meet in the course of our travels, as he was returning from 
an exploring tour. About the first of August he formed a party of 
sixteen persons, each carrying a knapsack and an axe. Their provis- 
ions consisted of 250 lbs. of pilot bread. 150 lbs. of salted pork, 4 lbs. 
of tea, two large loaves of sugar, and some salt. They embarked in 
light canoes, 12 miles north of Bangor, and followed the Penobscot as 
far as Wassataquoik river, a branch leading to the northwest, until 
they reached the Seboois Lakes, the principal of which lie in a line, 
with short portages between them. Still proceeding northwest, they 
navigated these lakes, and then turning west carried their canoes to 
the great lake, thence north, then along a small stream to the upper 
"Umsaskis Pond," when they reached the Alleguash river, which leads 
into the St. ]olin's, in about latitude 47^ 3'. Many portions of that 
country had not been visited before, even by the Indians, who assured 
Mr. Gillies of this fact. They continued their travels down the St. 
Johns to the Grand Falls, where they met with a portage of half a 
mile, and, having reached Meduxmekeag creek, a little above Wood- 
stock, the party walked to Houlton, having travelled 1,200 miles, and 
described almost an oval over the country by the time they returned to 
Oldtown on the Penobscot. 

While anxiously looking for "lumber lands," they ascended the emi- 
nences around, then climbed the tallest trees, and, by means of a great 
telescope, inspected the pine-woods in the distance. And, such excel- 
lent judges are these persons of the value of the timber which they 
thus observe, when it is situated at a convenient distance from water, 
that they never afterwards forgot the different spots at all worthy of 
their attention. They had observed only a few birds and quadrupeds, 
the latter principally porcupines. The borders of the lakes and rivers 
afforded them fruits of various sorts and abundance of cranberries, 
while the uplands yield plenty of wild white onions and a species of 
black plum. 

Some of the party continued their journey in canoes down the St. 
John's, ascended Eel river and the lake of the same name to Matta- 
wamkeag river, due southwest of the St. John's, and, after a few por- 
tages, fell into the Penobscot. I had made arrangements to accom- 
pany Mr. Gillies on a journey of this kind, when I judged it would be 
more interesting, as well as useful to me, to visit the distant country of 

The road which we followed from Oldtown to Bangor was literally 
covered with Penobscot Indians returning from market. On reaching 
the latter beautiful town, we found very comfortable lodgings in an ex- 
cellent hotel, and next day proceeded by the mail to Boston. 





The Eastern Tribes — The Race-slock — The Abenakis — The Etche- 
mins — The Tarralines — Early History of the Tarratines — Wars and 
Incidents — More of the Wars — The Three-years' War — An Interest- 
ing N'arrative — Gyless Captivity Among the Henobscots — A Modem 
Affair — The Tarratine Chiefs : The Bashaba — Later Tarratine Chiefs 
and Governors — Orono — John Atteon — The Penobscot "in Politics" 
— The Indian Lands and Treaties — The Indian Trust Fund — The 
Old Indian Villages — The Indian Census — The Penoljscot Reserva- 
tion — The Community of Sisters of Mercy. 


Tlie Indians of Maine have received comparatively 
little attention from the writers upon the aborigine.s, 
whose regards have been principally given to the red 
men of the Middle States, the South, and the Far West. 
Gookin, in his enumeration of the New England tribes, 
does not mention the Eastern Indians at all, but speaks 
only of five " nations," the Pequots, the Narragansetts, 
the Pawkunawkutts, the Massachusetts, and the Paw- 
tuckets, the last-named of whom "had under them sev- 
eral smaller sagamores, as the Pentacooks, the Agawams, 
the Naumkeeks, Piscataways, Accomentas, and others." 
It may be that the uncommonly peaceful and friendly 
disposition of the savages upon the Maine, making them 
less the subjects of history than their brethren of Massa- 
chusetts and New York, has contributed to keep them 
in the background of the aboriginal picture. Neverthe- 
less their ethnological place, their numbers and charac- 
teristics, and the wars in which they finally engaged, 
possess sufficient interest to demand place in this work. 


In the great divisions of the North American tribes, 
the Eastern Indians belonged to the Algonquins. The 
Lenni-Lenape- or "original people,"as their name implies 
— more commonly known as the Delawares, early ex- 
tended their hunting-grounds along the Susquehanna, 
the Potomac, Delaware, and Hudson. \Vhen an exodus 
was made by a portion of this great tribe across the Hud- 
son, it took from them the name Mahicannituck ; and 
this, shortened and corrupted in the English mouth, was 
transferred to them as the Mahicans or Mohicans, and 
in New England the Mohegans. Here they scattered 
themselves, as they increased, over all the present States 
east of the Hudson, and in time became divided into 
several leading tribes, with many subdivisions or tribal 
bands. Their affinity with the Indians further to the 
southward is conclusively proved by the reseinblance of 
language. So long ago as when Charlevoix wrote, this 
fact was observed. After mentioning the wide dissem- 
ination of the Algonquin speech (over a circuit of one 
thousand two hundred leagues), he says: "It is pretended 
that the natives of New England spoke dialects of the 
same language." This is confirmed by the statement of 
Heckewelder, a later and better authority upon Indian 
topics. He affirms that when the Europeans came, the 
Mohegans held the entire Atlantic coast, from Roanoke 
to the northernmost parts of Nova Scotia, and that their 
language and the tongue of the Algonquins were but 
but dialects of the same original speech. La Hontan, a 

writer of the time of Charlevoix, making his remarks 
more specific to the Indians of Eastern Maine, says that 
the dialect of the Etchemins differed but little from that 
spoken by the Algonquins. The friendship between the 
Algonquins, so called, and the Eastern Indians, was so 
warm and cordial as to imply at least the tradition of 
relationship. Champlain makes record of a great feast 
prepared by the former in 1603, to which the "Moun- 
taineers" and the Etchemins were invited. Charlevoix 
also says in effect that many of the Algonquins joined 
their brethren of Maine, when the latter were induced 
by the French to emigrate to St. Francois and Becan- 
cour, in Canada. Dr. Dwight says in his Travels: 

The Indians of Penobscot, as I have been since informed by the Hon. 
Timothy Edwards, were proved to be Mohekaneews by the following 
incident ; Several men of this tribe, during the Revolutionary war, came 
to Boston to solicit of the Government a stipend, which had been 
formerly granted to the tribe by the Legislature of Massachusetts Bay. 
The business was referred by the council of safety to Mr. Edwards, 
then a member of their body, as being versed in the affairs and ac- 
quainted with the character of Indians. Mr. Edwards employed Hen- 
drick Awpaumut, a Stockbridge Indian accidentally in Boston at that 
time, to confer with the petitioners and learn the nature of their expecta- 
tions. Hendrick found himself able to converse with them, so far as 
to understand their wishes satisfactorily ; and observed to Mr. Edwards 
that their language was radically Mohekancew, and differed only as a 
dialect. This fact I have from Mr. Edwards. 1 have mentioned it 
here, because the contrary seems to have been universally adopted. 

It may be added here that the plural tbrm of the word 
Muhhekaneew, according to Dr. Edwards, is Muhhcka- 
neok, whence Mohican and Mohegan. Besides the 
generic application of the term, it is also a specific name 
for a tribe that dwell in the present Windham county, 
Connecticut, and thence north to the State line. It was 
a powerful organization, putting in the field three thou- 
sand warriois, and having at one time the celebrated 
Uncas for chief 


A general name lias been given by many writers — the 
older, as well as later — to all the Indians east of the 
Piscataqua, to the country of the Mickmacks, in Nova 
Scotia. They were called the Wapanchkie (men of the 
east), or Wabenakies (east-land men), which became in 
the French Abenaques, and in the English more com- 
monly Abenakis or Abnakis. McKenney & Halls great 
History of the Indian Tribes of North America says that 
the New England Tribes were formerly known by their 
red brethren west of the Hudson under the generic ap- 
pellation of Wabenauki, or Men of the East. Their 
languages were branches of the Algonquin stock, cog- 
nate dialects, bearing a distinct resemblance one to the 
other. All these tribes had undoubtedly a common In- 
dian origin, and it is equally certain that their separation 
into distinct communities occurred no very long time 
before they were visited by the English voyagers and 
colonists. Hutchinson, in his History of Massachusetts, 
gives .\benaques and Tarrantines as equivalent terms; in 
which he is certainly mistaken. The .\benakis are un- 
doubtedly closely allied in blood to the Tarratines, or 
Penobscot Indians ; but are well known to have been a 
separate tribe, with a separate habitat. The statement of 
Charlevoix is in the later statement as well — that the 
"Abenaques live in a country from Pentagoet [Pen- 



obscot] to New England." They inhabited the vast 
forests that covered the tract west of the Penobscot, even 
into New Hampshire, and north to Canada, in some 
part of which the reminant of them now dwell. They 
were a numerous people, until at least the period of the 
first Indian war, and were mainly in four tribes — the 
Sokokis or Sockhigones, the Indians of the Saco; the 
Anasagunticooks, or Abenakis of the Androsscoggin and 
the west of the Sagadahoc; the Canibas or Norridge- 
wocks of the Kennebec — "great numbers of them," says 
Hubbard, "when the river was first discovered;" and 
the Wawenocks, between the St. George and Sagadahoc 
waters. To these many writers now add the Tarratines 
or Penobscots, the immediate subjects of the Bashaba, 
or chief sagamore. The permanent villages of the Abena- 
kis were five in number — two in Canada, and one each on 
the Saco, the Androscoggin, and the Kennebec. The 
French missionaries described these centres of population 
as enclosed with strong, high palisades, surrounding clus- 
ters of wigwams built of bark supported by bent poles. 
The natives' dress was "ornamented with a great variety of 
rings, necklaces, bracelets, belts, etc., made out of shells 
and stones, worked with great skill. They praacticed 
also agriculture. Their fields of skamgnar [corn] were 
very luxuriant. As soon as the snows had disappeared, 
they prepared the land with great care, and at the com- 
mencement of June they planted the corn, by making 
holes with fingers or with a stick, and, having dropped 
eight or nine grains of corn, they covered them with 
earth. "Their harvest was at the end of August." Their 
chief characteristics were bravery, preserverance and te- 
nacity of purpose, amiability and sociability, indisposed 
to war, but suspicious, and uncompromising in their 
hostility and pursuit of the war-path when once aroused, 
fidelity to their engagements, and hospitality. "Their 
attachment to their family, " says an historian of the East- 
ern Indians, " was such as we do not read of in other 
tribes of the Algic people." The French missionaries, 
traders, and military commanders had great influence 
over these Indians, and did much to provoke savage 
aggressions upon the English settlement. They showed, 
says Bryant & Gay's Popular History of the United 
States, "the tact and adaptibility which distinguish that 

This History says further: 

The French studied in every way to ;i]3propriate the habits of tlie In- 
dians, to hunt, travel, eat, sleep and dress in the native fashion. They 
were apt learners of the different dialects; the lists of words and the 
dictionaries compiled by their missionaries can be relied upon. And 
these devoted men drew savage admiration by their constancy, calm- 
ness in peril, assiduous efforts to teach and civilize, and their skill in 
healing, as well as by the impressive solemnity of those novel services 
of religion, with cross, cup, bell and candle, under the groined arches 
of the primitive cathedral. But the English possessed over the French 
one manifest advantage, and that has since been styled " manifest des- 
tiny," for the current of history undermines and carries away the 
adroitest policies of the nicest arts of accommotlation." 


This has been taken as a general name for the tribes 
that dwell along the banks and about the headwaters of 
the Penobscot and St. John's rivers, thence eastwardly, 
according to Hermon Moll's old map of the English 

Empire in .America, to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and 
southwardly to the Bay of Fundy. The order of the 
king of France to D'Aulnay, in 1638, to confine his ju- 
risdiction to the coast of the Etchemins seems, however, 
to imply that the extent of it was included between the 
St. John's and the Bay of Fundy. But it is certain that 
it comprised the Penobscot region. Indeed, Chailevoix 
would make this their chief district, as it may have been. 
He says: "The Abenaques, or Canabas, have for their 
nearest neighbors the Etchemins, or Marechites, about 
Pentagoet and its environs; and more at the east are the 
Mickmacks, or Souriquois, the proper inhabitants of 
Acadia." His name Marechites, as a title for the whole 
nation, is considerably used by other wTiters. The name 
Etchemin is still preserved in a river, and also a town of 

Mr. Williamson adds some interesting facts concerning 
this people: 

Among the Etecheniins, marriages are negotiated by the fathers, and 
solemnized, in modern times, by a Catholic priest. Captain Francis 
says: "If an Indian is charmed with a squaw, he tells his parents and 
they talk with hers; and, if all are pleased, he sends her a string of 
wampum, perhaps i,ooo beads, and presents her with a wedding suit. 
All meet at the wigwam of her parents; the young couple sit together 
till married; they and the guests then feast and dance all that night and 
the next; and then the married pair retire." Early wedlock is encour- 
aged; and a couple in a fit of matrimonial union will, for the purpose 
of finding a priest, traverse the woods to Canada. In later times poly- 
gamy is not known among them, and divorces, which are never very 
frequent, are by mutual consent. 

Captain Francis says, before white people came here, sometimes 
" Indians have four wives. " A sanup [husband] has unlimited control 
over his wife, having been known to take her life with impunity. A 
case of this kind occurred in 1785, when one in a paro.xysm of rage slew 
his squaw and hid her body imder the ice of the Penobscot, without 
being, according to report, so much as questioned for his conduct. 

The religious notions of the natives are rude and full of superstition. 
They believe in a Great Spirit, whom the .'^benaques called Tanto or 
Tantum, and the Etechemins, Sazoos; also in the immortality of the 
soul and in a paradise far in the west, where he dwells, and where all 
good men go when they die. To the wicked they suppose he will say, 
when they knock at the heavenly gates, "Go wander in endless misery; 
you never shall live here." For plenty, victory, or any other great 
good, they celebrated feasts with songs and dances to his praise. 

They had strong faith in an evil spirit, whose Satanic Majesty they 
called Mojahondo, supposing he possessed the attributes in general re- 
vealed of that being in the Scriptures. They believed also in tutelar 
spirits, or good angels, whom they denominated Mannitou, and they 
entertained great veneration for their Powows. These, uniting in one 
person the two offices of priest and physician, were supposed to possess 
almost miraculous powers. 

Their dead were generally buried in a sitting posture. In Pittston, 
upon the Kennebeck, are two old burying grounds, where skeletons 
are found in a posture half erect, the head bending over the feet. 
Relics of human bodies have been discovered in a tumulus near Ossipee 
pond, which were originally buried with the face downward. In these 
two places, and in others upon the Kenduskeag and elsewhere, there 
have been discovered instruments, paints, and ornaments interred — the 
requisites to help the departed spirits to the "country of souls." The 
modern manner of burial is borrowed from the Catholics. The corpse, 
enclosed in a rough coffin, is followed by an irregular procession to the 
burying-ground; and when interred, a little wooden crucifi.x is placed 
at the head of the grave, which is sprinkled with consecrated water and 
perfumed with flowers or herbs. If a Tarratine dies, he must, 
if possible, be borne to Oldtown and buried in the common grave- 

The female lamentations for the dead are great, and sometimes ex- 
cessive. The death of a young child, swept away from the arms of its 
mother, as the two lay sleeping in a summer's day between high and 
low w.ater mark upon the Penobscot be.ach, affords a striking instance 
of savage grief. She burst into loud and excessive lamentations, and 



mingled her cries with inarticulate jabber, an hour scarcely closing this 
scene of shrieking and tears. 

The three Etecheniin tribes have, severally and immeinorially, se- 
lected. their sagamores and sachems, or subordinate officers, in form of 
a general election.* But the candidate, when chosen, is not inducted 
into his office without the presence and assistance of a delegation from 
each of the other tribes. This was the case when Francis Joseph 
Neptune, at Passama<|Uoddy, and John Aitteon, at Penobscot, were 
m.ade chiefs of their respociive tribes; and the most intelligent credible 
Indians agree in saying thai such is the practice among the Marechites, 
and has always been the usage among all three of the tril)es. 


The Etchemins, according to the historian Williamson, 
were in three tribes — the Marechites proper, or Armon- 
chiquois, the Indians of the St. John's; the Openango, 
or Quoddy Indians, of the Passamaquoddy, and the 
Tarratines, or aborigines of the Penobscot, with whom 
we have mainly to deal. Mr. Parkman, however, and 
with him, probably, all the later writers, assign these 
Indians to the Abenaki confederation or stock. 

There can be no doubt as to the habitat of the Tar- 
ratines. All the older, as well as later, writers are one in 
the view that they dwelt upon the Penobscot river and 
bay, and the present remnant of Penobscot Indians are 
undoubtedly descended lineally from the Tarratines. 
They also claimed dominion over the tracts adjacent to 
the river, from its sources to the sea. Captain Smith, in 
his narrative, relates that the Penobscot mountains, or 
Camden hills, formed a natural fortress, separating the 
Tarratines from their neighbors, the other Abenaki tribes. 
'I"he two peoples long lived in amity, although the 
farmer cherished an hereditary enmity to the Abergin- 
eans, or Northern Indians, especially in Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire, which led finally, in 16 15-16, to 
the terrible war between the Tarratines and the rest of 
the Abenakis, in which the latter was almost extermina- 
ted, and the Bashaba was slain. 

Mr. Williamson says of the Tarratines: 

They were a numerous, powerful, and warlike people, more hardy 
and brave than their western enemies, whom they often plundered and 
killed, and, accordmg to Hubbard and Price, kept the Sycamores 
between the Piscataijua and the Mystic in perpetual fear. .After the 
conquests and glory achieved in tlieir battles with the Bashaba and his 
allies, they were not, like their enemies, wasted by disease and famine. 
They retained their valor, animated by success and strengthened by 
an early use and supply of firearms, with which they were fvirnished by 
the French, t Less disturbed than the western tribes in the enjoyment 
of their possessions, and also more discreet, they were always reluctant 
to plunge into hostilities against the English. 

The Tarratines ever manifested the greatest satisfaction in their 
intercourse with the French. No fortifications upon the peninsula of 
Major-biguyduce, or buildings in the vicinity, e.xcited either fear or 
jealousy in them; for no rising plantations of the French threatened 
Ihem with a loss of their lands or privileges. A barter of their furs 
for guns, ammunition, and trinkets, was managed with a frtfedom and 
adroitness which won and secured their attachment. Indeed, no for- 
eigners could vie with Frenchmen, for their religious creeds and rites, 
to which the natives were superstitiously devoted, their companionable 
manners and volatile turn, all made the bonds strong and lasting. . . 

The Tarratines have probalily at different periods shifted the situa- 
tion of their principal village; at the mouth of the Kenduskeag they 
had a common resting-place, when the white people first settled in the 
vicinity — a place to which they were, from habit, strongly attached. 
Here the mouldering relics of human bodies, also flint spears, stone 

' Mr. Williamson's foot-note : "They are in modem times called governor, 
lieutenant-governor, and captains, names borrowed from the English. 

tWilliamson's foot-note: The Tarratines, for instance, cut out a shallop 
from Dorchester, with live men in it, whom they killed. 

implements of labor, and Indian paint dust have been accidentally dis- 
interred, after a burial for an unknown period of time. 

The Tarratines were neutrals in the war of the Revolution. In 
return Massachusetts protected them and prohibited all trespasses upon 
their lands, six miles in width on each side of the Penobscot, from the 
head of the tide upwards. She has since, at different times, made 
large purchases of their lands, and they are left [1832 J the owners of 
only four townships, a few acres on the east side of the Penobscot, 
opposite to the mouth of the Kenduskeag, and the islands between 
Oldtown and Passadumkeag, 28 in number, containing 2,670 acres. 
About 40 acres, in 1820, were under cultivation, and the 
Indians that season raised 410 bushels of corn and 50 bushels of beans, 
besides potatoes. 

.\ccounts of the former seat of these Indians, three 
miles above the mouth of the Kenduskeag, and of their 
later residence at Oldtown, will appear further along in 
this chapter. 

The following useful description of the Penobscot In- 
dians, as found by the French u|)on their advent in this 
region, is from the Novus Aibis of John De Laet, pub- 
lished in 1633. It will be observed that De Laet, who 
doubtless refers to Penobscot bay, is sadly astray in his 
definition of distance from the Kennebec, which is 
nearer fourteen than four leagues : 

Four leagues north from Kennebec, following the direction of the 
coast, there is a bay containing in its bosom a large number of islands, 
and near its entrance one of them is called by the French navigators 
the island of Bacchus, from the great abundance of vines found grow- 
ing there. The barbarians that inhabit here, are in some respects un- 
like the other aborigines of New France, differing somewhat from 
them both in language and manners. They shave their heads from 
the foreh&td to the crown, but suffer their hair to grow on the back 
side, confining it in knots, interweaving feathers of various plumage. 
They paint their faces red or black, are well formed, and arm them- 
selves with spears, clubs, bows and arrows, which, for want of iron 
they point with the tail of a cruslaceous creature called signoc. They 
cultivate the soil in a different manner from the savages that live east 
of them, planting maize and beans together, so that the stalks of the 
former answer the purpose of poles for the vines to run upon. They 
plant in May and harvest in September. Walnut trees grow here, but 
inferior ones. Vines are abundant, and it is said by the French that 
the grapes gathered in July make good wine. The natives also raise 
pumpkins and tobacco. They have ]5ermanent places of abode; their 
cabins are covered with oak bark, and are defended by palisadoes. 

According to Judge Godfrey's essay on the Baron de 
St. Castine, the Tarratines were a clan of the great Aben- 
aki community, receiving the name from the English 
colonists; perhajis in honor of a brave Huron chief, 
called Taratouan, upon whom the Jesuit missionaries 
had relied for jjrotection. The Rev. P'ather Vetromile, 
however, in his excellent paper on the .Abenakis, in the 
sixth volume of the Maine Historical Collections, pre- 
sumes the designation to have been derived from "Ati- 
ronta," another Indian who rendered much service to the 
pioneers of France in the New World. By some writers, 
as by Mr. Gallatin, in his work on the Indian tribes, the 
Tarratines and the .Xbenakis were substantially identi- 
fied. Mr. Parkman, in his Jesuits in North .Vinerica, 
says: "The Tarratines of New England writers were 
the Abenakis, or a portion of them." Mr. Palfrey, the 
historian of New England, quoting the old writer Hutch- 
inson, considers the Tarratines as Abenakis. The Rev. 
Father John G. Shea, in his voluminous work on The 
Catholic Church in the United States, refers to the con- 
version to that faith of "the powerful tribe of the Aben- 
akis, or Tarenteens, as the early English settlers called 
them." Gorges, however, in a passage concerning the 



enemies of the Bashaba, says the savages called the 
tribe Tarrantines. Mr. Williamson, making a rapid sum- 
mary of the old authors, says they "agree that the gener- 
al name of the natives upon the Penobscot was Tarra- 
tines." Wood, in New England's Prospect, includes 
some interesting notices of them. He says: 

The country as it is in relation to tlie Intlians. is divided as it were 
into shires, every severall division l>eing swayde by a severall l<ing, the 
Indians^io the east and nortlieast liearing the names of Churchers or 
Tarrenleencs. . . . Tal<e these Indians in their own 

trimnie and naturall disposition, and tliey Ije reported to be wise, lofty- 
.spirited, constant in friendship to one anotlier, true in their promises, 
and more industrious than many other, (and so on, until] some of our 
English, who to uncloathe them of their beaver coates, clad them with 
the infection of swearing and drinking, which was never in fashion with 
them before, it being contrary to their nature to guzzell downe stronge 
drinke, until our bestial example and dishonest incitation hath brought 
them to it; and from overflowing cups there hath been a proceeding to 
revenge, murther, and overflowing of blood. 

Governor Sullivan, in his History of the District of 
Maine, furnishes an important contribution to the histo- 
ry and philosophy of religion, concerning a somewhat 
controverted point, in the following : 

The fanciful historians have said much respecting the savage's hope 
of felicity in fine fields beyond the g.ates of death, when he should 
meet his ancestors and be happy in a state of immortality. 
But from any conversations had with the Indians here, or from anything 
which can be gathered from those who have been most with them, 
there is no reason to Ijelieve that the Northern savages ever had ideas 
of that nature. 


When they first becauie known to Euro|ieans, the Tar- 
ratines dwelt on both sides of the Penobscot, and, with 
their Abenaki brethren, roamed the region westward to 
the Saco, if not to the Piscataquis. About one-third of 
the New England Indians (sup])osed to number fifty thou- 
sand in all) were on the soil of Maine. They came pres- 
ently to be distinguished as Maine Indians; the rest were 
called the New England Indians, some difference of dia- 
lect further dividing the two. Samoset, the friendly savage 
who came suddenly u\nm the Plymouth colony one warm 
morning in February, 1621, with the assuring words, in 
their own tongue, "welcome. Englishmen," is believed 
to have been a Tarratine, from the island of Monhegan. 
He was certainly a Maine Indian, and a chief The Tar- 
ratines became first known in our histoiical literature, 
however, as a tribe at war with the Wawenocks, their 
next neighbors on the west, whom they practically exter- 
minated. In 1 63 1 an expedition of one hundred of 
them took the war-path against the Massachusetts In- 
dians who were so afraid of the Eastern savages that they 
declared they never camped or slept twice together in the 
same place. In i66g the dreaded Mohawks — who had 
doubtless waged frequent war with them through the 
ages their parties coming down the Penobscot from the 
great Canadian woods and waters — completely overcame 
the Tarratines, plundered, burnt, and devastated their 
villages. To this day the Penobscots detest and burn 
with indignation at the very name of Mohawk. 

The tribe was not exterminated, however, nor carried 
into cainivity by their conquerors. They remained upon 
and near the Penobscot in sufficient force to form an im- 
iiortant eleirient in the history of early colonization in 

the Northeast. The Tarratine and Passamaquoddy In- 
dians were among the earliest converts made by the 
Roman Catholic missionaries east of the Mississippi. 
Before the advent of the Jesuits, says an old writer, 
"they dyed patiently, both men and women, not knowing 
of a hell to scare them nor a conscience to terrifie them." 
They were at first very friendly to the whites, except as 
they manifested natural indignation at the outrages perpe- 
trated upon them by Weymouth and other explorers. 
The Rev. Mr. Hubbard's Narrative of the Indian Wars 
in New England, written in 1775, says: 

Ever since the first settling of any English plantation in those parts 
about Kennebeck, for the space of about 50 years, the Indians always 
carried it fair, and held good correspondence with the English, until 
the news came of Phillip's rebellion and rising against the inhabitants 
of Plimouth colony in the end of June, 1675, after which time it was 
appreliended by such as had the examination of the Indians about Ken- 
nebeck that there was a general surmise amongst them that they would 
be required to assist the said Philip, although they would not own that 
they were at all engaged in the quarrel. 

When the war with the French ended, in 1699, the 
Maine Indians, with those of New Hampshire, made 
a treaty with the English colonies, their sachems ac- 
knowledging for them allegiance to the English crown. 


There was no doubt an honest intention, especially at 
first, on the part of many of the whites in New England, 
to deal justly with the Indians, and avoid occasions of 
war with them. The charter of Massachusetts enjoined 
upon the colonists tliat they should endeavor lo win the 
natives to the knowledge and obedience of the only 
true God and Saviour, and of the Christian faith, "by 
force of moral example and religious efforts and instruc- 
tion." Laws were [)assed that strong liquors, and even 
cider and beer, were not to be sold to them. Orders 
were given that any trading-house among the Indians, 
erected without the license of the General Court, should 
be destroyed. If the corn-fields and crops of the na- 
tives were injured by the cattle of the settlers, even by 
reason of poor fencing, the town to which the owner of 
the cattle belonged was to be compelled to make good 
the loss, unless the authorities collected the amount of 
damage from the owner. The Government undertook 
the charge of all trade with the Indians in furs, peltry, 
boats, or other water-craft, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed by the authorities to determine all matters of 
controversy among them, even those which a single 
officer might decide in a case arising between English- 
men. On the other hand, the sale of fire-arms to the 
savages was strictly forbidden by royal proclamation as 
early as 1622. They were, however, abundantly sup- 
plied by the French, who allied the red man the more 
strongly to them by the liberal sale or gift of guns and 

Friendly relations did not long subsist between the 
whites and the Indians. Notwithstanding official and 
legal guards, outrages were occasionally perpetrated by 
the former upon the latter, even at the outset of their 
intercourse, when a judicious policy, to say nothing of 
justice, would have dictated a different course. Five of 
the Indians of the Penobscot, for example, one of them 

J^e^^e4-€:i-'(--^^gi.''^n^€4^e€ \^e€t.^ce . 



a sagamore, were seized and carried away by the ex- 
plorer Weymouth in 1605, and long kept in captivity. 
The Indians soon began reprisals, and resistance to the 
encroachments of the colonists. One Master Patterson, 
of the Sagadahoc colony, the earliest upon the soil of 
Maine, was killed by the Tarratines, almost at once up- 
on his settlement. This is but one of the many exam- 
])les that might be adduced. 

In the summer of 1631 or 1632, the Tarratines pre- 
pared for an attack upon Agawam (Ipswich), where the 
sagamores, having treacherously mas.sacred a number of 
Tarratine families, were believed to be sheltering them- 
selves under the wing of the English. Forty canoe- 
loads of Indians went thither; but their plot was be- 
trayed to an English youth, who fired an alarm-gun and 
beat a drum furiously, whereupon they put to sea again 
without making an attack. The 'J'arratines, however, 
afterwards killed some of the Agawam Indians, .\hout 
one hundred made a midnight attack ui)on the lodge of 
a sagamore near that place, and carried off his wife a 
l)risoner to Penobscot. 

According to tradition, the Tarratines took part in the 
war between the New England Indians and the fierce 
Mohawks, which raged for si,K or seven years; and, after 
the decisive battle in 1669, in which the former were de- 
feated, the Tarratine allies were followed even to the 
Penobscot by their terrible enemies, who burned their 
villages, and otherwise did them great harm. Following 
this came the small-pox and other destructive diseases, 
which caused the death of many of the Eastern and 
Canadian Indians, and greatly interrupted the trade in 
furs. Ky these successive calamities the Tarratines were 
reduced to a mere handful. So early as November, 
1726, Captain John Gyles, who professed to make an ' 
enumeration of the savages in this region, could find 
but one hundred and thirty, "or there about," of the Pe- 
nobscot Indians, above the age of sixteen years, and but 
three hundred and eighty-nine natives of adult age in all 
Maine. The trustworthiness of his census, however, is 
very much to be doubted. 

In 1675, the year of the opening of King Philip's 
war, an attempt was made to involve the I^tchemin and 
.•\benaki tribes also, which was happily frustrated. The 
Canibas Indians had a fort at Teconnet Falls, on the 
Sagodahoc, to which they had retired with their families, 
and remained quiet there until after the burning of Scar- 
borough. The people then became greatly excited 
against the Indians, both friendly and hostile, and the 
settlers on Monhegan island went so far as to offer a 
bounty of five pounds upon every Indian head brought 
in. The natives at Teconnet were naturally aroused 
and fearful ; and to quiet their fears, as well as to remove 
the contents of the trading-house, CajJtain Davis, who 
was in charge of an establishment some miles distant, 
near .Xrrowsick, sent a messenger with a promise that, if 
the Indians would remove to his settlement, they should 
have every needed supply at the fairest prices. The 
messenger proved treacherous, and told them instead 
that, "if they did not go down and give up their arm.s, 
the Englishmen would come and kill them." This fur- 

ther awakened their fears, and they abandoned the fort, 
but, instead of going to Davis, they fled to Penobscot 
and sent a runner to the Eastern tribes with a summons 
to a council of war at the residence of Castine, who very 
likely prompted the Indians to this step. Before the 
council could be brought about, however, Abraham 
Shute, of Pemaquid, chief magistrate, and a citizen of 
uncommon sense and usefulness, succeeded in getting a 
meeting of the alarmed sagamores at that place, where a 
truce was agreed to, and the Indians promised "to live 
in peace with the English, and prevent, if possible, the 
Anasagunticooks from committing any more depreda- 
tions, either upon the settlers or traders." 


It may be noted here that Iberville, with two shi])s 
and two companies of soldiers, made his expedition in 
1694, to effect the reduction of Fort William Henry, at 
Pemaijuid. He took on board Vilkbon with fifty 
Mickmacks at St. John's, and Castine with two hundred 
Indians in canoes joined him at Penobscot. They ap- 
peared before the fort July 14th, and the next day intim- 
idated the commander of the garrison into a surrender. 
The fort was then plundered, demolislied, and aban- 

The next month Major Church reappeared in the Pe- 
nobscot waters, and was informed by his pilot, John 
York, whom he took on board when abreast of the Ma- 
thebestuck Hills (Camden Heights), that the Indians 
had told him of a fort they had built upon a little island 
at the falls fifty or sixty miles up the stream — supposed 
to have been the Island Lett, now (probably) Oldtown — 
and that near by they "planted a great ijuantity of corn." 
Church pushed up the river in his boats to "the Bend" 
(Eddington), and there took to the west shore on foot 
for two or three miles. He passed several places where 
the Indians had once dwelt, killed several of the natives, 
and took another prisoner, who told him that the men 
of his tribe had gone to Canada. Church then returned, 
observing on his way more abandoned habitations, with 
corn-fields and turnip-patches and jjumpkins, especially 
in the Isle of Penobscot, now Orphan Island. Below 
this he took to his ships agam, and sailed for the Bay of 

October 14, 1698, after the peace of Ryswick had 
been concluded between F^ngland, F'rance, and other 
nations involved with them in the war, the commission- 
ers of Massachusetts met six of the eastern saga- 
mores at Penobscot, with a great body of Indians, and 
arranged preliminaries of a treaty which was fully con- 
cluded at Mare Point the following January, ratifying 
the convention of August ii, 1693, with additional 
articles. The sagamores of Penobscot were not ex- 
pressed, but yet were included, in the new jjacification. 


This was the fourth Indian war waged in New Eng- 
land, and lasted from 1722 to 1725. It takes one of 
its names from Captain John Lovewell, or Lovell, of 
Dunstable, Massachusetts, hero of^ the famous fight 
near Pegwacket, at the water since called from 



him Lovewell's pond. The inhabitants, white and 
red, of Maine, New Hampshire, and. Nova Scotia, 
were mainly involved in it, the French in Canada not 
takina; part, through fear of breaking the peace then ex- 
isting between England and France. Their intrigues 
and secret incitement of the Indians to make war were 
not wanting, however; and in June, 1722, hostilities be- 
gan by a war-party of the Canibas and Anasagunticook 
tribes seizing nine white families settled on Merrymeet- 
ing bay. 

We give only such incidents of the war as pertain to 
Penobscot county. All the Maine tribes were involved 
in the outbreak ; and on the twenty-fifth of July the 
governor and council solemnly passed a resolution that 
"the Eastern Indians are traitors and robbers," and de- 
clared war upon them and their confederates as enemies 
of the king. The General Court met on the eighth of 
August, confirmed the declaration of war, and proceeded 
to make provision for the fight. Among other prep- 
arations for the fight, "a large scout of three hundred 
was appointed to destroy the Indians' strongholds and 
habitations at Penobscot, and a body of four hundred to 
range perpetually, by land or water, through the Eastern 
country, especially upon and between the rivers Kenne- 
bec and Penobscot." The ferocious and vindictive 
character of the warfare proposed may be seen from the 
offer of a bounty of fifteen pounds for every scalp taken 
from a male Indian of twelve or more years, and eight 
pounds for every woman or child captured. 

Early in February, 1723, the Penobscot expedition 
was set on foot, under Colonel Thomas Westbrook, com- 
mander of the Eastern forces. On the eleventh he left 
Kennebec with two hundred and thirty men, in whale- 
boats and small sailing vessels, and scoured the coast to 
Mount Desert, proceeding thence up Penobscot bay and 
river, anchoring, it is thought, in Marsh bay, March 4th. 

Disembarking his men, they marched five days through 
the forest, but apparently near the river, when they 
arrived at the supjjosed site of the Indian fort they 
sought, upon one of the sevetal islands opposite them. 
The Colonel further reports ; 

Being obliged here to make four canoes to ferry from island to is- 
land, I dispatched filty men upon discovery, who sent me word on the 
9th that they had found the fort and waited my arrival. I left a guard 
of 100 men with the provisions and tents, and proceeded with the rest 
to join the scouting party. On ferrying over, the Indian fort appeared 
in full view, yet we could not come to it by reason of a swift river, and 
because the ice at the head of the islands would not permit the canoes 
to come around; therefore, we were obliged to make two more, with 
which we ferried over. We left a guard of 40 men on the west side of 
the river, to facilitate our return, ond arrived at the fort, bv 6 of the 
clock in the evening. It happened to have been deserted in the autumn 
preceding, when the enemy carried away every article and thing except 
a tew papers. The fort was 70 yards in length and 50 in breadth, walled 
with stockades 14 feet in height, and enclosed 23 ■ ' well-finished wig- 
wams," or, as another calls them, "houses built regular." On the 
south side was their chapel, in compass 60 feet by 30, handsomely and 
well finished, both within and on the outside. A little farther south 
was the dwelling-house of the priest, which was very commodious. We 
set fire to them all, and by sunrise next morning they were in ashes. 
We then returned to our nearest guards, thence to our tents; and on 
our arrival at our transports, we concluded we must have ascended the 
river abont 32 miles. We reached the fort at St. George on the 20th, 
with the loss of only fou*men. Rev. Benjamin Gibson and three others, 
whose bodies after our arrival here we interred in usual form. 

Mr. Williamson inquires, as to the point where Colo- 
nel Westbrook halted: "Was not this place the lower 
Stillwater, in Orono, six miles above Kenduskeag?" and, 
in a subsequent foot-note, discussing the question of the 
site of this important fortress and village, he says: 

Some suppose it might have been the ancient Negas, a village on 
Fort Hill, situate a league above the mouth of Kenduskeag stream; 
for when could that have been destroyed unless at this time ? Yet Col. 
Church makes no mention of the latter when he and his troops, in .'\u- 
gust, 1696, scoured the river, nor Maj. Livingston, who traveled up the 
river in November, 1710, on his way to Canada. It luust have been 
built after the latter date, and before or during the present war. It 
could not have been very ancient, because the plough has turned out, 
since the .American Revolution, many articles of iron, steel, and lead, 
of modern form and structure; yet, if it were quite modern, there 
would be some tradition of it. All that we can learn is that it was 
called by the first settlers in Bangor "the old French and Indian set- 
tlement" on Fort Hill. This could not be thought 32 miles from the 
place of Westbrook's anchorage, short as seamen's miles are over wild 
lands. Nor are there islands here corresponding with those he men- 
tions. The alrernative then is, the site must have been Oldtown, or 
the ancient Lett mentioned by Livingston. That is situated on a 
beautiful island, and below it are falls and a small island. Lieut. Gov. 
Dummer (speech, May, 1723) says: "We have demohshed the fort and 
all the buildings at Penobscot." The village at Fort Hill was proba- 
bly destroyed by Capt. Heath [in 1725]. 

In October of this year (1723), the Indians stirprised 
and captured Captain Cogswell and the crew of his ves- 
sel, as they landed upon the shore of Mount Desert. 
After this the theatre of war was chiefly upon the St. 
George's and further to the southwest. In the fall of 
1724, Colonel Westbrook led a new regiment of three 
hundred men upon a scouting expedition from the Ken- 
nebeck to the Penobscot, which got entangled in the 
wilderness and had to return with its object but partly 
accomplished. Captain Heath and his company reached 
the latter river the same autumn; but effected nothing 
of account. 

The next year, however, the scene of action returned 
to the beautiful valley of the Penobscot. Mr. William- 
son will tell the principal story of the year: 

After Colonel Westbrook and his party had destroyed the principal 
Indian village at Penobscot, between two and three years since, the 
French and natives had, with a diligence unusual for them, established 
and built another, three leagues below, on the westerly bank of the 
same river. It was a pleasant, elevated, and well-chosen site, a 
few rods from the water, and easily fortified by stockades. It was 
easier of access from the salt water than the former, and was a league 
above the mouth of the Kenduskeag stream, which an enemy could 
ford with convenience only in time of drought. Hearing of this vil- 
lage, reputed to consist of six or seven cottages which had cellars and 
chimneys, a chapel, and between forty and fifty wigwams, Captain 
Joseph , Heath, coiumanding at Fort Richmond, proceeded with his 
company in May, from Kennebeck across the country to Penobscot 
fell upon the deserted village of about fifty Indian houses, and com- 
mitted them to the flames. The Tarratines, who were a wary people, 
probably had some intimation of the expedition, for the party saw 
none of the native inhabitants. It was a bold enterprize ; but it be- 
ing ascertained on their return to the garrison at St. George's river 
that a conference had been proposed by the Indians, the particulars 
were never made topics of any considerable remark. The village de- 
stroyed, situate on Fort iiill, as the English have always called it, is 
supposed to have been the ancient Negas. It was never repaired, the 
Indians afterwards returning and reseating themselves at Oldtown. 

This place, as is generally known, was within the 
present limits of Bangor township. Mr. Williamson 
says in a foot note: 

Being so near the head of the tide and bend of the river, above 
which is quick water, it was a resting-place and resort of the Indians 
before the village were built. The appearances of Indian cornfields in 



tlie vicinity was apparent, «hen tlie place was first settled by soitie of 
the oldest present settlers. 

Tbe sole remaining incident of the war, relating to the 
Penobscot county or any of its residents, is thus related 
by the same author : 

Castine the younger was in a small bark, at anchor near Naskeag 
Point, (viz., the southeast point of Sedgwick), and had with him on 
board an Indian boy, perhaps his own son, and an linglish, by the 
name ot Samuel Trask, belonging to Salem, whom he had redeemed 
from the Indians. Though he thoughtless of evil, the moment 
the crew of an approaching English sloop were near enough, they fired 
upon him. and obliged him and the boys to quit the bark and flee into 
the woods for the safety of their lives. The master of the sloop, now 
changing his conduct and hoisting a white flag, called unto him loudly 
to return, offered him a safe conduct in writing, and declared he only 
desired to have a free trade and mtercourse with him. Yet, shortly 
after he had ventured to go with the lads on board of the sloop, the 
master first threw him a bag of biscuit, and then took from him the 
young captive, exclaiming: "Yoitr bark and all it contains arc in fact 
lawful prize, and yourself might be made a prisoner ; so you may now 
think yourself favored to go without molestation or further loss." This 
insult, which was duly felt, presently aggravated by one of the 
crew, who, after going with them ashore, suddenly seized the Indian 
boy and held him fast. Castine, perceiving the clinch to be violent 
and unprovoked, shot the sailor dead, and escaped with the boy into 
the woods. The conduct of these mariners was a great reproach to 
them, and in every respect the height of impolicy; for the Indians 
were now entertaining thoughts of peace, and Castine, who still pos- 
sessed great influence among them, had more than once attested his 
magnanimity by instances of friendship and a forbearing spirit towards 
the English. 

The following incident succeeding one of the wars is 
also related by Mr. Williamson : 

But the most memorable engagement of any hitherto since the war 
happened. May ist, at the St. George river. It being an inviting 
morning, April 30th, Captain Josiah Winslow, commander of the fort, 
selected si.xteen of the ablest men belonging to the garrison, and in 
a couple of staunch whale-boats preceded down the river, and 
thence to the Green Islands in Penobscot bay, which at this season of 
the year were frecjuented by the Indians for fowling. Though Winslow 
and his companions made no discovery, their movements were watched 
by the wary enemy; and on their return the ne.xt day, as they were as- 
cending the river, they fell into a fatal ambush of the Indians, cower- 
ing under each of its banks. They permuted Winslow to pass, and 
then fired into the other boat, w-hich was commanded by Harvey, a 
sergeant, and was nearer the shore. Harvey fell. A brisk discharge 
of musquelry was returned upon the assailants, when Winslow, ob- 
serving the imminent exposure of his companions, though he was 
himself out of danger, hastened back to their assistance. In an in- 
stant he found himself surrounded by thirty canoes and threefold that 
number of armed savages, who raised a hideous whoop and fell upon 
the two boat-crews with desperate fury. The skirmish was severe and 
bloody; when Winslow and his men, perceiving inevitable death to be 
the only alternative, resolved to sell their lives at the dearest rate. 
They made a most determined and gallant defence ; and, after nearly 
all of them were .dead or mortally wounded, himself ha\ing his thigh 
fractured and being extremely exhausted, his shattered bark was set to 
the shore. Here being waylaid, he fought a savage hand to hand 
with the greatest personal courage, beat off the foe, and then, resting 
on his knee, shot one ere they could dispatch him. Thus fell the in- 
trepid Winslow and every one of his brave company, except three 
friendly Indians, who were suffered to escape and communicate particu- 
lars to the garrison. The Tarratines, who were rather a valiant than a 
cruel people, composed the Indian parly ; and their loss, though never 
known, is supposed to have doubled ours. In this action, inconsider- 
able as were the numbers engaged, there was a remarkable display on 
both sides of boldness and good conduct. 1'he death of Captain 
Winslow was severely felt and lamented. He was a young ofiicer of 
military talents and great worth, a late graduate of Harvard college, 
and a descendant of one of the best families in the province. 


somewhat related to the Penobscot country, but dating 
back more than two hundred years, to the fall of 1C76, is 
also derived from Williamson's History : 

The story of Thomas Cobbet, one of the captives taken the last au- 
tumn at Richmond Island, who returned home with Captam Moore, is 
worthy of particular mention. His father was the minister of Ipswich. 
After being wounded by a musket-shot, his hands were fast tied, and in 
the division of the captives it was his most unfortunate lot to be as_ 
signed to an Indian of the worst character. Young Cobbet's first duty 
was to manage the captured ketch of Fryer, in saihng to Sheepscot. and 
from that place to paddle a canoe, carrying his master and himself, to, and thence to their hunting ground at Mount Desert. He 
suffered the extremes of cold, fatigue, and famine; and because he 
could not understand the Indian dialect, the savage often drevii his knife 
upon him, threatening him with instant death. In hunting on a day of 
severe cold, he fell down in the snow, benumbed, famished, and sense- 
less. Here he must have perished, had not tlie more humane hunters 
conveyed him to a wigwam and restored him. At another time his sav- 
age master w-as drunk five successive days, in which he was fearfully 
raving like a wild beast. To such an alarming degree did he beat and 
abuse his own squaws, that Cobbel, who knew himself to be much more 
obnoxious than they to his fury, fled into the woods to save his life; 
where he made a fire, formed a slender covert, and the squaws fed him. 

At the end of nine weeks the Indians had a great powwow, and his 
master sent him to Mons. Castine for ammunition to kill moose and 
deer. He arrived at a most opportune hour, just before Mugg's de- 
parture to Teconnet, who readily called him by name. "Ah," said 
Mugg, " I saw your father when I went to Boston, and I told him his 
son should return. He must be released according to treaty." "Yes," 
replied Madockawando, " but the captain must give me the fine coat he 
has in the vessel; for his father is a great preach-man, or chief speaker, 
among Englishmen." This request was granted, and young Cobbet 
saw his demoniac master no more. 


In the early part of August, 1689, an attack was made 
by a war-party from Penobscot upon the fort at Pema- 
quid, which was captured. Judge Thomas Gyles, chief 
justice of the district, was seized upon his farm, three 
miles from Jamestown, and tomahawked, while most of 
his family were carried off into captivity. One of the 
sons, taken into the Penobscot country, left a narrative of 
the massacre and his subsequent adventures, from which 
Mr. Rufus King Sewall has made an abridgment in his 
Ancient Dominions of Maine. We extract the following: 

-At Mattawamkeag, up the Penobscot, they encountered a lodge of 
dancing women. Young Gyles was flung into the midst of the circle. 
An old squaw led him into the ring, when some seized him by the hair 
of the head and others by his hands and feet, with great violence and 
menaces of evil. At this moment his master entered and bought the 
child off from the horrors of the gauntlet dance, by flinging down a 

Gyles, the second year of his captivity, was sent toward the sea, with 
other natives, to plant com near the fort. 

On reaching the village of wigwams, he was greeted by three or four 
Indians, who dragged him to the great wigwam, where, with savage 
yells and dances, the warriors were leaping about a James Alexander, 
recently captured at Falmouth. Two families of Sable Indians, whose 
friends had been lost by the attacks of English fishermen, had reached 
this point, on a scout westward, to avenge the blood of their slaugh- 
tered friends. These savages were thirsting for the blood of an Eng- 
i^lishman. They rushed upon Gyles and tossed him into the ring. He 
was then dragged out by the hair of his head, his body bent forward by 
the same painful process, when he was cruelly beaten over his head and 
shoulders. Others, putting a tomahawk into his hands, bid him "sing 
and dance Indian." The Sable Indians .again rushed upon him in great 
rage, crying, " ' Shall we who have lost relatives by the English suffer an 
English voice to be heard among us?" He was beaten with an axe. 
No one showed a spark of humanity save a Frenchman, whose cheeks 
were wet with tears of pity at the sorrows of the captive white man. 

The trials of this scene lasted a whole day. Another dance was pro- 
jected. Gyles had been sent out to dress a skin for the manufacture of 
leather. A friendly Indian sought him at his place of labor, and 
warned him that his friend Alexander had fallen into the hands of his 
enemies again, and they were searching for him. His master and mis- 
tress bade him fly and hide himself till they both should come and call 



him. which Ihey would do when the peril was ended. Gyles retired 
and sought concealment in the fastnesses of a neighboring swamp, and 
had scarcely attained his refuge when deafening whooi)s, mingled with 
threats and flatteries, told him that the savages were on his track- 
They sought him till evening, and then called — "Chon, Chon !' But 
Chen would not trust them. Thus he escaped till the company had 
dispersed ; when he went forth from his covert, assured of his safely by 
the appearance of his master and mistress. 

Onerous and servile duties were required of captives. One of these^ 
in the case of Gyles and Alexander, was that of ' 'toting" water from a 
cool and- distant spring to the village lodge. 

Wearied with toil, in the language of Gyles, "being almost dead, 
James and I continued to relieve our toil by frightening the Indians." 

At this period the Mohawks were a great source of alarm tu tlic 
Eastern tribes, the rumor of whose alliance with the English had uuu 
generally obtained. The traditions of this race were a commentary of 
deeds of daring and success, handed down from remote periods in the 
history of the aborigines of the American coast. 

The two prisoners adroitly turned this infirnuty of their savage 
masters to good account, on a dark night. 

Alexander having been sent out for water, set his kettle on the brow 
of the declivity, ran back to the lodges and told his master he feared 
there were Mohawks lurking near the spring below, which, by the way, 
was environed with stumps. 

The braves of the tribe, with the master, accompanied the captive 
Ale.xander on a reconnoisance. Approaching the brow of the hillside, 
whereon the kettle sat, James, pointing to the stumps, gave it a kick 
with his foot, by which his toe sent the iron vessel down the declivity 
toward the spring; and every turn of the revolving bucket reared a 
Mohawk on every stump, the clatter of whose arms was the signal of 
preparation for battle; and he who could run fastest was the best fellow! 
The result was a regular stampede of 30 or 40 warriors into the interior 
forests, beyond the reach "of strange Indians." 

Natural admiration is e.xcited in view of acts of personal courage 
and physical prowess, and this would seem to be a spontaneous devel- 
opment of the human mind. 

At one time Gyles, during his captivity, encountered an ill-natured 
savage. He had been cutting wood, which was bound up with thongs 
and borne in bundles to the wigwam. While thus engaged, a stout, 
ill-natured young fellow pushed him upon the ground backwards, sat 
upon his breast, pulled out his knife and menaced him with death, 
saying, "he never had jiet killed one of the English." 

Gyles replied, "he might go to war, and that would be more manly 
than to kill a poor captive who was doing their drudgery." But the 
savage began to cut and stab him on the breast, in defiance of all 
expostulation. Provoked to desperation. Gyles seized the Indian by 
the hair of his head, and tumbling him off, followed up the movement 
with his knees and fists, till copper-skin cried "enough." On feeling 
the smart of his wounds, and seeing the blood which fell from his 
bosom, "Gyles at him again," bade him get up and not lie there like 
a dog; reproached him with his barbarities and cowardly cruelties to 
other poor captives, and put him on his good behavior hereafter, on 
the peril of a double dose of fist and boot cuffs. 

Gyles was never after molested, and was commended by the tribe 
for inflicting the merited chastisement. 

Metallic vessels for culinary use were not required by the natives 
among whom Gyles was a captive. A birchen bucket filled with water, 
heated by the immersion of red-hot stones, would speedily boil the 
toughest neck-pieces of beef. 

The necessity of lucifer matches was forestalled by rapidly revolving 
the sharpened point of an upright piece of wood in the socket or 
cavity of a horizontal base, till a blaze was kindled. 

The incantations of the powwow, among the unchristianized 
natives, prevailed. For the dead great mourning was made. In the 
shadowy and sombre stillness of evening twilight, a squaw breaks the 
silence, wandering over the highest cliff-tops near her lodge, crying in 
mournful and long drawn numbers, — "Oh, hawe-hawe!" 

But, the season of mourning being ended, the relatives of the dead 
end their sad memories in a feast, and the bereaved is permitted to 
marry again. Purchased by a French trader, during the Eastern expe- 
dition of Colonel Hawthorne, Gyles, after a servitude of nine years, 
was restored to his home and surviving friends, and for many years 
served his Government in the capacity of an Indian interpreter and in 
the army. The elder brother of Gyles, after three years of captivity, 
attempted to escape and was retaken. On the heights of Castine, 
overlooking the waters of Penobscot bay, he was tortured by fire at 
the stake; his nose and ears were cut off and forced into his mouth, 

which he was compelled to cat; and then he was burnt as a diversion 
to enliven the scene of a dance. 


The following incident, of comparatively recent date, 
is given by Mr. Williamson, in the first volume of his 
History of Maine: 

Among the natives the law of retaliation is considered a dictate of 
nature, always justifiable. The vile, they think, are deterred from the 
commission of crimes through the perpetual fear of the avenger, if 
they tran.sgress. An Indian was never known to ask redress through 
the medium of our laws and courts, for an injury done him by one of 
his tribe. Nor was there an instance, till quite lately, where a white 
man ever sued an Indian in a civil action. But jjrosecutions have fre- 
quently been instituted at law upon complaints, both of the English- 
man and the Indian, for crimes committed by either against the other. 

The trial and story of Peol Susup, so much in point, may be retold. 
About sunset, June 28, 1816, this Indian's turbulence and noise, in the 
tavern of William Knight, at Bangor, became intoleraljle , and the 
inn-keeper thrust him out of the door, and endeavored to drive him 
away. The Indian, instantly turning in a great rage, pursued him to 
the steps with a drawn kmfe, and gave him a deep wound, just below 
his shoulder-blade, of which he presently died. 

On his arrest, Susup frankly said, "I have killed Knight, and I 
ought to die; but I was in liquor and he abused me , or I never had 
done it." 

.■\fter an imprisonment till the June term of the Sujirenie Judicial 
Court, at Castine, the subsequent year, he was arraigned on an indict- 
ment for murder, to which he pleaded "not guilty." A day was con- 
sumed in the trial, amidst a concourse which crow'ded the meeting- 
house, and, according to the position urged by his counsel, the verdict 
was "manslaughter." 

The Court then said to him, "Susup, have you anything now to say 
for yourself ?" — "John Neptune," said he, "will speak for me." That 
Indian then stepped forward from the midst of his associates, towards 
the judges, and deliberately addressed them in an impressive speech of 
several minutes. He spake in broken English, yet every word was dis- 
tinctly heard and easily understood. His questions were frequent and 
forcible ; his manner solemn ; and a breathless silence pervaded the 
whole assembly. He began ; "You know your people do my Indians 
great deal of wrong. They abuse them very much ; yes, they murder 
them ; then they walk right off— nobody touches them. This makes 
my heart burn. Well, then, my Indians say, 'we'll go kill your very 
bad and wicked men.' 'No,' I tell 'em, 'never do that thing ; we are 
brothers.' Some time ago a very bad man about Boston shot an Indi- 
an dead. Your people said, 'surely he should die ;' but not so. In the 
great prison-house he eats and lives to this day ; certain he never dies 
for killing Indian. My brothers say, 'let that bloody man go free ; — 
Peol .Susup too. ' So we wish; hope fills the hearts of us all. Peace 
is good. These, my Indians, love it well ; they smile under its shade. ' 
The white man and red man must be always friends; the Great Spirit 
is our Father; I speak w'hat I feel." 

Susup was sentenced to another year's imprisonment, and re(iuired 
to find sureties for keeping the peace two years, in the penal sum of 
five hundred dollars; when John Neptune and Squire Jo Merry Nep- 
tune, of his own tribe. Captain Solmond, from Passamaquoddy, and 
Captain Jo Tomer, from the river St. John, became his sureties in the 


Some mention of this chief potentate of the Eastern 
Indians will fitly come in here. He is named very early 
in the New England literature by Captain John Smith, 
and it is not unlikely that the name is one of this ro- 
mancer's [lure inventions, as it is strongly reminiscent of 
"bashaw," a title with which he must have become suf- 
ficiently familiar during his Turkish experience. The 
counsellors or wise men of the tribes were the sachems; 
the chief of these, or the chief magistrate, was the saga- 
more; and the chief of the sagamores, or ruler over all 
the tribes, was the Bashaba. 

"We have no account," says Belknap, author of the 
History of New Hampshire, "of any other Indian chief 



in these Noithern parts whose authority was so extensive." 

"He is a great governor," said Captain Francis, one 
of th'e Tarratine cliiefs. "He had under him," wrote 
Gorges, "many great sagamores, some of whom had a 
thousand or fifteen hundred bowmen;" and in another 
place: "He seemed to be of some eminence above the 
rest in all that part of the continent." 

Some writers, as Palfrey, affirm difference in rank be- 
tween the sachems and the sagamores, saying that the 
former were superior; others, as Gookin, say the titles 
were equivalent or correspondent. Dudley, while re- 
marking their equivalence, says the chiefs of the Northern 
Indians were called sagamores; those further south were 

The dominion of the Bashaba was altogether in " Ma- 
voshen," the present Maine. The Saco, says Purchas, 
in the Pilgrims, "is the westernmost river of the domin- 
ions of Bashebez;" and again: "To the easternmost of 
Sagadahock, this is the Bashaba's dominion." Smith 
rather doubtfully asserts, however, that, though the tribes 
as far westward as Naumkeag (Salem) had their own 
sachems, "they hold the Bashaba to be chief, and the 
greatest among them." Gorges and other New England 
writers are probably more nearly correct in representing 
the Massachusetts Indians as allies rather than subjects 
of the Bashaba, although somstimes they changed to 
deadly enemies. Some writers, as Williamson, would 
restrict his dominion on the eastward to St. George's; 
but the strong probability, if not reasonable certainty, is 
that it included the Penobscot country. Indeed, Bryant 
& Gay, in their Popular History, plainly say that "this 
great lord of the Penobscot country was called the Bash- 
aba; but, although a good many names of local saga- 
mores of distinction are mentioned in the early annals, 
nobody ever had an interview with the veritable Bashaba. 
It is probable that the term basliaba 
merely indicated the sagamore who happened at differ- 
ent times to enjoy the ascendency among the Penobscot 
tribes. " 

The Hon. Judge Godfrey, of Bangor, in a brief essay 
on "Bashaba and the Tarratines," in the seventh volume 
of the Maine Historical Collections, expresses the view 
that Bashaba was not a title, but the individual name of 
a chief, and supports his theory quite strongly. He 
identifies "the Bashaba" with "Bessabes," mentioned by 
Champlain simply as a captain or chief of the savages 
who had led him to the "rapids of Norumbega," above 
Bangor, the other chief who met him being "Cabahis." 
The same dignitary, he thinks, is named in the Jesuit 
Relation of i6i i as Betsabes, the "Sagamopf Kadesquit" 
(Bangor), and one of the Indian captains, the others be- 
ing Oguigueou and Asticon. He, says the Relation, 
when the priests at Mt. Desert "made as though the 
place did not please us, and that we should go to another 
part," "himself came for us to allure us by a thousand 
promises, having heard that we proposed to go there [to 
Kadesquit] to dwell." According to Lescarbot, Bess- 
abes or Bashaba was killed by the English, and Asticon 
became his successor. 

His capital, or place of residence, is scarcely less in dis- 

cussion. Gorges says: "His chief abode was not far 
from Pemaquid." Smith, Purchas, and others, suppose 
that he lived towards or near the Penobscot Bay; and 
\Villiamson, latest of the historians, avers that "his place 
of immediate residence was probably between that river 
[the Pemaquid] and Penobscot Bay." Mr. Folsoni, in 
his historical discourse published in the Maine Histor- 
ical Collections, says: "The place of his residence was 
probably on the banks of the Penobscot ; and, as it was 
also the seat of his government, the fabulous assertions 
of a large city in that quarter may have arisen from an 
exaggerated description of the humble capital of the Ba- 
shaba's dominions." An old tradition fixed the aborig- 
inal seat of power in "Norumbega," by which name the 
Maine country was first known abroad and also early on 
the old maps, in a town — some say great city — on the 
east side of the Penobscot river, about opposite the site 
of Bangor; and the Indians of that region, when first 
met by the white men, also referred to a site of ancient 
rule somewhere in the interior. Stachey says in one 
place: "Early in the morninge the salvadges departed in 
their canoas for the river of Pemaquid, promising Capt. 
Gilbert to accompany him in their canoas to the river of 
Penobscot, where the bassaba dwells." The indications 
are that the Bashaba's capital, if anything more than an 
ordinary Indian village, in the course of generations or 
centuries had removed from the north to the coast about 
or a little above the mouth of the Penobscot, and thence 
gradually westward. 

The Bashaba was not unlike more civilized princes, in 
that he expected the courtesy of a call from other 
potentates or from strangers who entered his realm. The 
Bashaba expected, says Gorges, in his Description of 
New England, "all strangers to have their address to him, 
and not he to them." When the colony of Gorges and 
Popham arrived at Sagadahoc, in 1607, it was cordially 
received by the natives, and some of the sagamores of- 
fered to accompany the English to the Bashaba, saying 
that he was a mighty prince, ruling all the sachems from 
Penobscot to Piscataqua, and that all visitors to his do- 
mains were expected to pay him their respects. Popham, 
President of the Colony Council, accordingly proceeded 
some leagues along the coast toward Pemaquid, near 
which the dignitary dwelt; but was driven back by head 
winds and bad weather. The Bashaba, informed of this, 
sent his own son to return the intended visit, and open 
trade with the company in furs and peltry. The utmost 
courtesy and kindness were shown the strangers, although 
Weymouth had but a short time before forcibly seized 
and carried away several natives from the coast. In Sep- 
tember of the same year several Penobscot chiefs, com- 
ing in canoes, were entertained by Popham at the Pema- 
quid f(J^t. They, says the account, "besought Captain 
Gilbert to accompany them in their canoes to the river 
of Penobscot, where the Bashaba dwelt." 

When Weymouth's expedition was on the coast, in 
1 605, one party of Indians, pointing eastward, endeavored 
to prompt him to a visit by signifying that "the Bashebe, 
their king, had plenty of furs and much tobacco;" and 
again, when Weymouth's pinnace was on its return to the 




ship from the journey up the Penobscot, as is supposed, 
three Indians came in a canoe from the eastern part of 
the bay, one of whom, says the captain in his journal, 
"we had before seen, and this coming was very earnestly 
to importune us to let one of our men go with them to 
the Bashebe, and then the next morning he could come 
to our ship with furs and tobacco." Weymouth, how- 
ever, was naturally suspicious of treachery, as he had 
seized five of the Maine Indians, and had theni at that 
moment in the hold. He therefore resisted all induce- 
ments and invitations of the savages to visit their great 
Mogul. Captain Smith, who tells the same story, with 
considerable embellishment, in his History of New Eng- 
land, also says that he was urged by the natives about St. 
George's to visit and pay his respects to their prince. 

The one now living (in 1608) must have been the last 
of the Bashabas. A terrible war broke out about 1615, 
between the Tarratines, or Penobscot Indians, and the 
tribes to the westward, "on account," says Hubbard, "of 
some treachery committed by the western tributaries of 
the Bashaba, a great Indian prince, towards the Tarra- 
tines." The latter began hostilities, it is believed, in the 
early spring of 161 5, and carried the war into the ene- 
my's country. I'^or two years it raged fiercely, and ended 
only in the death of the Bashaba, whose sacred person 
and capital were not exeuipt from attack, the laying waste 
of his immediate domains, and the seizure and carrying 
away of all his women and valuable effects. He had no 
successor, and the power of the Abenakis was hopelessly 
broken. Mr. Williamson says of this struggle : 

This war. not only in its course, but consequences, was, we are told, 
uncommonly destructive. The vanquished had been called from their 
himting grounds, and prevented likewise from planting and fishing: 
their habitations were destroyed, and famine and distress soon filled 
the country with misery. Add to these the calamities of a ci\'il w'ar — 
for the subordinate sachems, having no federal head or superior to 
control and unite them, after the death of the Bashaba many of the 
chief men fell into bloody feuds among themselves. 

To these distresses succeeded a pestilence, which spread far and 
wide, and was exceedingly fatal. It has been called the plague. It 
raged in the years i6i7and 1618, and its wasting effects e.xtended from 
the borders of the Tarratines, through the whole country, to the Nar- 
ragansetts. The people died suddenly, and in great numbers, through 
the whole intermediate coast. It is said some native tribes became 
extinct, and their bones were seen years afterwards by the English 
bleaching above ground, at and around the places of their former habi- 
tations. The specific disease is not certainly known. Some have 
thought it was probably the small-pox; others have believed it must have 
been the yellow fever, from the circumstance that the surviving Indians 
represented tlie bodies of the sick and dead to have assumed an appear- 
ance resembling a yellow-colored garment. 

LATER tarratinp: CHIEF.S. 
After the Bashaba, whoever or whatever he may have 
been, we have but few accounts of the chiefs or saga- 
mores. One of the most famous in Maine at the time 
of King IMiilip's war was Madockawando, adopted son 
of a renowned chief and rei)Uted orator, Assiminasqua, 
who was in his day sagamore of the Canibas, another 
of the Abenaki tribes. Madockawando was father-in- 
law of Baron Castine, if the latter ever really married his 
daughter, who lived with the I'renclijnan upon the foot- 
ing of a wife. He is said to have been a sagacious, seri- 
ous man who, like Squando, the contemporaneous saga- 
more of the Sokokies, claimed to have supernatural 

visions and revelations. His first officer or ])rincipal ad- 
viser was Mugg or Mogg, who is considered by Willianr- 
son "the most cunning Indian of the age." Mugg derived 
great advantage during the troubles between the English 
and the Indians, from his former residence in English 
families and his acquaintance with the English language 
and habits. Shortly after the war with King Philip broke 
out. Captain Fryer, of Portsmouth, was attacked with his 
crew at Richmond island, where they were loading a 
vessel with valuable property, to keep it from being plun- 
dered by the savages. Fryer was wounded, and all were 
taken prisoners. Mugg, after making an attack upon the 
garrison at Wells, in which he killed two persons and did 
considerable mischief, carried Fryer, then dying of his 
wounds, to Piscataqua, and proposed on behalf of his 
master to negotiate a peace. Madockawando had orig- 
inally been opposed to the war, as he was untroubled by 
the English, and his people were carrying on a profitable 
trade with the French at Castine's post: it is probable, 
therefore, that the offer of Mugg, so far, at least, as it 
represented his superior's views, was sincere. Mugg was 
sent on to Boston; and there, November 6, 1875, on be- 
half of Madockawando and another chief named Che- 
beirina, he did negotiate a treaty with the Governor and 
Council, (jroviding, chiefly, that all acts of hostility should 
cease, that all English captives, vessels, and goods should 
be restored, and that the Penobscot sachems should take 
arms against the Anasagunticooks and any other Eastern 
Indians that should persist in the war. An English 
officer was sent in a vessel with Mugg to Penobscot, 
where Madockawando ratified the treaty and delivered 
u[) such captives as were at hand. Only part of the 
whole number, however, were returned; there was bad 
faith otherwise on the part of the Indians; and hostilities 
were renewed by the English in February at Mare Point, 
Pemaquid, Arrowsick, and other places. After an attack 
upon Wells, the garrison at Black Point was besieged, 
May i6th, "with an uncommon boldness and pertinaci- 
ty," says Williamson. A three-days' siege ensued, with 
very sharp fighting, during which Mugg was killed. Wil- 
liamson continues: 

The loss of this leader so damped the courage of his companions 
that they, in desp.air of victory, departed. Mogg had alternately 
brightened and sh.aded his own character, until the most skilful pencil 
would find it difficult so draw its just portrait. To the English this 
remarkable native friend or foe, and among his own people coun- 
sellor, peacemaker, fighter, or emissary, just as self-interest or the par- 
ticular occasion might dictate. His address was inspiring, and his 
natural good sense and sagacity partially inclined Iiini to be an advo- 
cate for peace. 

The poet Whittier, in his versified legend of Mogg 

Megone, giv(j(i this description of the equi])ment of the 

famous lieutenant of Madockawando: 

Megone hath his knife, and hatchet, and gun, 
And his gaudy and tasselled blanket on; 
His knife hath a handle with gold inlaid. 
And magic words on its polished blade — 
'Twas the gift of Castine to Mogg Megone, 
For a scalp or twain from the Yengees torn; 
His gun was the gift of the Tarratine, 

And Madockawando's wives had strung 
The brass and the beads which tinkle and shine 
On the polished breech, and broad, bright line 

Of beaded wampum around it hung. 



Madockawando himself has afterwards more promi- 
nence in history, but not for some years. In 1689 he 
led a party of several Indians, with an interpreter, from 
Penobscot to Boston, to represent to the authorities that 
Castine was greatly enraged with the English for plun- 
dering his farm-house, and that there was reason to appre- 
hend another terrible war. The sagamore was very 
kindly received, laded with presents, and sent home in 
the "colony sloo|i, with an apologetic letter to the irate 
Frenchman. The previous year Madockawando had 
given his voice at the outset against the outbreak which 
resulted in King William's war, and agreed to negotiate 
a treaty, in which it is thought the Eastern tribes would 
have joined; but all were overruled by the influence of 
Castine, and the war opened at North Yarmouth the next 
August. In 1690 he again appears, as joint leader with 
Castine of a force of natives going from the eastward to 
reinforce the French and Indians being collected at 
Casco Bay to attack Falmouth, which resulted in the 
fall of the place, the capture of Fort Loyal, and the par- 
tial massacre of the garrison, with many of the women 
and children. Two years later the third Eastern expedi- 
tion of Major Benjamin Church brought him into this 
sagamore's country. He landed a party on the Seven 
Hundred Acre Island, in Penobscot Bay, and was there 
informed by some Frenchmen, who were living with their 
families and Indian wives upon the island, that a great 
number of the savages were on a neighboring (probably 
Long) island, and that they hastened away in their 
canoes as soon as they saw the ships of Church. They 
could not be pursued past the peninsula without small 
boats, which Church had not in sufficient number; so he 
seized five Indians, with a lot of corn and beaver and 
moose-skins, and set sail for Pemaquid. Madockawando, 
with other chiefs, had become greatly exasperated by the 
outrages committed on these expeditions, and in August 
he visited Count Frontenac at Quebec, presented five 
English prisoners, for which he received a reward, and 
made an agreement that Frontenac should send two 
ships of-war and two hundred Canadians to Penobscot, 
while he joined them there with two to three hundred 
Indians. The united force would then devastate the 
coast below Penobscot, and destroy the new Fort Wil- 
liam Henry at Pemaquid. Information of this plan was 
sent to Boston by Nelson English, Governor of Nova 
Scotia after its conquest by Phips, but now in captivity 
at Quebec; and ste])s were taken to meet it. In the 
late autumn the French ships and men, under Iberville, 
arrived at Penobscot and were joined by Villebon and a 
large force of Indians. All proceeded together to Fort 
U'illiam Henry; but, finding it strongly built and de- 
fended, and an English vessel at anchor under its guns, 
the expedition returned without an attack, the savages, it 
is said, fiercely stamping the ground in their disappoint- 
ment. The next year, August 11, 1693, after a vigorous 
campaign by the English under Major Converse, all the 
Eastern tribes came into the new garrison at Pemaquid 
by their representatives, and negotiated a treaty. Among 
the thirteen sagamores signing this convention appear 
the hieroglyphics of Madockawando and another chief 

of the Tarratines, called Abenquid. War soon broke out 
afresh, however, under the instigation of the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, inspired by Frontenac; and in July, 1694, Ma- 
dockawando again comes to the front as one of three 
subordinate leaders, under the Sieur de Villieu, now- 
resident commander at Penobscot, of a force of two 
hundred and fifty Indians, which attacked and destroyed 
Dover, New Hampshire, plundered other settlements 
farther away, returned to Maine and made a des[)erate 
attack upon Kittery, where they killed eight persons, but 
seem to have retired unsuccessful. With these exploits 
Madockawando's career as a warrior probably ended. He 
died soon after, as did "other sachems of the East," ac- 
cording to Cotton Mather, "victims to the grievous un- 
known disease, which consumed them [the Indians] 

At various times during the last century, in signatures 
to treaties negotiated with the English, we meet with the 
names of chiefs of the Tarratines — in these instruments 
always called the Penobscot Indians. Thus, Wenemou- 
ett appears as the chief sachem of the Penobscots in 
August, 1726, signing Governor Duminer's treaty at Fal- 
mouth, with Esj^egnect as second chief, whose signature 
also appears under date June 17, 1727. The treaty of 
October 16, 1749, was signed on behalf of the same 
tribe by Eger Emmet, Nagamumba, Nictuirbouit, Efvar- 
agoosaret, and Nemoon. Three jears later a single 
head inan or chief, who rejoiced in the English or French 
title of Colonel Louis, was the negotiator of a treaty as 
representative of the Penobscots. This Colonel Lewis, 
on this occasion of meeting the Massachusetts commis- 
sioners at St. George's, said, among other things: "We 
have have had great and long experience of Captain 
Bradley's friend. The lieutenant is a good truck-master. 
It would do your hearts good to see how kind he is to 
us, and how justly he treats us." He asked for a shelter 
by the mill, to provide for drunken Indians who lay out 
over night, also for a bridge, and a causeway over Long 
Meadow, on the road or trail to the mills. Orders were 
given by the commissioners that the desired house and 
bridge should be built by Cajnain Bradley. A black- 
smith was asked for also, and the attention of the Gov- 
ernment to the matter was promised. A belt of wam- 
pum was given to Louis to lodge at Penobscot with a 
copy of the treaty. 

We are not aware that anything further is known of 
these minor heroes of history. Of Joseph Orono, how- 
ever, one of the later chiels, mucli moie is known. 
From a sketch contributed by the historian Williamson 
to the Massachusetts Historical Collections, many years 
ago, we extract the following: 

Juhcph Orono. the subject of tins sketch, was for a long time tlie 
well-known chief of the Tarr.itine Indians, un the river Pciioliscot. 
But. thougli he was only an Indian s.-igamore, his name, for the merits 
of his character, is worthy of remembrance and respect. His ances- 
try, as well as the exact number of his years, is involved in some 
doubt. For there are no family names among the natives, by which 
the lineage of any individual can be traced, as a son inherits no name 
of his father. 

There has been a story that he was a native of York, in this Slate, 
born about the year 1688; that his paternal name was Donmel, and 
that he was one of the captive children taken in the winter of 1692, 



when that place was ravaged by the Indians. But this account is im- 
proliahle; as the Northern Indians and those of the Merrimac and 
Androscoggin made the attack, and soon afterwards sent liack to the 
garrison-houses the elderly women and the children between the ages 
of tliroe and seven years, in recompense to the Enghsh for previously 
sparing the lives of several Indian females and children at Pejepscot. 
At that time, moreover, the Donmel family was one of the most dis- 
tinguished in the |)rovince, Samuel being tl)e same year one of the 
council, and his brother a man of considerable note. So that, if a son 
of either of them had been taken captive, it is |)robable lie was returned 
or rccoveretl ; or. at least, there would have been some traditional ac- 
count of his being carried away. But no such report, even in York, 
has come down to this generation; and Capt. Joseph Munsell, of Ban- 
gor, now in liis 88th year, says the story has no foimdation in fact, and 
has been treated by the intelligi-nt Indians with derision. 

Another account, e(|ually amusing, and more evident, is that Orono 
was the descendant of Bason de Castine, a French nobleman who, 
soon after the treaty of Breda, in 1667. located himself on the penin- 
sula of the town which now bears his name, and married a daughter of 
the celebrated Madockawando. a Tarratine chief of the age. It is true 
that Castine resided many years at that place, and carried on a very 
lucrative trade with the natives ; that he had three or four Tarratine 
wives, one being that sagamore's daughter; and that of his several 
children, one was "Castine the younger," a very worthy man, and 
another, a very beautiful daughter, who married a Frenchman, and 
was with her children, in 1704, taken captive. One of these, it has 
been supposed, was Orono; yet this rests too much on mere probabil- 
ity and conjecture to deserve entire belief 

But, whatever may have been the lineage or extraction of Orono, it 
is certain he was white in part, a half-breed or more — such being ap- 
parent in his stature, features, and complexion. He himself told Cap- 
tain Munsell his father was a Frenchman and his mother was Iialf French 
and half Indian; but who they were by name i;e did not state. Orono 
had not the copper colored countenance, the sparkling eyes, the high 
cheek-bones, tawny features of a pristine native. On the contrary, his 
eyes were of a bright blue shade, penetrating and full of intelligence 
and Ijenignity, His hair, when young, was brown, perhaps approach- 
ing to an auburn cast ; his face was large, broad, and well-formed, of a 
sickly whiteness, susceptible of ready blushes, and remarkalily sedate. 
In his person he was tall, straight, and perfectly proportioned ; and in 
his gait there was a gracefulness which of itself evinced his superiority. 
He did not incline his head forwaid, nor his feet inward, so much as 
Indians usually do. But what principally gave him distinction was his 
mind, his manners, and his disposition. For Orono was a man of good 
sense and great discernment ;— in mood thoughtful, in conversation re- 
served, in feelings benign. Hence he never allowed himself to speak 
till he had considered what to say, always e.xpressing his thoughts in 
short sentences, directly to the point. He had not much learning, be- 
ing only able to read a little and write his name. But he could con- 
verse freely in three languages— the Indian, F'rench, and English ; pei- 
haps, also, understood some Latin phrases in the Romish litany. To 
the Catholic religion he was strongly attached, and also to its forms of 
worship. Hence the Rev. Daniel Little, of Kennebeck, a I'rotestant 
missionary to the tribe after the Revolution, unable to shake his faith, 
asked three times, before he could get an answer from the .sedate chief 
thus; "In what language do you pray? " With a gravity much more 
becoming than that of the missionary, he very reverently, raising his 
eyes a little, leplied, '■ No matter what,— Great .Spirit knows all lan- 

Orono's manners were both conciliating and commanding, and his 
habits worthy of all imitation. For he was not only honest, chaste, 
temperate, and industrious ; his word was sacred, and his friendship 
unchanging. He was remarkable for his forethought and wisdom, for 
his mild and equal disposition. Though he was not deficient in cour- 
age or any of the marlial virtues, he was so fully aware how much wars 
had wasted his tribe and entailed misery on the survivors, as to become, 
from princi|)le, a uniform and jiersevering advocate of peace. He 
knew, and always kibored to convince his people, that they flourished 
best and enjoyed most under its refreshing shade. 

At the commencement of the French and sixth war, in 1754, 
Tomasus (or Tainor) was at the head of the tribe, when he, Osson, O- 
rono, and other chief men, so warmly espoused the policy of perpet- 
uating peace, as to prevent the commisson of any mischief by their 
people, till after the Casgill affair and the declaration of war against 
them by the provincial government. The fact was that Captain James 
Casgill, of Newcastle, commissioned to raise a company of volunteers, 
enlisted and led them on an excursion into the woods towards Owl's 

Head, in the vicinity of Penobscot Bay. Discovering a party of In- 
dian hunters, Casgill and his company instantly fired upon them, shot 
down twelve on the spot, and took their scalps , the rest fleeing for 
their lives to the tribe, carried to it the tidings of the bloody and 
wicked transaction. Casgill was generally and highly censured by the 
white people, it being believed he must have known the unhappy hun- 
ters belonged to the tribe of the friendly Tarratines. 

Never were the feelings of the tribe put to severer trial. For the 
provincial governor, perplexed at the nefarious affair, sent a message 
to the sagamores, stating that it was impossible to distinguish between 
their Indians and others, and that they must, within eight days, accord- 
ing to the last treaty, send twenty men to join in the war against the 
common enemy, or their tribe would be treated as belligerent foes. 

"What! take arms in aid of men who had themselves broken the 
treaty, — base men, whose hands are reeking with the blood of unoffend- 
ing Indians? Aunt-ah, aunt-ah [no ! no!]," cried the chief speaker in 
a council met on the occasion. "Send the H^ar-whoop ! Strike through 
the false-hearted white men ! Burn to ashes their wives, —their wig- 
wams, too ! Take blood for blood ! The spirits of our murdered broth- 
ers call to us for revenge. The winds howl to us fionj the wilderness. 
Sister widows cry, — orphans too. Do not Indians feel? Cut their 
veins ; do they not bleed ? The moose bellows over wasted blood. The 
bear licks the bleeding wounds of its cub. O Metunk-senah ! Metunk- 
senah ! [Our Father, our Heavenly Father], pity our mourners. 
Avenge ill-treated Indians. Our fathers told us. Englishmen came 
here, a great many, many moons ago. They had no lands, no wig- 
wams, — nothing. Then our good fathers say, "come, hunt in our 
woods; come, fish in our rivers; come, warm by our fires. " So they 
catch very great many salmon, — other fishes too. They stay among us 
always. They call Indians good brothers. They smile in our faces. 
They make wick-hegin [writingsl. to live here with us,— all one, the 
same people. They signed them, as they call it, — our fathers, too. 
Then Englishmen call the lands their own. Our fathers meant no 
such thing. Certain, they never leave their children to starve. Eng- 
lishman always smiles when he gets advantage. Then he loves us all 
greatly. When he wants nothing of Indians, he don't love 'em so 
much. Frenchmen never get away our lands. They sell us guns, — 
powder too, — and great many things. They give us down weight, full 
measure. They open our eyes to religion. They speak to us, in dark 
days, good words of advice. Englishmen rob us. They kill our 
brothers, when their hearts were warm with friendship,— when sweet 
peace was melting on their lips. We give them homes. They put the 
flaming cup to our mouths. They shed our blood. Did ever English- 
men come to Indian's wigwam faint, and go away hungry ? Never. 
Where shall Indians go? Here we were born. Here our fathers died. 
Here their bodies rest. Here, too, we live. .^rise. Join Frenchmen. 
Fight Englishmen. They shall die. They shall give place to Indi- 
ans. This land, this river, is ours. Hunt Englishmen all off the 
ground. Then shall Indians be free; then the ghosts of our fathers 
bless their sons." 

The voice of Orono, himself then more than sixty years of age, was 
still for peace. "To kill the living will not bring the to life. The 
crimes of few never sprinkle blood on all. .Strike the murderers. Let 
the rest be quiet. Peace is a voice of the Great .Spirit. Every one is 
blessed under its wings. Everything withers in war. Indians are 
killed. Squaws starve. Nothing is gained , not plunder, not glory. 
E^nglishmen are now too many. Let the hatchet lay buried. Smoke 
the calumet once more. Strive for peace. Exact a recompense by 
treaty for wrongs done us. None ! ay, then fight 'em." 

But the young Indians panted for war, levenge and glory; and as 
the Government soon proclaimed that hostilities actually existed 
against the Tarratines, all hopes of any immediate pacification were 
dissipated. At first the Indians made some violent attacks, killed 
several people and burned a few houses. But they were neglected by 
the French; time, war, and disease, they found, had greatly thinned 
their ranks; in the course of three years they became discouraged, — 
such a period being always long enough to satisfy Indian warriors; and 
in 1759 the tribe was literally overawed by the establishment of Fort 
Pownall, on the westerly banks of Penobscot Bay. Therefore, in .April 
of the next year, they entered into a treaty with the provincial govern- 
ment, and made war upon the colonists no more. 

He, Osson, died about the beginning of the American Revolution. 
During the preceding interval of peace, Orono, next to Osson in pol- 
itical power, had, by his ability and prudence, acquired the confidence 
of his people so entirely that they united and made him chief soon 
after the other's death. Orono was a high liberty man, and from the 
first a thoroughgoing Whig. He could not imagine how the mother 



ounlry could possibly wish to enslave or plunder the colonies, which 
were, as he thought, her distant children. Such were his views of 
riches, religions, sovereignty, and even glory, that he could not see how 
all of them combined could be any motive to so unnatural a warfare. 
Liberty, next to peace, was the sweetest sound that could salute Or- 
ono's ear. It was, to his experience, the gift and feeling of nature. In 
conference with his people, he declared it to be an inborn disposition 
of the heart and natural habit of life to strive against force and control, 
as against death. He felt it. He knew it. The wild creatures that 
rove through the woods he had seen happy, though hungry, because 
they were under no ties that bound them. The brave little beaver 
fights a duel with a hunter-boy for the chance of escape. What being 
does not sigh and sicken in confinement? Does not even the spring- 
bird then forget its song, — the ermine its sports? All nature flourishes 
when free. The Great Spirit gives us freely all things. Our while 
brothers tell us they came to Indian's country to enjoy liberty and life. 
Their great Sagamore is coming to bind them in chains, to kill them. 
We must fight him. We will stand on the same ground with them. 
For should he bind them in bonds, next he will treat us as bears. In- 
dians" liberties and lands his proud spirit will tear away from them. 
Help his ill-treated sons; they will return good for good, and the law 
of love runs through the hearts of their children and ours when we are 
dead. Look down the stream of lime. Look up to the Great Spirit. 
Be kind, be valiant, be fiee: — then are Indians the sons of glory. 

Aroused and captivated by Orono's sentiments, his people generally 
became decided Whigs. He had also great influence with the sachem 
at Passamatjuoddy, and even at the river St. John, though in each of 
the. tribes there were Indian Tories, and party spirit ran high; human 
nature, whether cultivated or wild, exhibiting the same traits of char- 
acter. At length Orono and three of his colleagues started to go and 
tender their friendship and services to the government of Massachusetts, 
attended by Andrew Gilman, who could speak their language as well 
as his own. On their arrival at Portsmouth, money was liberally con- 
tributed to bear their expenses, and a carriage procured to help them 
on their journey. They met the Provincial Congress at Waterlown, 
June 21, 1775, and entered into a treaty of amity with that body and 
of engagements to afford assistance, afterwards proving themselves to 
be among the most faithful allies of the American people. In return 
for their pledges of good faith and immediate aid, Massachusetts for- 
bade, under severe penalties, all trespasses on their lands, six miles in 
width on each side of the Penobscot river from the head of the tide up- 
wards. On the nineteenth of July, 1776, the three tribes mentioned all 
acknowledged the independence of the United States, and engaged to 
withhold all succor from the British enemy. In fact, there were sta- 
tioned near the head of the tide, on the Penobscot, a company of thirty 
(twenty white men and ten Indians), under the command of Andrew 
Gilman, a lieutenant, and Joseph Munsell, an orderly sergeant, both 
previously mentioned; and at Machias, where Munsell was afterwards 
himself a lieutenant, there was a large company of one hundred In- 
dians or more, commanded by Captain John Preble, all of whom had 
rations, and most of them were under pay. 

No man was more faithful to his engagements than Orono. From 
1779, when the British took possession of the peninsula Biguyduce 
(now Casline), and exercised an arbitrary command over all the settle- 
ments on each side of the river, that active, vigilant chief communicated 
with great dispatch to our officers and Government important and re- 
peated intelligence, for which he once, if not more, received a tribute 
of special thanks, and also a pecuniary reward. He was wise in coun- 
sel, and his zeal to the last was inspiring to his tribe. 

Orono was holden in equally high estimation after the war; and in 
1785 and 1796 he entered into favorable treaties with Massachusetts, 
by which he and his tribe, for valuable considerations, assigned to hei 
large tracts of land, and also agreed with her upon the limits and ex- 
lent of the territory retained. This celebrated chief, after a very long 
life of usel'ulness and destruction, died at Oldtown, February 5. 1802, 
reputed to have been one hundred and thirteen years old. But Captain 
Munsell, who conversed with him in his last sickness, and asked him 
his age, thinks, according to his best recollection, Orono told him he 
was about one hundred and ten years of age at that time. He was ex- 
ceedingly endeared to his tri jc, and highly respected by all his English 
acquaintance. To a remarkable degree, he retained his mental faculties 
and erect attitude till the last years of his life. As he was always 
abstemious, and as his hair in his last years was of a milky whiteness, 
he resembled in appearance a cloistered saint. His wife, who was a 
full-blooded native, died several years after him. at an age supposed to 
be greater than his own. Of his posterity it is only known that he 
had two children, one a son, who was accidentally shot, about 1774. in 

a hunting party, aged probably twenty-five; the other a daughter, who 
married old Captain Nicholar. So desirous were his English friends 
and neighbors to perpetuate his name and character that, when the 
territory in the immediate vicinity of Oldtown was incorporated into a 
town, March 12, 1806, it was called "Orono," in compliment to the 
worthy chief. 

His wife, commonly called "Madame Orono," died 
at the very advanced age of one hundred and fifteen 
years, in 1S09. 

At the centennial celebration in Orono, March 3, 1874, 
the following poem on "The Old Chiefs," bringing "the 
bkie-eyed" ])rominently into notice, was sung by the as- 
sembled company. It is from the pen of Rev. Henry 
C. Leonard, long pastor of the Universalist church in 
the village: 

We sing the chiefs of auld lang syne: 

Madockawando grave — 
The Tarratine in Philip's lime; 

Megone, the friend and knave; 
Wenamuet with kingly face; — 

All braves who bent the bow 
In autumn's hunt or winter's chase; 

But most, great Orono. 

Madockawando's royal hand. 

In nature's temple green. 
His squaw-child gave in marriage bond 

To lone and proud Castine. 
But from the mountains to the sea. 

Where gleams Penobscot's flow. 
Best praised the white-born chief shall be. 

The blue-eyed Orono. 

In modern days of Atieon, 

Or Neptune's later reign. 
No tales are told of brave deeds done 

Or sung in noble strain. 
Our thoughts are turned to other days, 

The days of strife and woe. 
Relieved by calm, pacific ways 

Of pale-faced Orono. 

We sing the chief, the grand old chief, 

The chief of auld lang syne. 
Whose years of rule on mem'ry's leaf 

Are years of bloodless line. 
We sing the chief, the grand old chief, 

The chief of long ago, — 
The corn still sound in memory's sheaf, — 

The high-browed Orono. 

Nearly a century and a half from the disappearance of 
Madockawando from history, we come to the chieftain- 
ship of John Atteon over the Penobscot Indians. He 
was rt- ported to be a descendant of the Baron de Cas- 
tine and an Indian mother, but could not speak English 
with facility, while Francis, one of the captains inducted 
into office at the same time, and also supposed to be of 
French blood in part, was a good English speaker, intel- 
ligent and communicative. The sagamore or governor 
had been chosen by general election of the tribe. 

Mr. Williamson, the historian, was an eye-witness of 
the ceremonies of induction or inauguration, and thus 
describes them: 

The parties in the Tarratine tribe were so sanguine and violent after 
they lust their chief, that they could not for many months agree upon 
a successor. Perplexed with the long controversy and deeply concerned 
in effecting a union, the Catholic priest interposed his influence; when 
they were induced to leave the rival candidates and select John Aitleon^ 
a reputed descendant of Baron de Castine, by an Indian wife. 

On the i9lh of September, i8r6, at Oldtown village. Sagamore Ait- 
loon. John Xi^ptune, next in grade and command, and two captains 



were inducted into office, with the customary ceremonies. To assist in 
these, the chiefs and 15 or 20 other principal men from eacli of the 
tribes at St. John's river and at Passamaquoddy had previously arrived, 
appearing in neat and beconung dresses, all in the Indian fashion. 

Early in the forenoon, the men of the Tarratine tribe, convening in 
the great wigwam, called the camp, seated on the side pl.atform accord- 
ing to seniority, Aitteon, Neptune, and the select captains at the head, 
next the door; the former two being clad in coats of scarlet broad- 
cloth and decorated with silver brooches, collars, armelasjis, jewels, 
and other ornaments. Upon a spread before them, of blue cloth, an 
ell scjuare, were e.\hibited four silver nied.ils, three of which were circu- 
lar and twice the size of a dollar; the other was larger, in the form o, 
a crescent. All these were emblematically inscribed with curious de_ 
vices, and suspended by parti-colored ribbons, a yard in length with 
ends tied. Aware of gentlemen's wishes to be spectatois of the cere- 
monials, they directed the Indian acting the part of marshal to invite 
them into the camp. The admission of the female visitants was also 
requested; but he replied, as directed by the chiefs, "Never our 
squaws, nor yours, sit with us in coiuicil." 

The spectators being seated below the tribe, upon the platform or 
benches, covered with blankets, the Marechite delegation, preceded 
by their chief, entered the camp in tnie Indian file and sat down, ac- 
cording to individual rank, directly before the Tarratines. These now 
tmcovered their heads and laid aside their hats and caps till the cere- 
monies were closed. 

Four belts of wampum, brought into the camp by a stately Mare- 
chite, v\'ere unfolded and placed in the area upon a piece of broadcloth 
which enclosed ihem; when his Sagamore, presently rising, took and 
held one of them in his hands, and addressed Aitteon from five to ten 
minutes in a courtly speech of pure vernacular, laying the belt at his 
feet. Three others in rotation, and ne.\t in rank, of the same tribe, 
addiessed, in a similar manner, the Tarratine candidates of compara- 
tive grade; — all which were tokens of unchanging friendship and sane" 
tions of perpetual union. The Sagamore then, taking the meda 
nearest .Aitteon, addressed him and his tribe in another speech of the 
same length as the former, in the course of which he came three o 
four times to momentary pauses, when the Tarratines, collectively, ut. 
tered deep guttural sounds like "aye." These were evident expres- 
sions of their assent to have ."Aitteon, Neptune, Francis, and the other 
their first and second Sagamores, and two senior captains. The 
speaker, closing his remarks, advanced and placed the suspended 
medal, as the badge of investiture, about .Aitteon's neck, the act by 
which he was formally inducted into office and constituted Sagamore 
for life. Neptune and the two captains, in their turns, after being 
shortly addressed by the other Marechite actors, were invested by tl-.em 
with the ensigns of office in the same way. 

During these ceiemonies, the 'Quoddy Indians without stood around 
a standard twenty feet in height, to and from the top of which they 
alternately hoisted and lowered a flag, as each I'arraline was inducted 
into office, at the same time and afterwards firing salutes from a well- 
loaded swivel, near the same place. 

Mr. Romaigne, the Catholic priest, attired in a white robe and long 
scarf, having seated himself among the Tarratines before the ceremonies 
were coinmenced, now, rising, read appropriate passages from the 
Scriptures in Latin, and expounded them in the Indian dialect; and 
next a psalm, which he and the Marechites chanted with considerable 
harmony. In the midst of the sacred song, the whole of them moved 
slowly out of the camp, preceded by the priest, leaving the Tarratines 
seated, and, forming a circle in union with the 'Quoddy Indians, stood 
and sang devoutly several minutes, and closed with a "Te Deum." 
• The priest then departed to his house, and the Indians, entering the 
camp, took their seats--the '(Juoddy Indians in a lower place, abreast 
the sitting spectators, when they commenced their tangible salutations. 
In this form of civility, each of the two delegations, rising in turn, liter- 
ally embraced, cheek and lip, the four new-made officers, and shook 
heartily by the hand all the others of the tribe. 

The gentlemen, at the marshal's request, now withdrew, to be spec- 
tators only about the doors and apertures; when the Tarratine females, 
clad in their best dresses and fancifully ornamented, joined for the first 
time the Indian assemblage, and the whole formed an elliptical circle 
for dances. In close Indian file they moved forward m successive 
order, with a kind of double shuffle, to their former places, animated 
by the music of a light beat upon a drum, in the midst of the circus, 
with the accompaniment of a vocal tune, (l-'ormeriy their chief instru- 
ments were rattles, made of small gourds and pumpkin shells.) The 
fem.ale dancers then retired; the Indians took their seats; and the spec- 
tators were re-adniiiied. 

To close the ceremonies, four chief men of the Marechites severally 
rose in succession and sang short songs, somewhat entertaining, which 
were dulv responded by others from the new-made officers; throughout 
which the whole assemblage uttered, at almost every breath, a low- 
toned, emphatic guttural sound, not unlike a hiccough, — the singular 
way by which they expressed their plaudits and pleasures. 

More than three hours were consumed in these ceremonies, which 
were succeeded by a feast already preparing. Two fat oxen, slaugh- 
tered and severed into pieces, were roasting; rice, beans, and garden 
vegetables were boiling; and bread-loaves and crackers were abundant. 
If the cooking, neatness, and order were unworthy of modern imita- 
tion, the defects were counterbalanced by the hearty invitations and 
welcomes with which all the visitants, equally with the natives, were 
urged to become partakers, both of the repast and of the festive 
scenes. The regularities of the day relaxed to rude dances and wild 
sports in the evening, w hich \\ere by no means free from extravagance 
and excess. 

In 1838 Alteon and Neptune were deposed by the 
tribe, and the resultant troubles were such that the legis- 
lature of the State intervened, and passed an act that an 
election should be held by the tribe every two years. 
This law has been modified since, as will be seen here- 
after. This Atteon died in May, 1S58, having had real 
or nominal jurisdiction over the tribe from 1816 to that 
time — forty-two years. 'I'he later i:hiefs or "governors" 
were Tomer Socklexis, John Neptune, father of tlie 
LieutenantGovernor of the same name; Joseph Lolon, 
father of the well-known Captain Francis; John Atteon, 
grandson of the former Sagamore John; and Joseph 
Atteon, son of the last John. Some others have suc- 
ceeded him for longer or shorter terms. 


The Penobscots at Oldtown, having lost their sa- 
chem, undertook the election of another in 181 6. It 
was usual to elect proniptly a near relative of the deceased 
Sagamore; Init in this case a delay of several months 
occurred before a successor could be agreed upon; and 
at length the factional spirit becoming unieasonably high 
and intemperate their priest, a Roman Catholic, interposed 
his authority, and virtually compelled them to abandon 
the previous candidates and elect John Atteon, who was 
reputed, as we have noticed, to be a descendant of the 
Baron de St. Castine. The new chief was inducted into 
office September 19, 1816, when John Neptune was 
chosen his lieutenant, and two chief captains were con- 
firmed, one of whom was Captain Francis. This is the 
same Captain Francis, "a man of good understading," 
who gave the historian Willianison the information before 
cited concerning the relationship of all the Indian tribes 
of Maine. 

A brief but interesting sketch of the "political his- 
tory" of the tribe, such as it is, is thus given by Agent 
Dillinghain, in his report for 1875: 

I'rior to 1835, or thereabouts, as I am informed, no elections of dele- 
gate to the Legislature were held in the tribe. The tjovernor and 
Lieutenant-Governor had been chosen for life, and such delegates re- 
ceived their appointment from the Governor of the tribe. John .Attian 
and [ohn Neptune were holding the respective offices of Governor and 
Lieutenant-Governor at that time, when, either by resignation, 
impeachment, or from some cause, those offices were declared vacant, 
and a meeting for a new election called; at which time Tomer Sock- 
lexis and Attian Orson were chosen to fill the vacancies. The result 
was not acquiesced in by a part of the tribe, who claimed that those 
offices could not be vacated during the life of the occupants, and still 
considered .Attian and Neptune their legally constituted officers. An- 
other portion of the tribe hckl that the election was valid, and refused 



longer to recognize Altian and Xeptune as officers. Since that time 
the portion claiming Attian as Governor has been called the "Old 
Party," and that portion claiming Sockle.vis as Governor, the "New 

This state of affairs continued \mlil 1850. when an agreement was 
entered into and signed by the officers and principal members of the 
two parties, providing "that as John and John Xeptune were 
chosen according to the ancient usages of the tribe into their respec- 
tive offices for life, that they should remain in said offices during the 
remainder of their lives, and on the decrease ot one or both, the vacancy 
should be filled by majority vote of the male members of the tribe of 
twenty-one years of age and upwards, in meeting duly called by the 
Agent. Said officers to continue for two years, and that an election 
should be held every year to choose one member of the tribe to repre- 
sent the tribe before the Legislature and the Governor and Council." 
This agreement was not, as I learn, ver)' sacredly kept, or even much 
regarded by either party, but each continued to claim and recognize 
the same officers as before. 

On the deceased of Governor John .\ttian, the old party immedialelv 
declared his son, Joseph .^ttian, his successor, and he was duly inaugu- 
rated by them, according to ancient custom, for life. Elections were 
held annually for choice of delegate. Party spirit ran high, and there 
e,\isted much ill-feeling, which manifested itself in individual quarrels 
during the year, and usually at elections terminated in a general fight. 
The question of term of office of Governor and Lieutenant Governor 
continued an unsettled issue; discussions and quarrels interfered seri- 
ously with their general avocations; for several weeks prior to the an- 
nual election they wouli congregate at Oldtown from various distant 
localities, consuming much time and money in addition to ordinary 
travelling expenses. 

Finally the Legislature, evidently considering it for the best interest 
of the tribe, enacted a law in 1866, which provided "that the Penob- 
scot Tribe of Indians be allowed hereafter to elect by ballot their 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Representative to the Legislature, 
on the second Tuesday of September, annually, (changed in 1873 to 
first Wednesday in November), and that the old and new party, so 
called, shall be allowed to select from their respective parties, candi- 
dates for said offices, alternately, commencing with the old party for 
the year 1867; and the new party shall have no voice in the selection of 
candidates for said offices, and shall not vole in their election in those 
years when the old party is entitled to them; and the old party shall 
have no voice in the selection of candidates for sard offices, and no 
vote in their election, in those years when the new party is entitled to 
them ; and it shall be the duty of the Agent to preside at such elec- 
tions." Since which time their elections have been held in accordance 
with that act, without objection being made thereto until lately. Each 
party has now held fi\e elections of delegate, and at each have also 
voted for Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, abandoning the old idea 
of life term. Such elections have been perfectly quiet and orderly, 
and, so far as I have been able to judge, satisfactory to those partici- 

Within a few years about fifteen of the dissatisfied meinbers from 
each of the two before named parties have united, calling Ihemsehes 
"Third Party," or "Outsiders," and have claimed the same rights that 
have been granted to the old and new parlies ; that is, among other 
privileges, the right to hold elections one-third of the time. -At the 
last election held by the old party (November, 1874), they having failed 
to agree on the nominations made as usual in caucus, two sets of can- 
didates were voted for; the defeated portion then joined the "third 
party " in petitioning the Legislature the following winter for repeal of 
the law of 1866, and to change the manner of conducting their elec- 
tions, and to allow the tribe to vote together and the person having 
the majority of votes to be declared elected, as was their former cus- 
tom, as they claim. The old party had then held five elections under 
the law of r866* the new party had held but four. These two parties 
then united in presenting a remonstrance against any such proposed 
change in the law affecting their elections. The peiuioners were, alter 
hearing, granted leave to withdraw, without attempting to indicate 
what may be a peaceful solution of this ve.xed question. I merely give 
the above facts to be taken and used for what they are worth. 

At the annual election of ths tribe, held on the first 
Tuesday of October, 1880, Stephen Stanislaus was 
chosen Governor, Samuel Neptune Lieutenant-Governor, 
and Joseph Nicolar, Superintendent of Farming, was 
elected Delegate of the tribe to the State Legislature. 


The first formal cession of their territory by the Tar- 
ratine or Penobscot Indians seems to have been effected 
at a conference and treaty of alliance held at the truck- 
house near Mt. Hope, a little below the Penjejawock 
stream, in Kenduskeag. now Bangor, in September, 1775. 
There were present the chiefs of the Penobscot and St. 
John's tribes, and on the part of the whites Generals Ben- 
jamin Lincoln and Rufus Putnam, and Dr. Thomas 
Rice. A treaty was here made and signed, by which the 
red men relinquished a tract si.v miles wide on each side 
of the river, and retained, as now, the islands in the river 
above Oldtown, and in addition two islands in the Bay 
and the land^ along the branches on the west side of the 
Penobscot. This treaty the head-men of the tribe sub- 
sequently repudiated, and new treaties had to be made. 
The story is well told by the Hon. Lorenzo Sabine, a res- 
ident of Bangor in his childhocd, in an elaborate article 
on the Penobscots, in Volume XII. of the C/iris/ian 
Examiner : 

At the Revolution, the ungranted lands of Maine held by the Rrilish 
crowii,as well as large tracts held by Loyalists, or Tories, became 
vested in Massachusetts; and at the close of the struggle the attention 
of gentlemen of that State, and of adventurers elsewhere, was directed to 
them as a sure means to increase or acquire fortunes. The documents 
of the time show indeed that, for ten or fifteen years after the peace, 
the mania for " Eastern lands" was quite as intense as that which pre- 
vailed within a very recent period. The pine forests and mill-sites of 
the Penobscots were of great value, and were wanted by the "opera- 
tors" of the day. Accordingly, in 1784, commissioners were ap- 
pointed by Massachusetts to negotiate a cession. The result was the 
purchase, in 1786, for 350 blankets and 200 pounds of powder, and a 
quantity of shot and flints, of the country on the Penobscot River to 
the Piscataquis stream on the one bank, and to the Metawamkeag on 
the other, save the waters between the falls at Oldtown and the mouths 
of these tributaries. This, as far as we have been able to discover, was 
the first actual cession, and these paltry presents was the first pre- 
tended eijuivalent. But the country below Bangor, on both banks of 
the river and bay, had passed from their possession. On the westerly 
side, the grant known in later times as the "Waldo Patent" embraced 
the whole, while easterly, the colonial government had seized and ap- 
propriated every acre of the mainland and all the islands, two of con- 
siderable size only excepted. Thus the Penobscots had lost a large part 
of their domam before the new masters they had offered to serve set 
their covetous eyes on the territory above the head of the tide-waters. 
There remained to the Indians, then, after the bargain in 1786 was con- 
cluded, two islands near the sea, the islands just mentioned, and the 
tract above Piscataquis and Metawamkeag, and northerly from them 
without defined limits; and these were guaranteed in quiet possession, 
as the chiefs supposed, forever. The words of the treaty are that all 
the lands on the Penobscot River above the two streams named in the 
tract, should lie as hunting-grounds for the Indians, and should not be 
laid out or settled by the State or engrossed by individuals. But the 
government of Massachusetts understood the matter diflferently. and 
difficulties soon arose between the contracting parties, which, increasing 
until r796, were adjusted, as then appeared, by a new treaty. In this 
second convention the Penobscots ceded the mainland on both sides of 
the river for a distance of thirty miles, commencing at a designated 
rock in Eddington; but retained the river islands and the territory 
above the thirty-mile line so drawn, northerly and indefinitely. The 
consider.ition for the cession was 400 pounds of shot, too pounds of 
powder, 100 bushels of corn, 13 bushels of salt, 36 hats, and a barrel of 
rum, in hand, with an annuity of 300 bushels of corn, 50 pounds of 
powder, 200 pounds of shot, and 75 yards of blue cloth. This annuity 
is about equal to $600. This tract was surveyed into nine townships 
and offered to purchasers in quarter-townships at a price the acre, 
which, if received, placed in the treasury upwards of $180,000! Such 
was the dealings of Christians with the helpless Indians in the year 

In 1818, owing to various causes, the Penobscots had become poor; 
and well do we remember their distress and sympathy of individuals in 



behalf of their women and children. In the poverty of the tribe, sales 
of pine timber svere ni.ide by their chiefs, on tlie lands which they re- 
served in the last treaty, much to the displeasure of Massachusetts, on 
the ground that the fee was in the State, and that the mere right to oc- 
cupy, to fish, and to hunt was all that could be enjoyed by the Indians, 
unless, indeed, they might embrace an agricultural life, of which there 
could have been no ho[)e, for then the keenest .Anglo-Saxon eye saw 
nothing in Maine east of the Kennebec but pine-trees and water-power 
to saw them into marketable shapes. 

In this position of affairs a commission was created to open a third 
negotiation. Early in 1819, aconvention was ratified by which the Com- 
monwealth obtained the whole of the remaining country, excepting four 
townships of mainland, six miles square, and the islands so often men- 
tioned in the Penobscot River. We have no room to record the various 
articles which were to be delivered to the chiefs annually as payment for 
this cession; but we state with pleasure that the quantities of food, 
cloth, and ammunition were considerably more than in 1796, and that 
provision was made for the repair of tlic Indian church and for the em- 
ployment of a teacher in husbandry, while, beside, the women and 
maidens were presented with several hundred yards of calico and rib- 
bon. In fine, there is a spirit of liberality in this treaty which was 
manifested on no other occasion. 

But yet Massachusetts has little reason to plume herself on her 
course toward the Penobscots, while they were under her guaidianship. 
The Indian domain, though worth a million at the periods of cession, 
and several millions now, cost her at most less than $35,000, as she 
herself estimated, when, at the separation, an arrangement was sug- 
gested by wliich Maine was to assume the payment of the annuities 
stipulated in the treaties to which we have referred. Maine, on becom_ 
ing an independent State, in 1820, assumed the control of Indian af- 
fairs within her borders; and, in 1833. appointed commissioners to dis- 
pose of the four townships reserved by the Penobscots in the conven- 
tion of 1819. The purchase-money, amounting to some $55,000, was 
invested under the direction of the State, and remains entire. The in- 
terest of this fund is divided annually in equal shares ; and m addition 
the annuities under the treaties with Massachusetts are contmued, and 
cannot be withheld, if good faith be observed, while the Penobscots 
shall exist as a nation. These two sources of income, with the islands, 
constitute now the only |)ublic or common property of the tribe. The 
islands, to rely upon our own count in 1852, are twenty-seven or 
twenty-eight in number. Some are low, small, and of little value; but 
others are beautiful in surface and situation, and sufficient in size and 
in richness of soil for the support of one hundred more families. 

Some additional details concerning the arrangement 

of 1795 are thus supplied by Mr. Wilhamson: 

A serious controversy had lately arisen between the inhabitants upon 
the Penobscot and the Tarratine Indians. By the treaty of 1785 the 
Government supposed the tribe had nothing remaining but the islands 
in the river; whereas, the chiefs insisted that the territory from the 
head of the tide, six miles in width, on each side of the river upwards, 
indefinitely, was theirs; and they determined not to relinquish it with- . 
out being paid a consideration. To settle, therefore, the question of 
controverted claims, three commissioners. William Shepherd of West- 
field, Nathan Dane of Beverly, and Daniel Davis of Portland, met 
the chiefs at Bangor, .'\ugust i, 1796, and concluded a treaty with 
them, by which tbe Indians agreed to resign all their rights to lands 
from Nichols's rock, in Eddington, thirty miles up the river, excepting 
Oldtown Island, and those in the river above it. For this relinquish- 
ment, the Government delivered to the tribe 150 yards of blue woolens, 
— 400 pounds shot, — too pounds powder, — 100 bushels of corn, — 13 
bushels salt, — 36 hats, — and a barrel of rum; and agreed to pay them, 
so long as tliey should continue a tribe, a certain stipend every year, at 
the mouth of the Kenduskeag. consisting of 300 bushels of Indian 
corn, — 50 pounds of powder, — 200 pounds of shot, — and 75 yards of 
blue woollen, fit for garments. The ratification of this treaty consisted 
in its execution by the seals and signatures of the commissioners and 
seven chiefs, and its acknowledgement betore Jonathan Eddy, esq. It 
was supposed this tribe, once so numerous and powerful, was now 
reduced to 350 souls. In 1803. the Government appointed an agent to 
superintend their interests and take care of their lands. 

The territory relinquished by the treaty was subsequently surveyed 
into nine townships, and found to contain 189,426 acres. Already 
there were thirty-two settlers, who were presently quieted upon their 
lots; and in 1798 the residue was offered for sale in quarter-townships 
at a dollar by the acre. Exclusive of this tract so relinejuished, is 
Marsh island of five thousand acres and of an excellent soil, which the 

Government, in a good mood, confirmed to John Marsh, the first settler, 
for a small consideration, he exhibiting a pretended purchase from 
the Indians. 


held in the State treasury for the benefit of the Indians 
consists mainly of fifty thousand dollars paid by the State 
in 1833, as jjart of the consideration for the four town- 
ships of land purchased of the tribe. It was stipulated 
that this sum should rest forever in the hands of the 
State, but that a yearly interest thereon should be paid 
to the Penobscots. Drafts were made on it, however, 
from time to time, when over-expenditures were incurred 
by the agents; but the sums taken were afterwards 
restored from the interest fund. January i, 1864, the 
fund amounted to fifty-two thousand four hundred and 
thirty-eight dollars and forty-four cents, and additions 
were made to it year by year from various sources, but 
chiefly from rents derived from leasts ol the shores of 
islands belonging to the reservation. In 1875 'he trust 
fund had mounted to seventy-three thousand eight hun- 
dred and twenty-eight dollars and forty-eight cents, and 
the annual revenues from it constituted a very import- 
ant part of the means for keejiing the members of the 
tribe from want and discontent. For some years after 
the act of February 11, 1873, the shore rents were not 
added to the fund, but have been distributed directly to 
the Indians — a plan which, said Agent Dillingham, in 
his report of 1875, "has been very satisfactorily received, 
and has been of very great advantage to the tribe, in 
relieving their necessities and enabling them to live 
through these hard times, when all, even the prudent 
whites, find it so necessary lo carefully husband their 

The amount derived from the Indian trust fund, for 
each of the two years 1879-80, on interest account, was 
four thousand four hundred and twenty-nine dollars and 
seventy cents. The tribe also received an annuity of one 
thousand four hundred dollars (formerly one thousand 
eight hundred dollars), seven hundred dollars per an- 
num for their agriculture, besides four hundred and fifty 
dollars bounty on crops, and special appropriations for 
schools and school-houses, repair of chapel, and salaries 
of agent, superintendent of farming, priest (one hundred 
dollars per year), governor (fifty dollars), and lieutenant 
governor (thirty dollars). The total amounts in the two 
years, respectively, were eight thousand and twenty-four 
dollars and seventy cents, and eight thousand three hun- 
dred and ninety-four dollars and seventy cents. The 
shore rents added four thousand three hundred and 
si.xty-one dollars and twenty-five cents to this in 1879, 
and two thousand one hundred and fifty-four dol- 
lars the ne.xt year, the decrease being caused by the 
falling off of the lumber trade, the destruction of import- 
ant mills, and other reasons. 

It is thus seen that the tribe, considering its limited 
numbers, is remarkably 'well provided for. The sums 
paid to its members are expended under the direction of 
the agent, mainly in supporting the very poor and infirm, 
supplying medicine and medical attendance, paying 
funeral expenses, and providing for a distribution in the 



si)ring, to all ihe tribe, of corn, flour, pork, and molasses. 
Wood is also inircliased, as needed by these people. 
Schools for the Indian children are maintained on Old- 
town, Mattanawcook, and Olamon islands, the latter two 
in charge of the school committees of Greenbush and 
Lincoln, respectively, and the first now taught by the 
Sisters of Mercy, with great acceptability and success. 
A new building was put up for ihis school, at the north 
end of the village, in the summer of iS8o, at a cost of 
about five hundred dollars. 


It is altogether orobable, from the number of arrow- 
heads, axes, and other Indian antiquities found in places, 
that the Tarratines had at least temporary camping 
grounds on all the tributaries of the Penobscot. But 
three sites in particular furnished them places of rendez- 
vous — Mattawamkeag, Passadumkeag, and the Falls of 
the Penobscot. At the latter two points it is believed 
there were French forts, as well as Indian villages. One 
of these was destroyed by Colonel Westbrook in 1723, 
the inhabitants retiring up the river to Matlawamkeag. 
The other was burned by Captain Heath about two years 
afterwards. There is at this time no mention of a village 
at Oldtown, but that undoubtedly became soon after- 
w^ards the chief seat of the tribe, and has since retained 
its pre-eminence. Mr. David Norton, author of Sketches 
of Oldtown, believes that the present name corresponds 
to an Indian name meaning the same, and given to the 
same village — that is, the Indian settlement on the lower 
part of Oldtown island. 

Governor VVashburne says, in his address at the Orono 


There was also a village on the tongue of land that extends eastward 
from this hall [the Town Hall in Orono] to the Penobscot ri\'er at 
Ayres' Falls, as they are now termed, bounded on the north by the 
Stillwater river and on the south by the basin. The Indians called the 
place Arumsumhmigtui. For many years after the settlement of the 
town by the white men, the vestiges of cornfields and of habitations 
were plain and unmistakable; and until comparatively a recent period, 
stone weapons anil implements of agriculture were occasionally turned 
up wherever the plough was driven, some of which I have seen in the 
possession of the late John Bennoch, jr., esq., and Col. Eben Webster, 
jr. I think it not improbable that the point of land at the confluence 
of the Stillwater and Penobscot rivers, may have been the site of the 
ancient "Lett" of the Indians. 

The Governor remarked also the presence of an In. 
dian village at Nicola's Island, near Passadumkeag, and 
the probable fact that the fort and village destroyed by 
Colonel Westbrook in 1723 was on this island. The In- 
dians there, with some French families, settled, he says, 
at Fort Hill, near the head of the tide, and built a vil- 
lage of cottages and wigwams, with a Catholic chapel, 
which was shortly deserted by its inhabitants, on the ap- 
proach of Captain Heath with his invading force, who 
gave the village to the flames. The Penobscots there- 
after concentrated at Oldtown. 


It is supposed that the Tarratines numbered about 
two thousand four hundred when they first became 
known to Europeans. They declined rapidly, however, 
after King William's war. In 1736 the French reckoned 

two hundred warriors on the Penobscot as available allies 
to the Government of New France. In 1754 the tribe 
counted about eight hundred, all told; but the ravages of 
famine, disease, and other causes of decrease, left them 
six years afterwards but seventy-three warriors and about 
four hundred others. In 1764 the governor reported 
that they could muster sixty fighting men ; but his esti- 
mate is believed too small. Mr. Sabine thinks there 
were then, probably, seven hundred persons in the tribe, 
but that at the close of the century there were only half 
as many, although the tribe had begun to increase some- 
what, from the encouragement given to early marriages 
by the Jesuit missionaries. The number of the Penob- 
scot Indian families in 1811 was but fifty-seven, and of 
individuals two hundred and forty-one. In 1820, all of 
them being then clustered at Oldtown, they numbered 
two hundred and seventy-seven souls, an increase as- 
cribed by Dr. Jedediah Morse, in his report of 1820, 
upon Indian affairs, to the Secretary of \\'ar, to "an 
obligation imposed by the chiefs on the young peo- 
ple to marry early." The St. Johns and Passamaquoddy 
tribes are mentioned by Dr. Morse in connection with 
the Penobscots, and he says further: 

The three tribes above named live in great harmony and friendship 
with each other. When either tribe elects and installs a chief, the chiefs 
of the other two tribes are always present to assist in the ceremonies. 

In religion these tribes are professedly Christians of the CatholicTaith^ 
have each a church, with a bell, aud priests to instruct them steadily or 
occasionally. The priests who minister to the two latter tribes [the Pas- 
saniaquoddies and the Penobscots] receive a stated stipend from the 
treasury of the State. The State has lately engaged to provide and 
support a farmer among the Penobscots to instruct them in agriculture. 
We know not that any of these tribes have ever admitted schools to be 
established among them. 

The Penobscots, in government and internal regulations, are inde- 
pendent. The legislative and e.vecutive authorities are vested in the 
sachems, though the heads of all the families are invited to be present 
at their public meetings, which are held in their house of worship and 
conducted with order and decorum. 

None of these tribes have other than incipient improvements in any- 
thin" which pertains to civilized life. It is not probable, such is the 
religious influence under which they act, combined w^ith their natural 
attachment to their native places and to the sepulchers of their fathers, 
that a proposal to remove and join a large community of Indians, 
should It be made to them, would be accepted. It is probable they 
will remove [remain?] in a sort of half-independent, half-civilized, and 
evangelized state, gradually diminishing, as other tribes, once their pow- 
erful neighbors, have done before them, till there shall be none re- 

The census of the tribe, taken usually every year by 
the superintending school committee of Oldtown, 
showed a population of four hundred and forty-three in 
August, 1855: of five hundred, in round numbers, in 
1865; four hundred and forty-eight in 1876; four hun- 
dred and forty-five in 1877; four hundred and fifty in 
January, 1878; four hundred and forty-six in 1879; four 
hundred and eighteen in 1880; and the same number in 
1 88 1. The sum-total is reduced slightly some years by 
emigration, as well as by death. The annual numbers 
of births and deaths in the tribe are generally about 


The islands belonging to the Penobscot reservation 
number in all, says the agent, one hundred and forty-six, 
with an aggregate of four thousand four hundred and 



eighty-two acres, three-quarters of which have an arable 
soil, among the most fertile and eligible for cultivation in 
the State. In 1835 the value of the whole was calcula- 
ted to be sixty-four thousand two hundred and forty-seven 
dollars and sixty-four cents, mainly for the timber and 
firewood growing upon them, which have now disap- 
peared. The islands have still high value for farming 
purposes, however, and some for hitching logs along the 
shores, available in the form of rents, although this form 
of value is reported as rapidly decreasing. Efforts are 
being made to induce the Indians to scatter along 
the islands and improve their fertile soil, instead of 
concentrating at Oldtown, as has been the tendency 
of late years. The agent says: "About all those Indi- 
ans who live on their farms up river are self-reliant, and 
have comfortable homes." In 1836 a considerable tract 
on the west side of Orson Island was surveyed and re- 
served for a public farm, suitable buildings were erected, 
a foreman was employed, and other preparations made 
to interest the tribe more thoroughly in the cultivation of 
lots upon the farm. The arrangement was not very ben- 
eficial, however, and in 1862 the whole farm was leased, 
under an act of the legislature, for a trifling sum. More 
recently, however, some of the Indians have began to 
cultivate small tracts upon the place. 

Many of the islands are leased for a small annual ren- 
tal; others, principally those lowest down the river, are 
occupied by the Indians themselves; and one. No. 133, 
of the group known as Brown Islands, near Winn, is 
reserved as their summer camping ground, and no trees 
or wood is allowed to be cut from it. 


In the summer of 1878, at the instance of Father O'- 
Brien, then priest to the tribe, and Bishop Healy, of 
Portland, four members of the community of Sisters of 
Mercy were sent from the mother-house at Manchester, 
New Hampshire, and established upon the island. They 
were at first in a hired house, but in 1880 a neat and 
commodious convent and dormitory was erected for them 
near the chapel, at a cost of one thousand two hun- 
dred dollars, nearly two-thirds of which were contribu- 
ted by Indians of the tribe. The Sisters are otherwise 
supported by funds of their church, except that they re- 
ceive the regular appropriation for schools on the island, 
in consideration of their services as teachers. Sister M. 
F. Borgia, of the Community, with one or more of her 
associates, has had of late sole charge of the school at 
Oldtown, and they also minister to the wants of the tribe 
in attendance upon the sick and other personal visita- 
tions, especially inculcating among the young women 
principles of morality, industry, and economy, — the 
need of which, indeed, prompted Father O'Brien, in 
the first instance, to secure the presence of the sisters 
here — and instructing them in sewing and other simple 
and domestic art.s, of which they were before almost 
wholly ignorant. Soon after going to the island, they 
formed a class of women, both married and single, who 
engaged in exercises of reading, singing, sewing, and 
other useful employments. An evening school was also 
established, with good success, for the young men of the 

tribe who either could not or would not attend the day 
schools. Their influence upon the island has been every 
way good. Agent Bailey, in his report for 1880, says of 
the Sisters: 

These refined and accomplished women, having taken up theirabode 
with the tribe on this island, are, with that utter self-abnegation which 
characterizes the order, assiduously devoting themselves to the moral 
and intellectual advancement of this remnant of a race which, while 
living in the midst of our civilization, is not of it. 

With the evidence of their devotion to the welfare of this people 
daily accumulating, as would be expected, a great regard is recipro- 
cally manifested for them, and no prejudice has been able to survive 
their ministry of love. It may be premature to express any compara- 
tive view of their labors, yet the opinion is ventured that upon the 
home life of the tribe their influence will not be the least potent, as 
they daily go from house to house, instructing the females in domes- 
ticity, economy in expenditures, refinement of manners, and personal 



Tiiorfinn Karlsefne — Sabastian Cabot — John Varrazano — His .Account 
of the Maine Country — ^John Rut — .Andre Thevet — First Description 
of Penobscot Bay and Islands — Sir Humphrey Gilbert — Gosnold — 
Natives in Foreign Garments, and with a Biscay Shallop — Martin 
Pring — The Sieur De Monts and Samuel De Champlain — George 
Weymouth — Was Weymouth in the Penobscot Waters? — Samuel 
.Argall — The Jesuit Fathers — Captain John Smith — New England 
First upon his Map — .Subsequent Voyages. 


To this daring Icelandic voyager may be accorded the 
honor of conducting the first recorded voyage of civil- 
ized men along the coast of Maine. Possibly Biarne the 
first Norse explorer hitherward, in the winter of 990-91, 
had caught a far glimpse of the bold headlands and 
deep bays of this rock-bound shore, as he sailed the open 
sea from Greenland to Cape Cod, and back from Cape 
Cod to Nova Scotia and home. Leif, son of Erik the 
Red, in the ship of Biarne nine years later, may also 
have descried the coast from his lookouts, as he traversed 
the watery way from his Marhland (Nova Scotia) to his 
Vinland (probably Rhode Island). The battle of Thor- 
vvald, another son of Erik, in 1004, with the Skraellings 
(Indians) — the first known conflict of Euro[)eans and 
aborigines upon the continent — doubtless came much 
nearer the present confines of Maine, being fought, as 
Dr. Kohl conjectures, on the shore not far from Boston 
harbor. Two years later, came the next courageous 
traversers of the Northern seas, Thorfinn and his com- 
panions. Thorfinn had married the widow of Thor- 
stein, a third son of Erik, and also an explorer, and 
from her learned enough of Vinland to fire his imagina- 
tion and tempt bim to emulate the deeds of his fellow- 
countrymen. His wife and others fanned the flame, and 
in the summer of 1007 he fitted out three ships, man- 
ning them with one hundred and sixty sailors and in- 
tending colonists, and also placing on board a variety of 
live stock, for the colony to-be. The next spring they 
sailed to Helluland (Leif's "stony land," or Newfound- 
land), thence to Markland, and thence, instead of fol- 



lowing their predecessors across the open sea through 
the breadth of the Gulf of Maine, they coasted a long 
way to the "southwest, having the land always on their 
starboard" — that is, the picturesque land of Maine. 
These happy, heroic eight-score were, then, the first of 
European stock to look wonder-eyed into the beautiful 
bays of Passamaquoddy, of Penobscot, and of Casco. 
They left no record of their shoreward visits, if any they 
made; but we know that they reached Cape Cod, 
probably Buzzard's Bay, and also Narragansett Bay, on 
the shores of which Thorfinn attempted settlement. 
Here a son was born to him and Gudrida — Snorre, first 
of European parentage born on the American continent. 
One of Thorfinn's trusty mates, Thorhall the Hunter, 
attempted another exploration along the coasts to the 
northeast, but was caught by strong west winds and 
driven across the ocean to the green shores of Ireland. 
Thortinn himself afterwards sailed to the northward, and 
came to "the country of the Onefoots," by which name 
he may have designated the coasts of New Hampshire 
and Maine, and in which country he saw "endless forests." 
In the spring of loii, after three years' residence in the 
south of Vinland, he sailed away to Greenland, whence 
he never returned. It is not known what became of his 


After Thorfinn, many Northmen, it is believed, made 
trading and ex[)loring voyages to Newfoundland and the 
coasts of Maine; but very few and meagre notices of 
them have been preserved, and none which relate strictly 
to the Maine country. It is quite possible, also, that 
one or both of the \'enetian adventurers, Nicolo and 
Antonio Zeno, visited the old Icaria, Estotiland, and 
Drogeo (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Eng- 
land?) laid down upon their map of 1400; but of this 
nothing is certainly known. The mists clear away with 
the advent of Columbus upon the shores of the New- 
World; and from June 24, 1497, when John Cabot 
touched the coasts of Labrador in latitude 56 or 58, as 
Humboldt and others atifirm, the time, and place of dis- 
coveries and explorations are rarely doubtful. The next 
year Sebastian Cabot, second of the three sons of John, 
sails along the coasts of Labrador and the Newfound- 
land, and from the latter southerly, keeping the shores as 
much as possible in view on his right. He was the first 
Englishman to see the headlands of Maine, and there is 
abundant reason to believe that he landed at some 
points on his voyage, which was prosecuted to the neigh- 
borhood of Cape Hatteras. Says Dr. Kohl : 

The voyage of this gifted and enterprising youth along the entire 
co;ast of the present United States — nay, along the whole extent of that 
great continent in which now the English race and language prevail and 
flourish, has always been considered as the true beginning, the founda- 
tion and corner-stone of all the English claims and possessions in the 
northern half of .America. English flags were Ihe first which were 
planted along the shores, and English men were the first of modern 
Europeans who with their own eyes surveyed the border of that great 
assemblage of countries in which they were destined to become so prom- 
inent, and were also the first to put their feet upon it. The history of 
each one of that chain of States, stretching along the western shores of 
the .Atlantic, begins with Sebastian Cabot and his expedition of 1498. 
And this is especially true of the State of Maine and the other States 

of New England, whose remarkable coasts were particularly observed 
by him and clearly delineated on his chart. 

It is thought possible that the Portuguese under Cor- 
tereal, the Bretons and other French fishermen in the 
early part of the sixteenth century, besides other adven- 
turers in these northern waters, may have visited points 
upon the shores of Maine; but if they did so, they have 
not even left even the tradition of their visits. 


This voyager, commonly called Verrazaini, w\is a Flor- 
entine adventurer, in the service of France. In the 
spring of 1524, during his celebrated traverse of the .\t- 
lantic shores from Cape Fear northward, he sailed, prob- 
ably, along the entire coast of Maine. His account of 
this part of the voyage, as translated from the Italian for 
Ramusio's narrative in Hakluyt's Voyages, and repub- 
lished in the first volume of the second series of the 
Maine Historical Collections, is well worth transcription 
here, as the first detailed description of this region given 
by any European traveller. We retain the old English 
of the translation : 

Trending afterwards [after leaving Cape Cod] to the north, we found 
another land high, full of Ihicke woods, the trees there of fitre, cipresse, 
and such like as are wont to grow in cold countreys. The people dif- 
fer much from the other, and looke how much the former seemed to be 
curteous and gentle, so much were these full of rudenesse and ill man- 
ners, and so barbarous that by no signes that ever we could make, could 
we have any kind of traffike with them. Tbey cloth themselves with 
Beares skinnes and Luzernes and Scales and other beastes skinnes. 
Their food, as farre as we could perceive, repairing often to their dwell- 
ings, we supposed to be by hunting and fishing, and of certaine fruits, 
which are a kind of roots, which the earth yeeldeth of her own accord. 
Th*^y have no graine, neither saw we any kind of signe of tillage, nei- 
ther is the land, for the barrennesse thereof, apt to beare fruit or seed. 
If at any time we desired by exchange to have anv of their commodi- 
ties, they used to come to the seashore upon certain craggy rocks, and 
we standing in our boats, they let down with a rope, crying continually 
thai we should not approach to the land, demanding immediately the 
exchange, taking nothing but knives, fishhooks, and tooles to cut 
wilhall, neither did they make any account of our courtesie. .And 
when we had nothing left to exchange with them, when we departed 
from them, the people showed all signes of discourtesie and disdaine 
as were possible for any creature to invent. We were in dispight of 
them two or three leagues within the land, being in number twenty-five 
armed men of us. -And when we went on shore they shot at us with 
their bowes, making great outcries, and afterwards fled into the woods. 

We found not in this land anything notable or of importance, saving 
very great woods and certaine hills; they may have some mineral mat- 
ter in them, because we saw many of them have headstones of copper 
hanging at their eares. We departed from thence, keeping our course 
northeast along the coast, which we found more pleasant champion 
'champaign] and without woods, with high mountains within the land. 
Continuing directly along the coast for the space of fifty leagues, we 
disco\'ered thirty-two Islands, lying all neere the land, bein,g small and 
pleasant to the view, high, and having many turnings and windings be- 
Iwene them, making many fair harboroughs and chanels as they do in 
the Gulfe of \'enice, in Sclavonia and Dalmatia. We had no knowl- 
edge or acquaintance with the people : we suppose they are of the same 
manners or nature as the others are. Sayling Northeast for the space 
of one hundred and fiftie leagues, we discovered the land that in times 
past was discovered by the Britons, which is in fiftie degrees. 


In 1527 Master John Rut, of the .Mary of Guilford, a 
vessel dispatched by King Henry VIII. of England, 
visited the coasts of "Arambec" or "Norumbega," as 
Hakluyt mentions it, often, as the same relator tells, 
"entering the ports of those regions, landing men, and 
examining into the condition of the country," and again. 



she "oftentimes put her men on land to search the state 
of these unknown regions." This is the first authentic 
report giving clear information of the landing of English- 
men u[)on these shores. It is quite probable that Master 
Rut penetrated and explored the Penobscot, and visited 
the people thereaway. Many maps of this period set 
down Penobscot Bay as the great river of Norumbega, 
and it was undoubtedly then the best-known water of 
Maine. One writer thinks that Verrazano, who had re- 
commended this expedition, was with it, and that he 
perished at the hands of tlie savages on one of his ex- 
cursions into the interior. 


This extensive traveller, a Frenchman and Franciscan 
friar, took the coast of Maine in his voyage along the 
Atlantic shore of both South and North America, in 
1554-56. He has left in his Cosmography the first de- 
tailed description of the Penobscot Bay and natives, 
which is highly interesting, and deserves quoting in full, 
as below: 

Having left La Florida on the left hand, with all its islands, gulfs, 
and capes, a river presents itself, which is one of the finest rivers in the 
whole world, which we call Noriimbegue, and the aborigines .-^goncy, 
and which is marked on some marine charts as the Grand River [mean- 
ing Tenobscot Bay]. Several other beautiful rivers enter into it; and 
upon its banks the French formerly erected a little fort about ten or 
twelve leagues from its mouth, which was surrounded by fresh water, 
and this place was named the Fort of Norumbegue. 

.Some pilots would make me believe that this country (Norumbegue) 
is the proper country of ('anada. But I told them that this was far 
from the truth, since this country lies in 43° N., that of Canada in 50 
or 52°. Before you enter the s.iid river appears an island [Fox Island], 
surrounded by eight very small islets, which are near the country of 
the green mountains [Camden Hills], and to the cape of the islets. 
F'rom there you sail all along unto the mouth of the river, which is dan- 
gerous from t'le great number of thick and high rocks ; and its entrance 
is wonderfully large, .'^bout three leagues into the river an island pre- 
sents itself to you that may have four leagues in circumference [Long 
Island, now Islesboro']. inhabited only by some fishermen and birds of 
different sorts, which island they called Aiayascou, because it has the 
form of a man's arm, which they call so. Its greatest length is from 
north to south. It wonld be very easy to plant on this island, and build 
a fortress on it to keep in check the whole surrounding country. Hav- 
ing landed and put our feet on the adjacent country, we perceived a 
great mass of people coming down upon us from all sides in such num- 
bers that you might have supposed them to have been a flight of star- 
lings. Those who marched first were the men, wdiich they call tnjuchnns. 
After them came the women, which they call pcrgruastas\ then the 
adigcstas, being the children, and the last were the girls, called aiiiiis- 
gestas. And all this people was clothed in skins of wild animals, which 
they call rabalatz. Now, considering their aspect and manner of pro- 
ceeding, we mistrusted them and went on board our vessel. But they, 
perceiving our fear, lifted their hands into the air, making signs that 
we should not mistrust them; and for making us still more sure, they 
sent to our vessel some of their principal men, which brought us pro- 
visions. In recompense of this, we gave them a few trinkets of a low 
price, by which they were highly pleased. The ne.xt morning I, with 
some others, was commissioned to meet them, to know whether they 
would be inclined to assist us with more victuals, of which we were 
very much in need. But having entered into the house, which they 
call eattoquc, of a certain little king of theirs which called himself Per- 
amich, we saw several killed animals hanging on the beams of the said 
house, which he had prepared (as he assured us) to send to us. This 
chief gave us a very hearty welcome, and, to show us his affection, he 
ordered to kindle a fire, which they call azista, on which the meat was 
to be put and fish to be roasted. Upon this some rogues came in to 
bring to the king the heads of six men, which they had taken in war 
and massacred, which terrified us, fearing that they might treat us in 
the same way. But toward evening we secretly retired to our ship 
without bidding good-bye to our host. .'\t this he was very much irri- 

tated, and came lo us the next morning, accompanied by three of his 
children, showing a mournful countenance, because he thought that we 
had been dissatisfied with him; and he said in his language, "Let us 
go, let us go on land, my friend and brother; come to drink and eat 
what we have; we assure you upon oath by Heaven, earth, moon, and 
stars, that you shall fare not worse than our own persons." 

.Seeing the good affection and will of this old man, some twenty of 
us went again on land, every one of us with his arms ; and then we 
went to his lodgings, where we were treated and presented with what 
he possessed. And meanwhile great numbers of people arrived, cares.s- 
ing and offering themselves to give us pleasure, saying that they were 
our friends. Late in the evening, when we were willing to retire and to 
take leave of the company with actions of gratitude, they would not 
give us leave. Men, women, children, all entreated us zealously to stay 
with them, crying out these words, "My friends, do not start from here ; 
you shall sleep this night with us." But they could not harangue so 
well as to persuade us to sleep with them. And so we retired to our 
vessel : and, having remained in this place five full days, we weighed 
anchor, parting from them with a marvelous contentment of both 
sides, and went out to the open sea. 


In 1583 Sir Humphrey Cilbert, arriving with his shi|js 
at St. Johns, Newfoundland, read his commission from 
Queen Elizabeth of England, and formally took posses- 
sion of the place and the region within a radius of two 
hundred leagues therefrom for the crown. He received a 
sod and a twig in token of subjection, and set up a pillar 
bearing a shield of lead, with the English arms engraved 
upon it. 


Bartholomew Gosnold was the first English navigator 
who sailed straight from Great Britain for the Anieiican 
shores. 'J'his was in 1602. On the 4th of May he 
sighted land at or about the forty-third degree of north 
latitude. Mr. Williamson thinks this first land he saw 
might have been Mount Desert or Agamenticus ; but 
others, not relying upon Gosnold's reckoning, place it 
further to the southward, in the neighborhood of Cape 
Ann, if not the cape itself* Wherever it was, his ves- 
sel was here boarded by a jjarty of Indians, who came in 
"a shallop of European fabric," such as fisheinien use in 
the Bay of Biscay, carrying sails as well as oars. They 
had also an iron grapple and a kettle in their little ship. 
The leader and one or two others were partly dressed in 
foreign garmenLk.and as the old account in Putt has says, 
"they spoke divers Christian words, and seemed to un- 
derstand more than we, for want of langtiage, could 
comprehend." This incident is highly interesting, as 
showing that Biscayan fishermen had been driven across 
the ocean, or that Frenchmen or Spaniards had visited 
the coast of Maine (or Massachusetts, as the case may 
be,) before the visit of Gosnold, and had there disap- 
peared, leaving only these traces of their visit. • 


was one of Gosnold's companions. In the spring of the 
next year he was provided by some merchants of Bristol 
with two small vessels, with which he made, beyond all 
doubt, a voyage along the coast of Maine, entering, 
among other waters, and probably the first he entered on 
this shore, the Bay of Penobscot. He found a "high 
country full of great woods," with which the voyagers 
were greatly pleased, as also with the fishing and harbor- 

* See Bryant & Gay's Popular Hi.story of the Lfniled States, vol. i, p. 363. 



age; and, finding silver-grey foxes upon an island, they I 
named the whole cluster the Fox Islands, which has 
been. -retained, although the corporate name of the prin- 
cipal ones, since ly^Sg, has been Vinalhaven. Gorges 
relates that Pring made a perfect discovery of "all these 
Eastern rivers and harbors, and brought the most exact 
account of the coast that had ever come to hand." 


After the appointment by the French king of Pierre 
du Guast, the Sieur de Monts, as Lieutenant-General of 
Acadia, a vast country stretching from the fortieth to the 
forty-sixth degree of north latitude, he sailed from Havre 
de Grace in March, 1604; in about two months reached 
Nova Scotia, and wintered at a fort he built upon an is- 
land in the St. Croix River. With him was the restless 
and daring navigator Samuel Champlain, and during the 
winter the latter made a coasting voyage as far as Cape 
Cod, concerning which little has been related. About 
the middle of May, 1605, De Monts abandoned liis fort, 1 
and himself sailed southward in search of a better loca- j 
tion for his colony. He visited Mount Desert, entered 
the Bay of Penobscot and viewed "Norumbegua," as 
the adjacent country was then understood to be called; 
entered the Kennebec also, and upon its banks erected 
a cross and took possession for the French crown; also 
penetrated the Casco and the Saco, sailed up Portland 
Harbor, which he named Marchin, from an Indian chief 
he met there; went on to Cape Cod, whence he returned 
to St. Croix, unable to make a settlement through fear of 
the natives, and finally went "to Port Royal with his 

The voyage of this French explorer is forever linked 
with the interesting story and beautiful scenery of Mount 
Desert. Mrs. Clata Barnes Martin, in her interesting 
guide book to this island, has the following: 

From the voyages of this De Monts and of his associates and suc- 
cessors, Mount Desert derives all tlie human interest of those early 
years. Champlain first named it "Mons Deserle," from its wild and 
savage solitudes, and the name " Frenchman's Bay," now applied only 
to the water lying inmiediately northeast of this island, then belonged 
to the whole expanse eastward to the Bay of Fundy. The name per- 
petuates the memory of the sore strait to which came one Nicholas 
D'.Aubri, a priest who accompanied De Monts in his first voyage. Be- 
ing one of a party who left their boat to e.xplore the forest, he dropped 
his sword by a brook where they stopped to drink. Returning to find 
it, he soon lost his way; and his companions, after vain efforts to res- 
cue him, were obliged to leave him to his fate. For sixteen days the 
poor priest wandered along the shore nearly starved, till he was dis- 
covered by a party who had returned to the spot in search of reputed 
gold and silver, and was carried back to his companions, who received 
him as one from the dead. This story, it may be added, is .given upon 
the authority of one of the early historians of Maine. Remembering 
what war of words has arisen concerning the planting of .settlements 
but little farther west, these traditions are proffered, subject to such 
amends as more able research may supply. 


This famous French voyager appeared off the coasts of 
Maine, which he called "Norumbegue," in September, 
1604, with a small vessel sent from the St. Croix as an 
expedition by the Sieur de Monts. He found and named 
the isle "de Monts-deserts," and the Isle au Haut, at the 
mouth of Penobscot Bay, which have retained their 
names ever since; sailed up the Norumbegue or Penob- 

scot River to the site of Bangor, where he is believed to 

have moored his vessel at the foot of Newberry street, 
just below the rocks in the stream ; had an interview 
with the chiefs Bessabezand Cahabis; descended the river 
safely, and went on coasting to the southwestward, prob- 
ably to the St. George's River, whence he returned to the 
St. Croix. He observed on the voyage the Camden Hills, 
which he called the mountains of Bedabedec. The next 
year he, with De Monts, was again in Penobscot Bay, 
among the Fox Islands, but did not ascend the river. 
Once more, in 1606, Champlain was in the bay, where 
he stopped to repair his vessel. 


Dr. Belknap, in the second volume of his American 
Biography, holds that the Penobscot Bay and River were 
discovered by Captain Weymouth and his associates, in 
June, 1605. He was sent out by the Earl of Southamp- 
ton and others, in the English interest, to check the de- 
signs of the French, whose claim to the Northeast coast 
was denied. Ostensibly, Weymouth was sent to discover 
the northwest passage ; but he sighted the American 
coast instead, near Cape Cod, and ran northwardly to 
the island of Monhegan (which he named St. George), 
and there dropped anchor. He remained here nearly a 
month, and made a beginning of agriculture on these 
shores. His subsequent movements are much in discus- 
sion. The following is an extract from the journal of the 
voyage : 

June 12 [1605]. — Our captain manned his shallop with seventeen 
men and ran up the codde of the river, where we landed, leaving six to 
keep the shallop. Ten of us, with our shot, and some armed, with a 
boy to carry powder and match, marched up the country toward the 
mountains, which we descried at our first falling in with the land, and 
were continually in our view. To some of them the river brought us 
so near, as we judged ourselves, when we landed, to be within a league 
of them; but we found them not, having marched well-nigh four miles 
and passed three great hills. Wherefore, because the weather was hot 
and our men in their aimour, not able to travel far and return to their 
pinnace at night, we resolved not to travel further. 

We were no sooner come aboard our pinnace, returning do\\ii toward 
our ship, but we espied a canoe coming from the further part of the 
codde of the river, eastwaid. In it were three Indians, one of whom 
we had before seen, and his coming was very earnestly to importune us 
to let one of our men go with them to the Bashabe, and then the next 
morning he would come to our ship with furs and tobacco. 

June 13. — By 2 o'clock in the morning, taking advantage of the tide, 
we went in our pinnace up to that part of the river which trendeth west 
into the main, and we carried a cross to erect at that point [a thing 
never omitted by any Christian travellers]. Into that river we rowed, 
by estimation, twenty miles. 

Whatever profit or pleasure is described in the former part of the 
river is wholly doubled in this; for the breadth and depth is such that a 
ship, drawing seventeen or eighteen feet of water, might have passed 
as far as we went with our shallop, and much farther, because we left 
it in so good a depth. From the place of our ship's riding in the har- 
bor, at the entrance into the sound, to the furthest point we were in this 
river, by an estimation, was not much less than three-score miles. 

We were so pleased with this ruer, and so loth to forsake it, that we 
would have continued there willingly for two days, having only bread 
and cheese to eat. But the tide not suffering it, we came down with 
the ebb. We conceived that the river ran very far into the land, for 
we passed six or seven miles altogether fresh water (whereof we all 
drank), forced up by a flowing of the salt water. 

June 14. We warped our ship down to the river's mouth, and there 
came to anchor. 

15. Weighed anchor, and with a breeze from the land came to our 
i watering-place in Penobscot Harbor, and filled our cask. 

The last natned place has been reasonably conjee- 



tured to be the present George's Island Harbor ; the 
"codde" or bay of the river, the Belfast Bay, in the 
Penobscot waters ; and the canoe seen to have come 
from Bagaducc, on the east side of Penobscot Bay. The 
voyage with the shallop, or pinnace, is argued to have 
been up the channel of the river. Weymouth is sup- 
posed to have anchored his ship ofif the peninsula now 
called Old Fort Point, and the mountains seen are iden- 
tified as the Penobscot Hills. The reasoning to support 
some of these conclusions will be found in the second 
volume of Belknap's American Biography. 

They are sharply controverted, however, by Mr. John 
McKeen, in a paper contributed to the fifth volume of 
the Maine Historical Collections, who is supported by 
writers in a subsequent volume of this scries. He holds 
that Weymouth, according to these entries in the Jour- 
nal, entered Townsend Harbor, since called Booth Bay, 
and thence explored the Sagadahoc River. The editor 
of the Collections does not agree with his arguments, 
but holds to the Penobscot theory, which ex-Covernor 
Joshua L. Chamberlain, now President of Bowdoin 
College, in his Centennial discourse on Maine: Her 
Place in History, seems also to favor. Dr. Palfrey, in his 
History of New England, suggests the Kennebec as the 
river of Weymouth's exploration, and others say the St. 
George's or Sagadahoc ; but it must be said, we think, 
that the weight of authority is with the Penobscot. The 
fact which seems to us conclusive, is the depth of water 
the diarist mentions about three-score miles " from the 
entrance into the sound," which is true of the Penobscot, 
but not of any other of the rivers in discussion. 

The adventurers were greatly delighted with the noble 
river and the country it waters. The Journal says: 
"Many who iiad been travellers in sundry countries 
and in the most famous rivers, affirmed them not com- 
parable with this — the most beautiful, rich, large, secure 
harbouring that the world affordeth." One of the old 
authors says Weymouth set up several crosses upon the 
land. He made no settlement, however; but sailed 
down the coast, carrying away five captive Indians, two 
of whom afterwards appeared in the streets of London, 
to wonder-eyed and gaping throngs. 

SAMtiEf. .\r<;all. 

This English adventurer, who three years afterwards 
by strategy carried off Pocahontas from her father's cap- 
ital to hold her a prisoner at Jamestown, visited the 
coast of Maine in 1610, on a fishing voyage. He was 
driven out of his course by a storm, and landed on a 
rocky island off Penobscot Bay, where he found "great 
store of seals," and so called it Seal Rock, a name still 
appertainmg to it. About three years afterwards he re- 
turned — Champlain says with sixty soldiers and fourteen 
pieces of artillery — and learning from the natives of 
the mission and settlement just beginning under the 
French in this region, at St. Sauveur, he suddenly at- 
tacked them, killing one of the missionaries, as else- 
where related, and completely breaking up the settlement, 
on the plea that it was within the patent of the Virginia 

Company. He then sailed up the coast and completed 
the reduction of the French settlements in Acadia. 


It is worthy of note that the pious expedition set on 
foot by Madame la Marquise de Guercheville, the 
French lady to whom De Monts had ceded his Acadian 
title, and which bore the Fathers Biard and Masse, Quen- 
tun and Gilbert du Thet, was originally destined for Kad- 
esquit, which occupied the site of Bangor. Biard, who 
had preceded the latter two into the wilderness, had al- 
ready selected this as a mission station; and when they 
reached the harbor of St. Sauveur, on Mount Desert, 
they eagerly inquired the way to Kadesquit. The na- 
tives answered that their place was better, and, under 
plea of a visit to their sagamore Asticon, who was sick, 
they led the way to a beautiful site on the shore of 
Some's Sound, so advantageous that the cross ivas there 
planted, a slight entrenchment thrown up, and settlement 
begun, to the utter abandonment of the Kadesquit 
scheme. Had they gone up the Penobscot instead, they 
might have escaped the overwhelming disaster which fell 
upon them, as just above related. 


This celebrated explorer and soldier, of whom so 
many romantic stories are told, including the story of 
Pocahontas, was on the Maine coast in 16 14. He land- 
ed at Monhegan the last of April, with two vessels from 
London, and presently, in small boats, explored the 
shores each way, from Penobscot to Cape Cod, making 
a map of the coast as he went, which was prefixed to 
his History. In the title of this first appears the name 
New England, which some say Prince Charles gave; 
others say more probalily, he only confirmed the name 
which Smith suggested. The name is contained in 
Smith's claim that he "broughte our newe England to the 
subjection of the kingdom of Create Britain." In his 
explorations the shrewd Captain picked up a valuable 
cargo, which was sold abroad to great advantage. His 
best trading was not in the Penobscot country, where, he 
says, "our commodities were not so much esteemed," as 
"the French traders bartered their articles on better 

In 1615 Smith made another start upon a voyage to 
reach New England, but was driven back by storms; and 
a third venture was intercepted by French pirates, and 
he was once more compelled to return. He was not 
heard of again in the New World he had done so much 
to discover, develop, and advertise. 


to the coast of Maine have no special concern with this 
history. The Penobscot waters were now well known to 
the world, and scarcely ten years more elapsed before 
the habitations of civilization began to rise upon their 
picturesque shores. 





Vinland— Skroellinge Land— Mavoshen—Drogeo— Terra de Baccalhaos 
The Land of llie Bretons— The Country of Gomez— Norumbeg.a— 
The Term m Literature— Acadia— North Virginia— New England- 
Nova Scotia — The Waldo or Muscongiis Patent— The County of 
Canada— The Territory of Sagadahock— The County of Cornwall — 
The Dutch at Penobscot— New Ireland — The Province of Mayne— 
The District of Maine— The State of Maine. 

No SMALL part of the early history of this Northeastern 
country is involved in the tlefinitions given by the ex- 
plorers or early cartographers to the territory now occu- 
pied by the State of Maine, or to larger tracts within 
which that territory was included. As the process of 
colonization went on, and the demands formore localized 
government increased, we shall also find that the valley 
of the Penobscot, or some part of it, was included in va- 
rious successive county organizations, until at last Pe- 
nobscot county, with its present limits and subdivisions, 
stood full-formed. 


Leif, son of Erik the Red, a Noiseman and the first 
settler of Greenland, set out from the settlement at Erik's 
Fiord in the year 1000, and sailed with a crew of thirty-five 
men to the southwest, over a track [lursued ninj years 
before by Biarne, whose ship Lief had bought. First 
they reached the land seen by Biarne, Labrador or New- 
foundland, which they called Helluland, or the Stone 
Land. Sailing thence to the coast of Nova Scotia, they 
called it Markland, or the Woodland. Reaching finally 
Cape Cod, and, it is believed, the south shore of Rhode 
Island, and finding there the marvel of vines and grapes, 
they gave to this south country the name of Vinland, 
which needs no interpretation, and which the Norsemen 
subsequently applied to the whole coast between that re- 
gion and Markland, or Nova Scotia. Vinland, then, was 
the first country of European designation in which the 
Penobscot territory, or any part of it, was included. 

The "Promontorium Vinlandis," as a designation for 
our Cape Cod, stands out conspicuously u|3on the chart 
of the North .Atlantic, published by the Icelander Sigurd 
Stephanius, in 1570. This point, however, because "it 
was long to sail by," the daring voyagers themselves had 
called Furdurstrands, or the \Vondei -strands. 

In the year 11 12 Pope Paschal II. a]j[)ointed Erik 
Upsi, a Norse ecclesiastic, as Bishop of Iceland, Green- 
land, and Vinland ; and he is very doubtfully said to 
have visited personally the last-named or North Ameri- 
can division of his diocese, in 1121. 


or the country of the wretched dwarfs — that is, the sav- 
ages, who were designated by the rude Northmen with 
the contemptuous epithet of SkrasUings (chips, parings, or 
mere fragments of humanity) — is the term applied upon 
the map of Stephanius to the whole country between the 
Promontorium Vinlandia; and "Marckland." 

Mr. Gay, in his Popular History of the United States, 
starts a very interesting inquiry as to these dwarfish 
Skraellings. He says: 

The assumption is that that these people of the Vinland vicinity were 
Esquimau.x. If that be true, and the term was used merely for want of 
any other to apply to copper-colored natives, then we are to conclude 
that the Indians were later comers in that part of the country. Did the 
first displace the Mound-building people, and then, in the course of 
time, move upon and displace the Estiuimaux of the Atlantic coast? 
Was it this race who were not smokers, and who made the shell-heaps 
where no pipes are found? 


The aboriginal designation by which the territory now 
embraced in the State of Maine was known, is that of 
Mavoshn, Mavooshen or Mawooshen (Belknap) Mai- 
vooshen (Purchas), or Moasham (Gorges). It was the 
general name, apparently, given by the red-skinned na- 
tives of the land. Mr. Belknap, in the second volume of 
his American Biography, says it was a title for the whole 
country of Maine and comprised nine or ten rivers, 
whereof the westernmost was Shawakotock, known to the 
French as Chouakoet, and to the English as Saco. The 
easternmost was Quibequessen, somewhere east of the 
PenobscoL The northern part of the same district, he 
remaiks further, included the Penobscot bay and river, 
which were also called Pemaquid, though the latter name 
was afterwards approjjriated to the jjoint or reach of land 
six leagues to the westward. Not far from here dwelt 
the great chief, the Bashaba, who presumably ruled the 
dominions of Mavoshen. Purchas' Pilgrimage describes 
Mavoshen as "a country lying to the north and east of 
Virginia, between the degrees of forty -three and forty-five. 
It is forty leagues broad and fifty in length, lying in 
breadth east and west and in length north and south. It 
is bordered on the east side with a country, the people 
whereof they call Tarrantines ; on the east with Ephistoma ; 
on the north with a great wood, called Senaglecouna ; and 
on the south with the main ocean, sea, and many islands. 
In Mavooshen it seemeth there are nine rivers, the west- 
ernmost of which is Shawacotoc. At the head of this 
river, to the northwest, there is a small province which 
they call Crokemago, wherein is one town. This is c<m- 
jectured by the historian Williamson to have been" prob- 
ably the Indian Pegwacket" 

The present tract of Penobscot county was, then, 
anciently a part of " Mavoshen." We shall in like man- 
ner proceed briefly to indicate the several geographical 
designations and civil jurisdictions including the region 
of which this History is more immediately to treat. 


The sea-chart of the Venetian brothers, Nicolo and 
Antonio Zeno, drawn about the year 1400, nearly a cen- 
tury before the discovery by Columbus, published in 
1558, and beautifully reduced and printed in fac-simile 
by Dr. Kohl, in the first volume of the new series of the 
Maine Historical Collections, exhibits three unknown 
lands in the Western Hemisphere — Icaria, Estotiland, and 
Drogeo. The first of these, an island, has been identified 
with reasonable probability as Newfoundland; the second 
as Nova Scotia; the third as the Norse Vinland, or New- 
England, and upon the map of Lewelel, published at 
Brussels in 1852, with his Geography of the Middle Ages, 
it appears precisely in the locality of the present State of 



Maine. It is blind work idenlifying the tracts, from the 
meager indications presented ; but the conclusions reached 
above seem the most probable of any. Drogeo, then, 
is another pre-Columbian name for the country with 
which this History deals.* 

Drogeo was afterwards depicted upon the old charts as 
an island, floating somewhere in mid-ocean. 


Upon several of the Portuguese and other old maps, 
the New England country is included in the vast tract 
designated as Terra de Baccalhaos, a Portuguese term for 
the Land of Codfish, said by some to have been discov- 
ered by the father of the Cortereals before the time of 
Columbus. The English sometimes called it "the Coun- 
try of Bacallaos," and likewise " the Newfoundland," 
and " the New Isles." The Baccalhaos name designated 
the island of Newfoundland for a long time. 


Early in the sixteenth century, the hardy Bretons of 
St. Malo, the Normans of Dieppe, and other Frenchmen, 
began to apjiear in fishing voyages upon the coasts of 
Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The former gave the 
title to the island of Cape Breton, which bears, as Dr. 
Kohl remarks, the oldest F'rench name on the American 
northeast coast. From them also was derived the desig- 
nation Tcrre dts Bretons, or Land of the Bretons, which 
appears upon maps of that time as applicable to a wide 
extent of territory, including Nova Scotia and a large 
part .of New England. It w-as also described by Ra- 
musio as La Ter>-e Ncrroe (the New Land), extending 
from forty degrees to sixty degrees north, and he says 
many called it, particularly the southern part, La Terre 
Fra/icais (the French Land). 


On the old Spanish maps of North America, the tract 
of which Maine is now a subdivision is laid down as 
" La Tierra de Gomez," from Estevan (Stephen) Gomez, 
a Portuguese in the service of Spain, who sailed in 1525 
from Newfoundland, probably, to Florida. He may 
have seen or touched the shores of Maine, but there is 
no certain record of it, except, perhaps, a remark here- 
after quoted from the beginning of Hakluyt's Discourse 
concerning Western Planting. Dr. Kohl says, however : 

Gomez probably entered this inlet [Penobscot Bay], and e.xplored it 
more accurately than any other part of the coast; and in his report to 
the king may probably have lavished his praises on its harbors, us 
islands and its scenery. 

We have already noted a fact which lends additional 
probability to this statement, that the Penobscot river 
was called the Rio de Gomez on the maps, and also by 
another Spanish name, the Rio Grande. His voyage 
adds one more to the nationalities that have claimed 
jurisdiction or given a name to this region. After that 
event the fishermen of Biscay, for more than a hundred 
years, appeared in the waters about Newfoundland with 

*The Rev. H. V. Da Costa, however, in his Critical E.\amination of 
Dr. Kohl's work, thinks the learned German mistaken in his location of 
" Drogeo," and that the appellation never belonged to any country so 
far to the southward as Maine. 

many vessels, amid the fishing fleets of the Bretons, Nor- 
mans, and Basques, until they were forced away by rival 
nations about the middle of the seventeenth century. 


This — or Norombega (Purchas and Belknap), Nor- 
umbegua (Sullivan), or Norimbagua (Champlain), etc., 
etc., — is more strictly a local designation, probably ap- 
plied, rather than found, by the Europeans who earliest 
visited the waters. Williamson says, however, 
in treating of De Monts' expedition : 

In ranging the coast weslwardly, they entered the bay of Penobscot, 
which, with the neighboring country, some European adventurers had 
previously understood by the natives, was called Norombegua. 

L'Escarbot, in his History of De Monts' Voyages, 
notes the name, in the same passage with " St. Croix," 
as that of a river in the country of the Etchetnins. Pur- 
chas's note is " Pemptegoet [Penobscot] is that place so 
famous under the name of Norombega." M. Denys, in 
his Geographical and Historical Description of North 
America, 1672, mentions "Norimbagua" as the previous 
name of the first province in what he calls Canada — 
that province extending " from Pentagoet [Penobscot] 
to St. John." Belknap's remark seems to cover the 
exact ground of the real information on the subject : 

Norombega was a part of the same district comprehending Penobscot 
bay and river, but its easleru and western limits are not described. 

Finally, the following interesting discussion of the sub- 
ject is embraced in Governor Sullivan's History of the 
District of Maine : 

The people of Xorumbega were supposed to be an ancient people 
who lived on the river Penobscot, then called Pemptegeovett, near to 
which, as it was imagined, a great city once stood, called by the name 
of Norumbegua. Tlie bounds of New England was conceived to e.v- 
tend to the river Pemaquid. and the country of Norumbegua to be 
bounded west on that, and to run as far east as Penobscott, including 
.Sheepscott river, then called Chavacovett. Some suppose it to be a 
collection of Indian huts, and others an ancient town. In ogilby it ts 
conjectured to be the ruins of an ancient town, which the natives called 
Arambeck, and had deserted it. Some thought that the country had 
been called by this name because a colony of Norwegians had anciently 
been settled there. 

The appellation of this part of the country, and of the several parts 
which were supposed to be within the same, and of the rivers supposed 
to be there, are not known in the Indian language, nor have the natives 
any traditions of such towns or cities as are conjectured in the old 
writers of the American history. On the whole, it may be safely con- 
cluded that there never was an ancient country or city called Norum- 
begua, but that the rage of the day for new discoveries, and the idle 
tales of the voyagers, gave an imaginary existence to such a place. 

The name Arambec, or Arambeag, sometimes found 
instead of Norumbega, is believed to come nearer the 
original word, as eag is a well-known termination in many 
geographical names in the Northeast, meaning land or 
place. A corruption of this, and the change into a Latin 
ending, would easily give Norumbega. This designation 
was generally used by the French, until supplanted by 
Acadia. Norumbega first appears upon the old maps in 
a chart of New France, prepared by the Italian Jacomo di 
Gastaldi, about the year 1550. Here the "Terra de 
Nvrvmbega," ornamented with neat drawings of trees 
and mountains, and many figures of natives variously 
engaged, with fishermen and sea animals off the shore, 
corresponds closely to the later Nova Scotia. Its shore- 



line is about 500 miles long. But a small stretch of the 
coast of Maine is shown. 

G,astaldi doubtless derived the information upon which 
this map was made from Pierre Crignon, a French navi- 
gator and writer, in 1537 or 1539, upon the French ex- 
plorers, who was the first, so far as is known, to disclose 
the aboriginal name "Norumbt'ga," by which he names 
a vast extent of couiitr\'. including the tract now occu- 
pied by Maine. (But Mr. DeCosta says Norumbega was 
named by Peter Martyr, in 151 1. See his The Northmen 
in Maine: A Critical E.\amination, etc.) According, how- 
ever, to this writer's "Discourse of a great French sea- 
captain of Dieppe [Jean Parmetier], on the navigations 
made to the West Indies, called New France, from the 
40° to the 47' N.," Norumbega reached even to Florida. 
It was subsequently narrowed to New England, then to 
the Maine country, and finally to the Penobscot region. 
The preface to the first volume of the New Series of the 
Maine Historical Collections remarks that " the ancient 
Norumbega, embracing sometimes the whole of New- 
England, has a conspicuous place on nearly all the early 
maps, and retained its name far into the next century, 
but over a narrower region. 

Old Heylin, in his Cosmographie, printed at London 
in 1652, attempts something like a boundary of tliis 
country in the following : 

Norombega hath on the N. E. Nova .Scotia, on the S. \V. Virginia. 
Virginia, in the full latitude thereof, e.xtendeth 
from the 34th degree, where it joins with Florida, unto the 44th degree, 
where it quartereth on Xorombega. 

Now we will let Monsieur Crignon speak for himself 
in regard to this wonderful land. He says: 

Going beyond the cape of the Bretons, there is a country contiguous 
to this cape, the coast of which trends to the west a quarter southwest 
to the country ^f Florida, and runs along for a good five hundred 
leagues ; which coast was disco\'ered fifteen years ago by Master Gio- 
vanni da Verrazano in the name of the King of France and of Madame 
la Regente : and this country is called by many " La Francese, " and 
even by the Portuguese themselves ; and its end is toward Florida under 
18'' west and 38*^ north. The inhabitants of this country are a very 
pleasant, tractable, and peaceful people. The country- is abounding 
with all sorts of fruits. There grow oranges, almonds, wild grapes, 
and many other fruits of odoriferous trees. The country is named by 
the inhabitants, "Nurumbega;" and between it and Brazil is a great 
gulf, in which are the islands of the West Indies, discovered by the 

But before this, in 1527, the English ship Mary of 
Guilford, commanded by Master John Rut, had been in 
North American w-aters, and "returned by the coasts of 
Newfoundland, Cape Breton, and Norumbega," as Hak- 
luyt says in his book of Voyages, Navigations, etc. But 
Hakluyt's first edition w-as not published till 1589, and 
Gastaldi must have relied upon Crignon. This old edi- 
tion of Hakluyt's reads "coasts of Arambec," which prob- 
ably means the same as Norumbega. 

Upon the map of Girolamo Ruscelli, of date 1561, 
this country appears as "Tierra de Nurumberg" (an evi- 
dent confusion of "Norumbega" with a noted German 
city), and is placed on the coast above "Larcadia," or 
Acadia, which is something like getting the cart before 
the horse. 

Again, upon the map of Michael Lok, of 15S2, niade 
after Verrazano's "olde excellent mappe," the country 

appears as "Norombega," a long island, including every- 
thing from Cape Breton to a large strait running from 
north to south, and supposed by some to designate the 
Hudson river. All the n-iaps of Lok's time are said by 
Dr. Kohl to have the name conspicuous upon this part 
of thern. Upon many subsequent maps it is displaced 
by "Tiera de Bacalos" and other titles, but reappears on 
Mercator's maps, in the latter part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, in the "Novus Atlas" of William and John Blaen, 
1642, where it is printed as "Norembega," but previously, 
in a map published by Hondius in 1607, as "Nurum- 

In a great map of 1543, prepared by order of Henry 
II., King of France, the name "Auotobagra" occurs 
near Penobscot Bay, just where other maps have Norum- 
bega, and runs up to a castle or cluster of houses in the 
place where subsequent charts locate the city of Norum- 
bega. "Auorobagra" is therefore reasonably conjectured 
to be a misprint for the latter word. 

On the map of the celebrated geographer and carto- 
grapher, Gerard Mercator, 1568, repiesenting the east 
coast of North America, we have the first location of a 
large city or aboriginal capital of the country of Norum- 
bega, on the east bank of the Penobscot, with the name 
"Norumbega" attached. The existence of such a city 
is also afifirnied by some of the old writers, as Pilot Jean 
Alphonse, of Xaintonge, who says that Noronibega was a 
city fifteen to twenty leagues from the sea, whose inhab- 
itants were small and of a dark complexion. The fable 
was repeated as late as 1607, in the Historie Universelle 
des Indes Occidentales, and the name is honorably per- 
petuated in "Norombega Hall" and otherwise. Yet it 
must be said that the evidence supporting such belief is 
very slight and unsatisfactory. Even the maps exhibit- 
ing the locality place it upon the east side of the Penob- 
scot ("on the Brewer flats," some writers say), and not 
upon the site of Bangor. 

The tradition of a large city called Norombega, situa- 
ted upon the site of the city, seems, however, to have 
passed into tacit acceptance in that place. But Judge 
Godfrey and other well-inforn-ied local writers speak of it 
as "the mythical great city," and the like. Champlain 
says in his Voyages: 

From the entrance [of Penobscot Bay] to where I was, which is 
twenty-five leagues up the river, I saw no city nor village nor appear- 
ance of there having been one ; but, indeed, one or two savage huts 
where there was nobody. 

And again, in the account of his voyage of 1605, 

through Penobscot Bay and up the river, he says of the 

rumored Norumbega: 

They say also there is a great city well peopled with savages, adroit 
and skillful, and used to the manufacture of cotton. I am sure that 
most of those who speak of these things have never seen them, and de- 
rive their authority from men who know no more than themselves. 

All that Champlain reports of possible civilization in 
the Penobscot wilderness was what he took to be an an- 
cient and moss-covered cross somewhere in the woods. 
He was undoubtedly mistaken, however, in his identifi- 
cation of this object — unless, indeed, he in 1605 found 
Weymouth's cross planted up some river the same spring, 
which would hardly be as yet old and mossy. 




Says Heylin, in his Cosmographie: 

Most have formerly agreed upon Norumbegua or Aranipec, as the 
natives call it ; said to be a large, populous, and well-built town, and 
to be situated on a fair and capacious river of the same name also. 
But later observations tell us there is no such matter ; that the river 
which the first relations did intend is Pemptegouet, neither larpe nor 
pleasant [ ! ] : and that the place by them meant is called Agguncia, 
so far from being a fair city, that there are only a few sheds or cal)ins, 
covered with the barks of trees or the skins of beasts. 

Upon the whole, it must be concluded that there was 
nowhere ujjon the Penobscot, and at no time during the 
aboriginal jicriod, anything more than the ordinary, 
wretched Indian villages, at one of which the Pjashaba, 
or chief, had his lodge and petty court. 

The Penobscot is designated upon Mercator's map as 
Rio Grande, or the "great river;" and it soon came to 
be designated as the "Great River of Norumbega." 
Thevet, in 1556, mentioning it also as the Grand River 
on the charts, and called "Agoncy" by the natives, says, 
"which we call Norumbegue," and eulogizes it as "one 
of the finest rivers in the whole world." He mentions 
also a little fort erected by the French ten or twelve 
leagues from its mouth, and named the " Fort of Nor- 
umbegue." The "(Ireat River of Norumbega," with the 
mythical city on its eastern shore, makes a great figure 
in many maps and charts of the sixteenth century. 

The great gulf between Cape Cod and Nova Scotia, 
not even yet receiving a specific geographical designa- 
tion of general acceptance, but sometimes called the 
Gulf of Maine, or of New England, was named by the 
French fishermen of the earliest day as the Sea or Gulf 
of Norumbega, from the country on the side of the 

Norumbega has made some figure in other literature 
than that of travel or history. C)ne considerable work 
of the old compiler and writer, Richard Hakluyt — the 
Discourse concerning Western Planting, written in 1584, 
but not printed until nearly three centuries afterwards, 
when, in 1877, it first saw the light by the enterprise of 
the Maine Historical Society — was apparently written 
for the express pur[)ose of stimulating emigration to 
Norumbega. In almost his opening sentence he men- 
tions that "those [natives] whom Stephen Gomez 
brought from the coaste of Maine in the year 1524 
worshiijjjed the sonne, the moone, and the starres, and 
used other idolatrie." 

Milton, also, in the tenth book of the l\aradise Lost, 
uses Norumbega fur the purposes of illustration. His 
words are : — 

Now from the North 
Of Norombega and the .Samoed shore, 
Bursting their brazen dungeons, armed with ice, 
And snow and hail, and stormy gust and flaw, 
Boreas and C'a;cias, and .^rgestes loud. 
And Tlirascias rend the woods and rocks upturn. 

The noblest poetical tribute, however, as yet paid to 
Norumbega, is by the Quaker poet, John G. Whittier, 
in a contribution to the Atlantic Monthly for June, 1S69. 
We give it place here without abridgment, e.xcept to re- 
move the historical foot-note: — 



The winding way the serpent takes 

The mystic water took. 
From where, to count its beaded lakes, 

The forest sped its brook. 

A narrow space "twixt shore and shore. 

For sun or stars to fall, 
While evermore, behind, before. 

Closed in the forest wall. 

The dim wood hiding underneath 

Wan flowers without a name ; 
Life tangled with decay and death. 

League after league the same. 

Unbroken over swamp and hill 

The rounding shadow lay. 
Save where the river cut at will 

A pathway to the day. 

Beside that track of air and light. 

Weak as a child unweaned. 
At shut of day a Christian knight 

Upon his henchman leaned. 

The embers of the sunset's fires 

Along the clouds on high ; 
"I see," he said, "the domes and spires 

Of Norembega town." 

"Alack! the domes, O master mine. 

Are golden clouds on high ; 
Yon spire is but the branchless pine 

That cuts the evening sky." 

"O hush and hark! What sounds are these 

But chants and holy hymns ? 
"Thou hear'st the breeze that stirs the trees 

Through all their leafy limbs." 

" Is it a chapel bell that fills 

The air with its low tone?" 
"Thou hear'st the tinkle of the rills, 

The insect's vesper drone." • 

" The Christ be praised !— He sets for me 

A blessed cross in sight I " 
"Now, nay, 'tis but yon blasted tree 

With two gaunt arms outright ! " 

" Be it wind so sad or tree so stark. 

It mattereth not, my knave ; 
Methinks to funeral hymns I hark. 

The cross is for my grave ! 

"My life is sped ; I shall not see 

My home-set sails again ; 
The sweetest eyes of Noimandie 

Shall watch for me in vain. 

"Yet onward still to ear and eye 

The baffling marvel calls ; 
1 fain would look before I die 

On Norembega's walls. 

"So, haply, it shall be thy part 

At Christian feet to lay 
The mystery of the desert's heart 

My dead hand plucked away. 

" Leave me an hour of rest ; go thou 

And look from yonder heights ; 
Perchance the valley even now 

Is starred with city lights." 

The henchman climbed the nearest hill. 

He saw nor tower nor town. 
But, through the drear woods, lone and still, 

The river rolling down. 



He heard the stealthy feet of things 

Whose shapes he could not see, 
A flutter as of evil wings. 

The fall of a dead tree. 

The pines stood black against the moon. 

A sword of tire beyond ; 
He heard the wolf howl, and the lonii 

Laugh from his reedy pond. 

He turned him back : " O master dear, 

We are but men misled ; 
.\nd thou hast sought a city here 

To find a grave instead." 

"As God shall will ! what matter wliere 

A true man's cross may stand. 
So Heaven be o'er it here as there 

In pleasant Norman land? 

"These woods, perchance, no secret hide 

Of lordly tower and hall ; 
Yon river in its wanderings wide 

Has washed no city wall ; 

"Yet mirrored in the sullen stream 

The holy stars are given ; 
Is Norembega then a dream 

Whose waking is in Heaven? 

" No bnilded wonder of these lands 

My weary eyes shall see ; 
A city never made with hands 

Alone awaiteth me — 

■ ' ' Urds Syctn mysticd ' ; I see 

Its mansions passing fair, 
' Condi ta ca.lo' : let me be. 

Dear Lord, a dweller there ! " 

Above the dying e.xile hung 

The vision of the bard. 
.\s faltered on his failing tongue 

The songs of good Bernard. 

The henchman dug at dawn a grave 

Beneath the hemlocks brown. 
.And to the desert's keeping gave 

The lord of fief and town. 

Years after, when the Sieur Cliamplain 

.Sailed up the mystic stream. 
And Norembega proved again 

A shadow and a dream. 

He found the Norman's nameless grave 

Within the hemlock's shade. 
And, stretching wide its arms to save. 

The sign tliat God had- made, — 

The cross-boughed tree that marked the spot 

.And made it holy ground : 
He needs the earthly city not 

Who hath the heavenly found I 


The next designation for the Maine and much oilier 
country east of the Penobscot, and at one time, as we 
shall see, for a tract west of that river also, was French, 
originally Acadia, a corruption, some say, of Arcadia, the 
classic name of the picturesque old tract in the middle 
of the Peloponnesus (the modern Morea), the Switzer- 
land of Greece, whose people believed themselves to be 
the oldest tribe on the peninsula. This old-time deriva- 
tion is n')t now generally accepteil, but the word is held 
to be of unmixed Indian origin, .\ccording to Mr. Porter 
C. Bliss, said to be very competent authority on Indian 
words, Acadie is a pure Micmac word, with the significa- 
tion of "place." The Eastern Indians still use it in 

composition; and Passamaquoddy, or "the place of the 
pollock," is derived from the Etchemin word pestum- 
acadie. Its own derivation is from ahkt, "land," or 
"place," and da^ an interjection denoting admiration, 
the whole implying a fertile or abundant country excit- 
ing pleasant surprise. The name first ap])ears in a map 
of " Tierra Nueva," or the New Land, by Ruscelli, in 
1561, as "Larcadia," designating an unlimited tract be- 
tween "Tierra de Nurumberg" (Nurumbega) and "La 
Florida." It was afterwards written and printed "L'Ar- 
cadie," "L'Accadie," "la Cadie," " L' Acadie," "Lacadie," 
"Accady," and "Accadia," and even niore eccentric 
shapes, but is commonly known, in speech and WTiting, 
as Acadia. In this country, on the Nova Scotian side — 

In the .Acadian land, on the shores of the basin of Minas, 

where — 

Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand Pre 
Lay in the fruitful valley. 

the thatch-roofed village, the home of .Acadian farmers. 
Men whose lives glided on like rivers that water the woodlands, 
Darkened by shadows of earth, but reilecting an image of heaven," — 

here Mr. Longfellow has placed the opening scenes of 
his poem "Evangeline." 

It is not certainly known when or by whom the name 
was first applied to this region. It appears to have been 
already in use at the time (November 8, 1603) the first 
royal grant of the country was made, by Henry IV. of 
France and Navarre, to Pierre du Guast, otherwise the 
Sieur de Monts. The words of the charter are, as ren- 
dered into English : "We do appoint, ordain, make, 
constitute, and establish you our Lieutenant General, to 
represent our person in the country, territory, coasts, and 
confines of Acadia, from the fortieth to the forty-sixth 
degree ; and within this extent, or any part thereof, as 
far inland as may be practicable, to establish, extend, 
and make known our name, power, and authority, and 
therewith subject, cause to submit and obey, all the 
people of the said land and circumjacent country," etc., 
etc. This was the first civil jurisdiction proclaimed by 
an enlightened government over Eastern Maine. It was 
a vast tract thus assigned to the supremacy of De 
Monts, extending from the latitude of Philadelphia to 
the northern slopes of Mount Katahdin, including the 
southern part of the present New Brunswick and nearly 
the whole of Nova Scotia, and extending indefinitely 
fr.jin the .Atlantic toward the Pacific. 

De Monts sailed for his new possessions in two 
well-equipped vessels, March 7, 1604, with a companion 
of some note, M. de Pontrincourt, and a [lilot of mm h 
greater fame, the renowned Samuel Champlain, the cour- 
ageous exiilorer from whom the beautiful water between 
New York and Vermont takes its name. Reaching the 
coast off Nova Scotia, they presently explored the Bay of 
Fundy, selected the site of Port Royal, later .Xnnapolis, 
visited and named St. John's River, and reared a fortifica- 
tion on the island they called St. Croix — from the brooks 
about it, which came "crosswise to fall within this large 
branch of the sea" (the Schoodic, which also came to be 
known as the St. Croix). Here De Monts wintered ; here 
was the first settlement, though not a permanent one, in 
.■\cadia — the Settlement at Port Royal not beginning 



until the next year; and here was in some sense the first 
seat of government for the vast province of Acadia, in- 
cluding all of the present Penobscot county, except a 
parallelogram of about thirty miles, in length and bre;idth, 
at the northern end. 

De Mont's rule was soon broken, as to nearly the 
whole of his mighty domain, by the establishment of 
North and South Virginia, under English auspices; but 
the I'Yench dominion in this (piarter was restored by the 
treaty of St. (Jerniains, March 9, 1632, under the third 
article of which "His Majesty of Great Britain promises 
by his ambassador to give up and lestore to his most 
Christian Majesty all the places occupied in New France, 
Acadia, and Canada by the subjects of his Majesty of 
Great Britain, causing the latter to retire from the said 
places, and deliver to the commissaries of the most 
Christian King in gt'od faith the power which he (the 
ambassador) has from his Majesty of Great Britain, for 
the restitution of said places." The English settlers 
were, however, not wholly excluded from the country, 
and many of them remained. New France, mentioned 
in the article, was the general designation for all the vast 
tracts in North America, not only at the East, but upon 
the great waters of the West, supposed to be vested in 
the crown of France, by the discoveries of her brave and 
pious explorers. The name is said to have been given 
first by John Verazzani, the Florentine voyager in the 
French service, who sailed the entire coast from Florida 
to Newfoundland in 1524, and took possession of the 
Acadian country for France. He was killed (and eaten, 
some say) by the Indians, somewhere upon its rock-bound 
shores. In 1627 the title was legally recognized in the 
grant of the domain to this body corporate of one hundred 
and seven formed by Cardinal Richelieu, and called the 
Company of New France. Of this immense region 
Acadia, Canada, and Louisiana — each of which, espec- 
ially the last, was in territorial extent and empire — were 
component parts. 

-Some years before the treaty of St. Gerniains, the 
F'rench king had made a grant of land on the livcr St. 
Johns to M. Claude St. Estienne de la Tour, a professed 
Protestant, to whom was afterwards (February 11, 1631) 
given a commission from Louis as Governor of Acadia. 
The next year after the treaty, in 1633, Cardinal Riche- 
lieu a|)pointed M. de Razilla, an officer in the army, to 
take command in Acadia. La Tour, whose autliority 
was now subordinate to that of Razilla, continued to re- 
side upon the St. Johns, while the latter received an ex- 
tensive grant west of La Tour's, including the bay and 
river of St. Croix, and the islands "twelve leagues on the 
sea." Razilla lived chiefly, however, in the fortress of 
La Heve, east of Liver[)ool, on the south shore of Nova 
Scotia, and there had the seat of his government. The 
English from New I'lymouth, on the Massachusetts 
coast, had already established a trading-house on the 
eastern shore of Penobscot Bay, and remained tmdis- 
turbed until early June, 1632, when a French vessel, 
piloted, strange to say, by a recreant Scotchman, came 
down upon it from the furl her parts of Acadia. Mr. 
Williamson thus continues the story: 

Her crew, conducting in tfie true character of freebooters, pretended 
they had put into harbour in distress, and would esteem a permission to 
repair leaks and refresh themselves as a great favor. Emboldened by 
generous courtesies received, as well as by information of the master's 
aljsence with most of his men on a tour westward for goods, they fiist 
examined the forl-arms to ascertain if they were charged, then, seizing 
swords and loaded muskets, ordered the three or four remaining keepers 
of the truck-house to surrender, upon pain of instant death, and to de- 
liver their goods and immediately put them on board. Having in this 
shameful manner rifled the fort of its contents, to the amount of ;^5oo, 
they bade the men this taunting and insulting farewell, "Tell your mas- 
ter to rememljcrr the Isle of Re." 

The last was an allusion to the crushing defeat sus- 
tained by the English at an island, on the French coast 
six years before. The traders at Penobscot, notwith- 
standing this raid, restored and continued their post and 
traffic there for three years longer, when they were com- 
pelled to leave. They had meanwhile, in 1633, founded 
another trading-house at Machias, with a valuable stock 
and a small, but well-armed and trusty guard. This, too, 
was plundered by La Tour the next year, who killed two 
of the defenders in overcoming resistance and carried off 
a large amount of property, with the survivors as prison- 
ers. He afterwards, when taken to task by a New Ply- 
mouth colonist for this transaction, boldly declared that 
his authority was from the King of France, " who claiins 
the coast from Cape Sable to Cape Cod," and that, if the 
English attempted to trade to the east of Pemaquid, he 
would sieze them. He then dismissed the Englishman 
with his countrymen, the prisoners taken at Machias. 

Many years afterwards, in 1654, La Tour was unpleas- 
antly surprised by an English expedition with secret or- 
ders from Cromwell to reduce the French possessions in 
tliis quarter. The station at Penobscot was surrendered 
without resistance ; La Tour, at St. John's, was wholly 
unpre|)ared for battle, and his settlement was captured 
without difificulty, as also Port Royal, La Heve, Cape 
Sable, and every colony in the province. This was in 
time of peace between France and England, and the 
former power naturally complained of the invasion; hut 
Crorawc-U, claiming under the t)lder title, refused restitu- 
tiiin. The next year the contjuest was formally confirmed 
to the iMiglish; but again, in 1667, it was returned to 
France under the Treaty of Breda. 

In the summer of 1635, M. I)'.\ulnay, who had 
command, under Razilla, of the Acadian country w^est 
of the St. Croix, made another descent upon the trading 
house at Biguyduce, or Penobscot, and again plundered 
it of goods. He did not leave the traders and their em- 
plovees, as La Tour did, to revive the business upon their 
departure; but sent them away altogether, with the 
swelling injunction and threat, "(io now, and tell all the 
])lantations southwartl to the twentieth degree that a fleet 
of eight ships will be sent against them within a year, to 
displace the whole of them; and know that my commis- 
sion is from the King of F'rance." D'Aulney remained 
upon the spot with eighteen followers, and fortified 
against expected attack from the English. This soon 
came at the hands of Captain Girling, in command of a 
large vessel called the Hope, which had been engaged 
for the purpose at Ipswich by the New Plymouth colon- 
ists, with the pledge of two hundred pounds, if the 



enterprise against D'Aulnay succeeded. The enemy 
were too well entrenched, however, and, when Girling 
had fired away all his ammunition, nothing remained but 
to maintain a silent blockade in front of the fortress. 
Meanwhile Massachusetts was making common cause 
with New Plymouth for the expulsion of the French 
from Biguyduce; and, under the advice of a captain of 
much military experience, named Sellanova, was prepar- 
ing a more extensive expedition against D'Aulnay, when 
a tremendous storm did so much damage in the fields 
and otherwise that provisions could not be had for it, 
and it was abandoned. The French were presently 
relieved of Girling's presence by the arrival of part of a 
shipwrecked crew of Connecticut mariners, who had 
been kindly treated by Razilla, and furnished with a 
shallop for their voyage home. In some way difficult to 
understand, these unfortunates fell into the hands of 
D'Aulnay, rather than Girling: and the Frenchman 
refused to let them go unless the obnoxious ship from 
Ipswich should depart. The Hope was now probably 
hopeless of success, and only too glad to get away. She 
accordingly sailed for home, and D'Aulnay then allowed 
his later visitors to leave, bearing a courteous letter to 
the Governor of New Plymouth. He and I.a Tour both 
made a solemn declaration afterwards that they would 
never, unless expressly ordered to do so, claim any terri- 
tory west of Pemaquid. 

As to the extent of Acadia (or Nova Scotia), it is 
usually held not to have reached further westward than 
the line of the Penobscot. It is observable, however, 
that during the English occupancy 1755-67, in the grant 
to Sir Thomas Temple and the younger La Tour, the 
Protector's charter describes their tract as "the territory 
sometimes called L'Accadia, and that part of the country 
called Nova Scotia, from Merliquash [later Lunenberg] 
to Penobscot, the river St. George, and the Muscongus, 
situated on the confines of New England" — which car- 
ried the boundary far to the southwestward of Penobscot. 
But Mr. Williamson avers that "it is certain, however, 
that the French had at no time any territorial possessions 
westward of Penobscot River and Bay waters, which 
were for many years the divisional boundary between 
them and the English." 

The failure, in the treaty of St. Germains, to prescribe 
definite limits to Acadia, led to endless controversies, 
and the grant itself was furthermore always an unpopular 
measure with the colonists in New England. The reces- 
sion of the Acadian province to France by the treaty of 
Breda, or rather in a subsequent article, was also greatly 
lamented ; and it was a grave question concerning the 
grant to Sir Thomas Temple, whether the Crown could 
cede any other right over the territory than that of sov- 
ereignty. Indeed, upon the pressure of his claims on 
the English Government, he was nominally allowed the 
total sum of ^16,200 for his purchase money and ex- 
penses of fortifications and other improvements, though 
he never received it. The article of cession in this 
treaty made no prescription of boundaries, but men- 
tioned by name, as included in the transfer, St. Johns, 
Port Royal, I.a Heve, Ca|)e Sable, and Pentagoet or 

Penobscot, which thus again became Gallic territory. 
The French occupied all the coast from Cape Breton to 
Penobscot, where they had a stockaded fort, as also at 
Port Royal and St. Johns. According to Hutchinson's 
History of Massachusetts, the French remained in pos- 
session of Penobscot until about 1664. 

M. de Bourg is reputed to have been the first French 
(Jovernor of the restored province. M. Densy succeeded 
to the rulership of .'\cadia, under the title of Lieutenant- 
Governor, and remained in the province for thirty years. 
In 1672, he published in Paris a short history of the 
country. M. .Manival was subsequently Governor. 


We now return to the English domination of the 
Penobscot country. Following the discoveries of Captain 
Weymouth, an association of Englishmen was formed, to 
promote European colonization and the introduction of 
Christianity among the savages on the shores of North 
America. To these King James I. gave a patent, April 
10, 1606, as two organizations under one general coun- 
cil, — the former called the London Company, from the 
residence of the corporators, or the First Colony of 
Virginia; the other the Plymouth Company, or Second 
Colony. The territory granted the two 'companies, and 
claimed by the English crown, by virtue of the dis- 
coveries of its subjects, stretched from the thirty-fourth 
to the forty-fifth parallel, or from the latitude of Colum- 
bia, South Carolina, to that of Passamaquoddy Bay and 
Oldtown, in Penobscot county. The whole was known 
by the general name of North and South Virginia ; but the 
lower part of this county, below Oldtown, was included 
in what was commonly known by the separate name of 
North Virginia. The Second or Plymouth colony had 
special jurisdiction here, being permitted to begin a 
plantation anywhere above the thirty-eighth degree, 
while the London Company might colonize anywhere 
below the forty-first parallel, it being provided, however, 
that the second settlement should not be made within 
one hundred miles of that first planted. Each company 
was ruled by a Subordinate Council of thirteen, nomi- 
nated by the crown and resident with the colony; and 
both were under the paramount jurisdiction of a General 
Council of Virginia, also of thirteen and named by the 
king, but resident in England. The colonies were fully 
empowered by the patent to seize and expel intruders, 
and had other important rights and privileges granted. 

Under this charter the settlement at Jamestown, in 
South Virginia, was made in April, 1607 ; and in August 
of the same year, Popham and Gilbert, of the Plymouth 
Company, formed the Sagadahock colony, at "the mouth 
of a fair navigable river" on the coast of Maine, which 
gave the name to the settlement. George Popham, 
brother of the Lord Chief Justice of England and senior 
captain of the voyage, was appointed president of the 
colony; Raleigh Gilbert, nephew of Sir Walter Raleigh, 
admiral; Edward Harlow, master of the militia; Ellis 
Best, marshal; John Scammon, secretary of the colony; 
James Dairs, commander of the fort ; and Gome Carew, 
searcher, whatever that might be. 



The foundation for a great State, apjiarently, was thus 
laid in the wilderness of the Northwest. Little account 
was made of the French claims to the same territory, 
and the courageous, enterprising Englishmen went on to 
develop the land and hold it boldly for king and coun- 
try. In 1613, under the auspices of Madame de Guerche- 
ville, a devoted and enterprising Catholic Frenchwoman, 
who had secured a transfer of De Monts' rights to her, a 
colony and mission was established at St. Saviour, on 
Mount Mansel, now Mount Desert Island. Captain 
Argal, the voyager, on a fishing venture in these waters 
was wrecked in Penobscot Bay, and there heard of the 
French occupation so near that locality, and at once 
advised the Virginian authorities of it.* They i)romptly 
equipped a fleet of eleven fishing vessels with fourteen 
cannon and si.xty men, with Argal in command, and sent 
it to dispossess the French. The latter were taken com- 
pletely by surprise, but made a faint resistance, during 
which one of the Jesuit priests, Du Thet, was killed by a 
musket-ball. The tort was captured, the Catholic cross 
destroyed and another cross put up bearing the title of 
the English king, in token of repossession of the place. 
The fleet then sailed up the coast, destroying the rem- 
nant of De Monts' settlement at St. Croi.x, and reduced 
the fort and hamlet of Port Royal to ashes, after which 
the expedition returned home. England and France 
were at peace; but the former justified resistance to the 
encroachments of the French upon the ground of the 
original discovery by Cabot, the formal possession taken 
by Gilbert, the North and South Virginia patent, and 
the repeated visits of the English and the settlement of 
the country. These claims appear to have been tacitly 
admitted by France, since no resentment was expressed 
at the ex])edition, nor reprisals attempted. A small 
colony of the Frenchmen was permitted to remain at 
Port Royal, with Biencourt, the former commander, still 
at their head. 


After the explorations of Captain Smith along the 
Maine coast, in 1&14, and the [ireparation of his famous 
map and history. Prince Charles, to whom the docu- 
ments were submitted, i)refixed to them the designation 
New England, applying, it is supposed, to the whole 
region between Manhattan, or New York, and Newfound- 
land. Six years afterwards, November 3, 1620, a charter 
was granted by King James to forty knights and gentle- 
men of England, under the title of "The Council estab- 
lished at Plymouth, in the County of Devon, for plantin", 
ruling and governing New England in America." A more 
extensive tract was granted them— and that, too, absol- 
utely in fee simple— than either of the preceding com- 
panies, English or French, had received. Its territory 
was defined as between the 40th and 48th degrees of 
northern latitude in breadth— that is, from the parallel 
of Philadelphia to that of the Bay of Chaleurs and Trinity 

*Palairet. in his description of the English and French Possessions 
in North America, asserts that the French at this time had "a fort at 
the mouth of the river Pentagoet or Penobscot, and Argal drove them 
away." Ogilby, author of a Description of the New World, also says 
that the Jesuits had become masters at Port Royal, and begun a fort at 
Pentagoet. Neither statement is believed to be sufficiently supported. 

Bay, Newfoundland, well to the north of the present 
boundary of Maine, — and in length by the saine breadth 
"throughout the mainland from sea to sea" — from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, which was a mighty stretch of 
empire, regarded in either length or breadth. The privi- 
leges previously granted in the Virginia charter were 
continued in this, except that coinage of money was not 
allowed. No Catholic, also, was to be allowed to settle 
in the colony. Sir Ferdinando Gorges, a great and 
venerable name in the history of Maine, who had become 
President of North Virginia under the former patent, was 
now most prominent in the new Council; and the next 
in influence and authority to him was John Mason, the 
virtual founder of New Hampshire. To Mason was 
made the first territorial grant by the Plymouth Council, 
being the lands between the Merrimac and Naumkeag 
rivers, from their sources to the sea, with all islands 
within three miles of the coast — a tract to which he gave 
the name Mariana. The next grant was obtained by 
Gorges from the Council, in order more effectually to 
exclude the French from the northeastern part of New 
FLngland, to Sir William Alexander, Secretary of State 
for Scotland, under the name of 


It was intended to designate the country simply as 
New Scotland, in honor of Sir William's native land; but 
the charter was written in Latin, and the name was trans- 
lated accordingly into a form which it retains to this day. 
The limits of the grant (which was confirmed September 
10, 1621, by patent from the king) were from Passama- 
quoddy Bay through the river St. Croix, to the farthest 
source or spring which comes from the west; thence 
north in a direct course overland to the first spring that 
runs into the great river of Canada; thence northward 
unto the river and along the shores of it eastward to 
Claspe; and thence by the coast, exclusive of Newfound- 
land and Cape Breton, around Cape Sable and across 
the Bay of F'undy to the place of beginning, with the 
islands and waters within six miles of the shore. This 
was an unconditional grant in fee simple to Sir William, 
without any provision for civil government in the jiatent. 
The country was erected, says Mr. Williamson, "into a 
royal palatinate, to be holden as a fief of the Scottish 
crown, the proprietary being invested with the royal 
rights and prerogatives of a count-palatine. The two 
rights of soil and government being in this way originally 
separated, were for a long period kept distinct, and some- 
times in different hands. These territories must have 
been considered the king's Scottish dominions; and even 
then it will perplex the wisest civilian to discover the 
justice or propriety of the tenure." 

This remarkable grant has been noted by Governor 
Joshua L. Chamberlain, in his Centennial Address on 
The Place of Maine in History, as the only palatinate 
ever established on the American continent. 

It will be observed that no part of the Penobscot 
county, and but little of any part of Eastern Maine, was 
included in the grant to Sir William Alexander. After- 
wards, however, the name Nova Scotia seems to have 
been applied to much of the country southwestward of 



the St. Croix, as we have already found that in 1656 the 
Lord Protector's charter to Sir Thomas Temple, then 
Governor of the Province, to La Tour, who had held 
office there under the French, and William Crown, 
granted "the territory sometimes called L' Accadia, and 
that part of the country called Nova Scotia, from Merli- 
quash to Penobscot, the river St. George and the Mus- 
congus, situated on the confines of New England." 
This unmistakably included the Penobscot country, and 
we are thus justified in the introduction of Nova Scotia 
as one of the geographical designations and civil juris- 
dictions under which this country once existed. Mr. 
Williamson says, however: 

The phraseology and terms of Cromwell's patent to La Tour, Tem- 
ple, and Crown, have proved to be the grounds or causes of endless 
confusion and severe conflicts. Both Acadia and Nova Scotia are 
mentioned, yet the limits and extent of them, as expressed, have long 
perplexed the ablest statesmen; or, in other words, the language of 
Cromwell's charter has been urged by opponents to show that Nova 
Scotia must have embraced another and greater region than what is 
contained in the charter to Sir William Alexander. 

Under this grant Sir Thomas Temple, the chief pro- 
prietor, in position and influence, at least, was made 
governor. Young La Tour exhibited no title to lands 
southwest of the Passamaquoddy ; and Captain Leverett, 
then commander at Penobscot, received orders from the 
Protector to surrender his powers and deliver the country 
to Temple, who thus obtained personal jurisdiction over 
the whole of Eastern Maine and even to St. George's — 
perhaps, although concerning this there is a doubt, to the 
Muscongus. Before leaving England to assume com- 
mand of his province, Sir Thomas also bought all the La 
Tour rights and titles in Nova Scotia or Acadia, taking a 
regular assignment thereof. He arrived on the coast 
in 1657, and remained Proprietary Governor ten years, 
conducting at the same time a profitable trade with the 
natives and colonists. He was, Mr. Williamson avers, 
"a gentleman of humane and generous disposition, re- 
markably free from the bigotry and religious prejudices 
of the times. To cite an instance of his disinterestedness 
— when the courts of Massachusetts were trying Quaker- 
ism as a capital crime in 1660, he went and told them 
that if they, according to their own declaration, "desired 
the Quakers' lives absent, rather than their deaths pre- 
sent," he would carry and provide for them at his own 
expense. "Yet, and should any of them return," said he, 
"I will again remove them." 

After the Restoration, Sir Thomas was continued in 
office, but as Provincial Governor, and for a time ap- 
pears to have been regarded as the sole proprietor of the 
entire province. His new commission was dated July 17, 
1662, and expressly gave him jurisdiction from the east- 
ern extremity of the great peninsula to "Muscongus, on 
the confines of New England," with the exclusive priv- 
ilege of trading with the natives in his province. But, 
notwithstanding the favor with which he was treated, he 
was soon to lose the entire portion of his domain lying 
within the present limits of Maine, as will be related by 
and by. 


A part of the Penobscot country, in the south of it 
and west of the bay and river, was included in the 

Muscongus or Waldo Patent, granted March 2, 1630, by 
the Plymouth council, to John Beauchamp, of Londoni 
and Thomas Leverett, of Boston, England. The ter- 
ritory conveyed lay between the Penobscot and Muscon- 
gus waters, from the seaboard to an east and west line so 
far north as would include a tract thirty miles square, 
without trespassing upon the Kennebec or other patent. 
This boundary, as since definitely settled, lies upon the 
south line of Dixmont, Hampden, and Newburg town- 
ships, in Penobscot county. As will be seen in our 
sjjecial histories of the townships, some large tracts in 
the southern part of this county were also included in 
the Muscongus Patent, in order to eke out certain de- 
ficiencies in the territory granted, in which Waldo county 
is situated. 

Nearly ninety years after the grant, the celebrated 
Waldos became principally interested in it. From them 
it took the name of the Waldo Patent, and is thus laid 
down upon the map prefixed to Sullivan's History of the 
District of Maine, and other old charts. The grant was 
originally for the purpose of Indian traffic only, and a 
trading-post was maintained by the owners upon St. 
George's river until the outbreak of the first Indian war. 


In 163s, nearly three years after Charles the First, by 
the Treaty of St. Germains, had surrendered to France 
"all the places occupied by British subjects, in New 
France, Acadia, and Canada," the Plymouth Council 
nevertheless, being then about to dissolve, separated their 
entire patent into twelve royal provinces. The first of 
these, which included the Penobscot region, covered the 
county between the St. Croix and Pemaquid rivers, from 
the head of the latter by the shortest line to the Ken- 
nebec, and from the point of junction upwards to its 
source. This tract, extending north to the forty-eighth 
degree, received the name of the County of Canada. 
It was assigned to Sir William ."Mexander, Earl of Ster- 
ling and grantee of Nova Scotia, which he had now lost 
by the remarkable act of Charles in the convention of 
St. Germains. It was provided that lots should be 
drawn in the presence of the king for each of the royal 
provinces, according to which the assignments were to 
be made. On the ist of April the Council notified his 
Majesty of their action, and prayed him to grant 
patents to the assignees thus ascertained, with the powers 
and privileges which had been granted in Maryland to 
Lord Baltimore. The petition was granted, and new 
patents were given to Lord Sterling, Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, John Mason, and others. The Plymouth Coun- 
cil surrendered its constitution shortly after, and sub- 
mitted to dissolution. It was succeeded by eleven of 
the King's privy councillors, as Lords Commissioners of 
of all his American Plantations, with Gorges as Gover- 
nor-General of New England. 

Notwithstanding the new patent and the English 
claims, the French, under D'/\ulnay de Charnisy, who 
has already come into our account of Acadia, established 
themselves upon the peninsula on the eastern side of 
Penobscot Bay, at a place now Castine, then called 
Major-biguyduce, a corruption of the Indian name. He, 



says Williamson, "constructed fortifications, not far from 
a good harbor, which was well sheltered by islands, and 
from which large ships might ascend the river forty 
miles. He considered himself the immediate successor 
of Razilla [late military commander of Acadia, or Nova 
Scotia], and entitled to the paramount government of 
the great peninsula, from Cape Sable to Canseau, espe- 
cially at La Heve, where Razilla died; and Port Royal, 
where D'Auln.iy himself sometimes resided; also at 
Passamacjuoddy, where was the location of Razilla's own 
patent; boldly claiming, moreover, by express commis- 
sion from the latter, the right of command westward to 
Penobscot, and as much farther as the French dominions 
extended." He was expressly directed by the king, how- 
ever, to confine his jurisdiction to the country of the 
Etchemins, which, though somewhat indefinite, it was 
hoped would keep him from infringing upon the territory 
of his rival. La Tour. 

We have before recorded the story of the fruitless at- 
tack of the English vessel Hope, under Captain Girling, 
upon D'Aulnay at Penobscot. He was much disliked 
by the English settlers between that point and the Pis- 
cataqua; and their sympathies, as well as those of the 
authorities at Boston, now the seat of government for 
New England, were generally with La Tour, who was a 
Protestant, while D'Aulnay was a Catholic. Finally, 
with the indirect aid of the English, he fitted up a small 
fleet, with which he i)roceeded against D'Aulnay, who 
had shortly before blockaded his fortress at St. Johns, 
and forced him to flee to Boston. He found DWulnay 
still at the mouth of St. Johns river, attacked his vessels 
vigorously, and compelled him to quit the harbor, flee 
down the coast to Penobscot, and there run his ships 
aground, for the purpose of fortifying his trading-houses 
more promptly and thoroughly. A few miles to the 
northeast he had a mill, with some adjacent buildings; 
and tliere the Massachusetts men had a brisk action with 
the enemy, which resulted in some loss on each side. 
The expedition then returned to Boston, with a vessel 
captured from l)'x\ulnay, laden with valuable furs. 

Soon afterwards, a party of prominent settlers from 
the plantations below the Penobscot, on their way to the 
St. Johns, to collect moneys due from La Tour, were 
forcibly detained for some days by D'Aulnay ; in re- 
venge for which one of them — Wannerton, of New 
Hampshire — presently led a party against the French- 
man's farm-house at Penobscot, captured and fired it, 
and killed D'Aulnay's cattle, but lost his own life in the 
transaction. D'Aulnay was now thoroughly enraged, and 
issued commissions for the seizure of every colony vessel 
found east of the Penobscot. He was soon obliged, 
however, to acknowledge that he had been hasty, and 
sent a commissioner to Boston to negotiate a treaty. 
Several articles were adopted, October 8, 1644, and 
temporary peace established. The next year he violated 
both the treaty and his sovereign's instructions to main- 
tain peace with the English, sailed for La Tour's strong- 
nold at the St. Johns early in the spring, making prize 
New England vessel on the way, and began a 
Dombardment of the fort. This was now defended by 

the wife of La Tour, a lady of great energy and cour- 
age, under whose command so stout a resistance was 
made that D'Aulnay was soon compelled to draw off, 
with twenty of his force killed, thirteen wounded and 
his ship so much disabled as to be in imminent danger 
of going to the bottom. In 1646 another treaty was 
made by D'Aulnay with the authorities at Boston; but 
again, in April of the next year, attacked La Tour's 
fort at St. John's, and was this time successful. His en- 
emy's wife was made a prisoner; the rest of the garrison 
massacred, it is said; and a large amount of plunder, 
probably worth over ^10,000, carried to Penobscot. 
Madame La Tour, borne also to D'Aulnay's capital, died 
there within three weeks, of grief and the shame of de- 
feat and imprisonment. The latter himself ended a 
troubled career in 165 1, and, strange to say, the following 
year the fortunes of the rival houses were united by the 
marriage of La Tour and D'Aulnay's widow. 

Mr. Williamson thus sums up the results of the an- 
tagonism of La Tour and these belligerent Cauls, and of 
the residence of D'Aulnay at Penobscot: 

Twelve years' predatory warfare between two ambitious rivals, the 
subjects of the same crown, produced effects highly injurious to the 
settlements in the Province of Maine, and the plantations farther east- 
ward. Sometimes they committed great wrongs, and even depreda- 
tions ; their menaces frequently excited alarming apprehensions ; free 
trade was interrupted ; and it was always difficult for the people so to 
adjust their conduct by the maxims and rules of prudence as to keep 
themselves out of the quairel. 

The principles of D' Aulnay's great and boasted honor were uniform- 
ly the servants of passion or interest. He furnished the natives 
with fire-arms and amunition, and taught them the great power and 
use of the gun. His priesthood, consisting wholly of firiars, made the 
savages believe that Catholic rites and cereinonies were the essentials 
of religion, and that the dictates of the missionaries were equivalent to 
the precepts of divine authority ; whereas the orthodox Puritans careful- 
ly withheld from the Indians the hunting-gun, so necessary among 
them to obtain the supports of savage life, while their pious missiona- 
ries very honestly instructed them that real religion consisted in regen- 
erating the affections of the heart, in the immaculate purities 
of life, and in the practices and dispositions towards others 
which we would wish them to exhibit towards us. But these were 
refinements which the untutored, unenlightened savages could not 
understand. The usages of retaliation had acquired a kind of sanc- 
tity among them which they believed Nature herself tolerated. Indul- 
gences and superstitious forms, as allowed by the priests, were alto- 
gether more accordant with their notions and habits then the self-deny- 
ing doctrines of restraint and the rigid precepts of reform, as taught 
by the Protestant missionaries. * 

Since this region had been in the occupancy of the French, neither 
the settlements at Penobscot, at Mount Desert, at Machias. at St. 
Croix, nor the place eastward, had flourished. Most of the French 
emigrants were ignorant, poor, and unenterprising ; the government 
was of a despotic military character; and the commanders, as we have 
seen, were perpetually contending. The social regulations were under 
the direction of the ecclesiastics : rights and wrongs were not treated 
nor regarded in a proper manner ; and no man of good sense and in- 
telligence dwells contentedly where life and property are insecure. " 

La Tour had now undivided sway over the County 
of Canada. It was, however, simply a military com- 
mand, without any civil powers or jurisdiction. It was, 
says Williamson, "destitute of every property directly 
promotive of settlement, for arms and civil liberties are 
regulated by different laws." His dominion was regarded 
with much distrust and jealousy by the English, and in 
1653 the General Court of Massachusetts prohibited 
the transportation of supplies either to the French or 
the Dutch, with the latter of whom England was then at 



war. A small cargo of flour and other necessaries was 
presently allowed to La Tour, as his good-will and the 
influence of the Catholic missionaries might yet be ser- 
viceable to New England. The end came, however, the 
next year, in the reduction of Nova Scotia, including the 
capture of Penobscot, by Cromwell's ships, as previously 
narrated. The following year, 1655, the whole Acadian 
Province, with the County of Canada within it, was con- 
firmed in English occupancy and sovereignty. La Tour, 
who, shortly before, had apostalized from Protestantism 
and become a Catholic, in consideration of the confirm- 
ation of the province to him by the French Crown — a 
man, says Williamson, "of equivocal character, either 
Catholic or Protestant, as was most concomitant with in- 
terest" — died soon after the capture of his domain, leav- 
ing one son and an immense territorial estate, which was 
made by Stephen D' La Tour, his son, the basis of 
claims upon the English Government that were recogni- 
zed by Cromwell in the grant to him, jointly with Sir 
Thomas Temple and William Crown, Englishmen, of 
"L'Accadia" and the country from Merliquash, or Lun- 
enburg, to the Muscongus. 


During the thirteen years' occupancy of Acadia, or 
Nova Scotia, by the English, between the conquest 
under Cromwell and the recession to the French by the 
treaty of Breda, the province was mostly under the gov- 
ernorship of Sir Thomas Temple, as has been related in 
our closing paragraphs concerning Nova Scotia. In 
1664, soon after the Restoration, Charles, having revived 
the project of an American empire, with twelve royal 
principalities or provinces, and the county of Canada 
being now extinct, made an extensive grant to his brother 
James, Duke of York and Albany, from whose title New 
York and its capital derive their names. The patent 
conveyed all the Dutch territories upon the Hudson, 
with Long Island, and likewise " all that part of the 
mainland in New England, next adjoining to New Eng- 
land ; thence extending along the seacoast to a place 
called Pemaquid, and up the river thereof to its farthest 
head, as it tendeth northward ; thence at the nearest to 
the river Kennebeck ; and so upwards, by the shortest 
course to the river Canada, northward." This tract not 
only cut a great tract out of the domain of Sir Thomas 
Temple, but also encroached upon the Plymouth terri- 
tories about the headwaters of the Sheepscot and the 
Damariscotta, and included the whole of the Muscongus 
(later Waldo) patent, before mentioned, w^ith a large part 
of the Pemaquid patent and the Brown and Tappan 
right, which had been granted from time to time by the 
Plymouth Council, and the islands along the seaboard 
above Pemaquid, of which some were now inhabited. 
Nevertheless, the sweeping grant seems to have been 
maintained in its integrity for about a quarter of a cen- 
tury, or until the duke ascended the throne as James II., 
when it reverted to the crown. That part of it in the 
Northeast was designated by different names. It was 
popularly known as the Duke of York's Property or 
Province, but by his agents was called New Castle, a 
name also given to the southwestern part of the duke's 

patent on the Delaware, where it is still preserved. They 
further termed it the County of Cornwall. But the fittest 
name for it is that by which it is best known in history — 
the Territory of the Sagadahock. Long afterwards, un- 
der William and Mary's charter of October 7, 1691 — 
the famous " Provincial Charter " — the Province of Sag- 
adahock was constituted between the river of that name 
and the St. Croi.x, as will be more fully related hereafter. 
The Duke of York became viceroy of the king over 
his American possessions. Under him Colonel Richard 
Nichols, after the subjugation by him of the Dutch at 
Manhattan, became Deputy Governor of the Province, 
including the Territory of Sagadahock. A royal com- 
mission was appointed April 15, 1664, consisting of 
Nichols, Sir Robert Carr, who was also a commander in 
the expedition against the Dutch, George Cartwright, and 
Samuel Maverick, " to settle the peace and security of 
the country " — which meant mainly the recognition of 
the Duke's authority and that of the Commission in 
Massachusetts and Maine. After a rather troublous time 
with the General Court at Boston and the exercise of 
much despotic authority in the towns and plantations 
between that place and Eastern Maine, they crossed into 
the Territory of the Sagadahock and opened a court 
September 5, 1865, at the dwelling of John Mason, on 
the east bank of the Sheepscott. Here they summoned 
the inhabitants of the several settlements to present them- 
selves and formally submit themselves to His Majesty's 
Government, within the duke's patent. Only twenty- 
nine persons, whose names are given by Sullivan and Wil- 
liamson, appeared in response to this summons. They 
comprised, the latter thinks, but a minor part of the whole 
number of settlers between the Sagadahock and the Pen- 
obscot, and, we may add, none north or east of the latter 
river. A -chief constable for the county was appointed, 
also three magistrates or justices of the peace, and a re- 
corder. No regular government was instituted, howerer, 
— no legislation, trial by jury, or other element of an en- 
lightened and thorough-going administraiion. Assur- 
ances were given the people that their possessions and 
rights should not be disturbed, although no sufificient 
means were provided for the redress of wrongs, and the 
policy was revived in all conveyances, whether by the 
duke's agents or the planters, of incumbering them with 
quit-rents. A treaty was negotiated with the Indians, 
which contained judicious provisions for the settlement 
of difficulties and the prevention of hostilities between 
them and the whites. In early October the commis- 
sioners went back to York, where their high-handed 
measures, which we need not recapitulate, soon awakened 
the most vivid and widespread indignation. The colon- 
ists in the Northeast were not rid of them altogether 
until the next year, when a new war between France and 
England broke out. At the close of this, by the treaty 
of Breda, Nova Scotia, including the Penobscot country, 
was restored to the French, and passed under the gov- 
ernment of De Bourg, who claimed jurisdiction over the 
whole of the duke's Eastern patent, even as far as the 
Kennebec river. This claim was not admitted by Massa- 
chusetts, however, and a new survey of the north line of 



the Plymouth patent, made in 1672, carried it three miles 
northward of the previous location, and brought it to 
White Head island, in Penobscot Bay. The next year 
the Dutch recaptured New York, and the Duke of York 
was thus left with a very small jurisdiction within his 
former vast patent. A new county, between the Sagada- 
hock and St. George's rivers, the new north line, and the 
seacoast, was erected by the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts, and called Devonshire, with a full equipment 
of officers. But the succeeding year, 1674, by another 
turn of fortune's wheel, the province of New York was 
restored to the English, and a new patent issued to the 
duke, embracing all the territories described in the pat- 
ent of ten years before. Sir Edmund Andros was ap- 
pointed (Governor of New York and Sagadahock. No 
disturbance was made, however, by either the duke's 
officers or the French, of the new County of Devonshire, 
in which the authority of the General Court remained 
paramount, and the administration of justice went on 
regularly and tranquilly. .-\ project was started at one 
time to alienate to the crown the whole territory between 
the Merrimac and the Penobscot, in order to create of it 
a royal province for the Duke of Monmouth, natural son 
of Charles II. The duke himself was fully bent upon 
this scheme, from which he e.xpected to derive an annual 
income of ^5,000, but it was never consummated. 

In August, 1663, Colonel Thomas Dungan succeeded 
Andros, by appointment of the duke, as Governor of 
New York and Sagadahock. He appointed two com- 
missioners, John Palmer and John West, to manage the 
affairs of the county of Cornwall, who behaved very 
badly, and attempted to exercise jurisdiction as far as to 
the St. Croix. They seized a cargo of wines landed at 
the French port at Penobscot, because duties had not 
been paid at the Pemaquid custom-house, and were guilty 
of many other high-handed acts. Their authority and 
that of Dungan in the Sagadahock country, was suspend- 
ed or nullified by the appointment of Andros in 1789, 
as Governor of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hamp- 
shire, Maine, Plymouth, Pemaquid, and Narragansett (or 
Rhode Island). 

February 16, 1685, the viceroyalty of the Duke of 
York in America was ended by his ascent of the throne 
as Tames II., upon the death of his brother. 'We hear 
Uttle more of his Territory of Sagadahock. The French 
had generally undisputed possession east of the Penob- 
scot, and established one of their forts upon the bay. 
De Bourg was acting Governor; Jesuit missionaries, 
traders, and settlers were at and about Penobscot in 
considerable number, and a profitable trade with the 
natives was carried on, while " the whole coast between 
Penobscot and St. Croix remained untouched by the 
arts of culture and improvement, and almost without 


The facts relating to the erection of this county are 
these: Upon the organization of the General Assembly 
of the Province of New York in 1683, and the subdivis- 
ion of the Province into counties, "Pemy Quid and all 
Territories in those Parts, with the Islands adjoining," 

were ordered to constitute the county of Cornw^all, which 
should be entitled to send one member to the Assembly. 
Under this provision Gyles Goddard, of New Dartmouth, 
represented the county for a time. He was also a jus- 
tice of the county and lieutenant of "a foot company" in 
the militia — also afterwards surveyor. It is said that 
there was a re-enactment of the ordinance by the New- 
York Assembly October i, 1691,* although the fort and 
country about Pemaquid w-ere surrendered to Massachu- 
setts by the royal order September 19, 1686. 


In 1674 the Dutch, having concluded a treaty with 
England, but being still at war with France and anxious, 
as they had been for a long time, to share the fishing 
and other advantages of the North American coasts 
with the English and French, sent a vessel to sieze the 
fort at Penobscot. It was captured without much loss, 
but was soon voluntarily relinquished. Again, however, 
in the spring of 1676, a Dutch man-ofwar appeared be- 
fore the fort and compelled its surrender. It was the in- 
tention now to maintain firm possession of the Penob- 
scot country; but, as the fort was held to be within the 
Duke of York's patent, and so in New England, a small 
fleet was dispatched from Boston, which soon forced the 
intruders to abandon the position. The singular part of 
the transaction is that the English themselves did not re- 
main as masters of the situation, but at once after the 
reduction of the place abandoned it. As a consequence 
of these events, however, it is said that Andros was in- 
duced the next year to build a fort a Pemaquid and take 
formal possession of the whole Eastern domain granted 
to his superior, the Duke of York. It is one of the in- 
teresting facts of Penobscot history that the country was 
for a period, though a very short one, virtually under the 
government of the Netherlands. 


William and Mary succeeded to the English throne 
February 16, 1689, upon the abdication of James II. 
The next year Nova Scotia was recaptured for England 
by an expedition under Sir William Phips, a native of the 
Province of Maine, born at Woolwich, upon the Sheeps- 
cot. Out of the southwestern part of it was carved, Oc- 
tober 7, 1 69 1, by the Provincial Charter of William and 
Mary, a tract described by no specific name, but which 
came to be known, probably from the Duke of York's 
Eastern grant, as the Province of Sagadahock. It was 
defined as "between the river Sagadahock [or Kenne- 
beck] and Nova Scotia," extending "northward to the 
river of Canada," and included the second of the Royal 
Provinces of 1635, that between the Sagadahoc and Pe- 
maquid, and the first, or county of Canada, stretching 
thence to the St. Croix. The new province with Massa- 
chusetts, Plymouth, and the Province of Maine unitedly 
form the Royal Province of Massachusetts Bay. Acadia, 
or Nova Scotia, was included in the charter, but exclu- 

* Mr. Williamson (History of Maine, i., 421) avers that the King's 
commissioners for settling (rather unsettling) the affairs of New Eng- 
land, "erected the whole territory into a county, by the name of Corn- 
wall, " upon their coming hither in 1665. We have taken the more cir- 
cumstantial statement from a later and perhaps better authority. 



sive jurisdiction over it was eventually conceded by Mas- 
sachusetts to the crown. "All islands and inlets lying 
within ten leagues directly opposite the mainland with- 
in the said bounds," were embraced in the charter, but 
all English subjects were to have a common right of 
fishery upon the coast or "in any arms of the sea or still- 
water rivers." Sir William Phips was commissioned the 
first Royal Governor. The events in the Penobscot 
country during the terrible Indian war have been related 
in our chapter upon the Indians. In 1693, as prejiara- 
tions for another war were beginning, the fort at Penob- 
scot was temporarily in the posession of the French, with 
the Sieur de Villieu resident commander. It was at this 
])lace, October 14, 1697, that the commissioners from 
Massachusetts met the Indians and arranged prelimina- 
ries of peace. 

In 1697, both France and Massachusetts — the former 
by the Treaty of Ryswick, as included in "Acadia," and 
the latter by its charter — claimed the Sagadahock Prov- 
ince. The next summer the English fishing-vessels were 
warned off the coast and out of the Gulf of Maine. 
No bloodshed resulted, however, until (^ueen Anne's 
war with France, declared May 4, 1702. In the Treaty 
of Utrecht, March 30, 17 13, the dispute was quieted by 
the concession to the English of "all Nova Scotia, or 
Acadia, with its ancient boundaries." From this time the 
fee to the ungranted lands in the Province remained in 
the Crown, while the civil jurisdiction was vested in 
Massachusetts. In 1729, one Colonel David Dunbar 
succeeded in getting the entire Province into his hands, 
by royal proclamation, with instructions to settle, super- 
intend, and govern it, and with scarcely any other condi- 
tion than that he should preserve within it 300,000 acres 
of the best pine and oak-timbered land, for the use of 
the Crown. He made some considerable improvements 
between the Sheepscot and Muscongus rivers, but his ar- 
bitrary conduct soon caused discontent, which resulted 
in his downfall in 1732. He retained his office, how- 
ever, of Lieutenant (Governor of New Hampshire, until 
his leturn to England in 1737. 

In 1737, the white population of Sagadahock, embrac- 
ing Georgetown, Sheepscot, Damariscotta, Townshend, 
Harrington, Walpole, Broad Bay, and St. George's River, 
was estimated at 1500. There were then within the 
present limits of Maine about 7,000 people of civilized 
stock. It will be observed that none of the localities 
named was within the Penobscot valley; and the subse- 
quent history of the Sagadahock Province has little con- 
cern with the purpose of this History. It endured for a 
number of years longer, and then was absorbed into 
other geographical subdivisions. 

"new IRELAND." 

We anticipate the course of history, chronologically re- 
garded, a little in the mention of this, in order to close 
this chapter properly with an account of the erection 
of the Province, and then of the State, of Maine. In 
1780, a proposition was set on foot for the erection of a 
British Province covering the territory between the Pe- 
nobscot and the St. Croix, to be called "New Ireland," 
and to have Bagaduce, now Castine, for its capital. It 

was expected that the loyalists or Tories from the Ameri- 
can colonies, who had already settled along the coast in 
considerable number, would colonize the province. 
Thomas Oliver, a gradut;te of Harvard College and for- 
merly Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts, was to be 
its Governor, and the principal officers of the new state 
were nominated. The British Ministry and the King 
gave their approval to the scheme, and an attempt would 
doubtless have been made to carry it into effect, had not 
the Attorney-General delivered the opinion that the char- 
tered rights of Massachusetts Bay did not end at the Pe- 
nobscot, as held by the ministry, but extended to the 
St. Croix, and would be infringed by the establishment 
of "New Ireland." With this decision the project re- 
ceived its quietus. 


The charter granted by Charles the First to Sir Fer- 
inando (lOrges, dated .April 3, 1639, erected the province 
or county of Mayne. Some of the writers affirm that it 
took its name from the province of Meyne, in France, 
said to have been owned by the queen, Henrietta Maria; 
but it has been demonstrably shown that this was no part 
of her estate, and it is equally well settled that the an- 
cient name for the mainland, as distinguished from the 
islands off the shore, was taken for the new province. 
It did not comprehend the whole of the present State of 
Maine, nor any part of the Penobscot country. Its 
boundaries, beginning at the mouth of the Piscataqua, 
ran up that river and through Newichawannock and 
Fall River northeastwardly one hundred and twenty 
miles; from Piscataqua harbor along the coast to the 
Sagadahoc; up that river and the Kennebec one hund- 
red and twenty miles; and thence overland to the north 
end of the line first defined. The charter included also 
the islands and inlets within five leagues of the shore 
between the Piscataqua and the Sagadahoc, the north 
half of the Isles of Shoals, and the islands Capawock 
and Nantican (supposed to be Martha's Vineyard and 
Nantucket) near Cape Cod. Gorges, with his heirs and 
assignees, were created absolute Lords Proprietors of 
the [)rovince, reserving only to the crown su]jreme do- 
minion, faith, and allegiance, and the right to exact a 
yearly tribute of a quarter of wheat and one-fifth of 
the avails of pearl fisheries and from gold or silver mines 
— the revenue from which sources at that time must 
have been small indeed. Thomas Gorges was appointed 
deputy-governor; and Messrs. Richard Vines and Rich- 
ard Bonythan, of Saco; Henry Joscelyn, of Black 
Point; Francis Chamfernon and Edward Godfrey, of 
Piscataqua, afterwards Kitlery; and William Hook, of 
Agamenticus, were made councillors of the province. 

It is not at all the purpose of this History to follow 
the existence of the Province of Maine through its 
troubled years. So much of its beginning has been in- 
troduced here, in order to preface appropriately the story 
of that great subdivision of New England, bearing the 
same name in part, which came finally to include the 
Penobscot region. 

The Province of Maine (formally purchased by Mas- 
sachusetts from Sir Ferdinando Gorges in 1677, for 



^^1,250,) with its ancient boundaries, but separated into 
the three counties of York, Cumberland and Lincoln, 
endured until about half the period of the Revolution 
war was spent, when the "District of Maine" was erected 
by act of Congress. The immediate occasion for the 
change resided in the appellate jurisdiction over all mari- 
time causes, which the State of Massachusetts had con- 
ceded to Congress, or the tribunals that might be created 
by it, and had authorized an appeal from the State courts 
in any case where the subject of a foreign power at 
peace with the United States claimed a captured or lib- 
elled vessel or cargo. The right of appeal could be 
waived, however, and final trial had in the Superior 
Court of Massachusetts. Congress accordingly, in 1778, 
divided the State, for judicial purposes, into three dis- 
tricts — the southern, middle and northern, whereof the 
last constituted the District of Maine. Timothy Lang- 
don, Esq., of Wiscasset, named by Mr. Williamson as "a 
lawyer of considerable eminence," was ajjpointed judge 
of the district ; and Mr. Nathaniel Thwing, of Wool- 
wich, clerk. 

Twelve years afterwards, when the census of 1790 ex- 
hibited a population in Maine of 96,530, Maine was 
"for many purposes," to quote Williamson's phrase, "re- 
cognized by Federal authority as a district, and as if it 
were a separate State." It was, says the historian, "more 
expressly formed into a district, and jurisdiction assumed 
over all its affairs belonging to the National Government. 
Such, among many, were lighthouses — the single one in 
Maine, at Portland Head, and the appurtenant lands, be- 
ing ceded to the United States. All the coasts and ports 
in Maine were classed into nine commercial districts, in 
each of which there were appointed a collector and other 
custom-house officers." 

The collector appointed for the Penobscot district was 
John Lee; for Frenchman's Bay, Melatiah Jordan. A 
new District Court was created, with David Sewall judge; 
William Lithgow, jr., of Hallowell, United States attor- 
ney; Henry Dearborn, of Pittston, marshal; and Henry 
Sewall, clerk. 

Full jurisdiction over uhe District of Maine, except in 
the matters delegated to the General Government, was 
maintained by the commonwealth of Massachusetts, until 
the State of Maine was formed, the latest-born of all 
States of the Union upon the Atlantic seaboard, save 
Florida. Agitation for the separation of Maine from 
Massachusetts began almost at once upon the close of 
the Revolutionary war. Mr. Williamson says: 

The want of a distinct government had been often felt during the 
late war, and was still recollected. As the State debt was large, there 
must be heavy ta.fes through a series of years, which most men would 
like to avoid. .Vn excessive thirst for superfluities was draining the 
country of money, while thousands were poor and perplexed with 
debts. These, and such as had everything to gain and nothing to lose, 
were inclined to try an experiment. There were, however, advocates 
of the measure among all classes— men of probity, wealth, and intelli- 
gence, who believed a separate administration would be of essential 
benefit to every portion and interest of the community. Some of the 
greatest opponents were men in office, and all of them could present 
plausible and correct pleas that the generous favors and provident care 
which the people of Maine had at all times received from the State Gov- 
ernment ought to silence complaint, and that Ijy a separation at the 
present juncture, the vigor and force indispensable to the protection 

and security of the district would be essentially weakened, if not alto- 
gether paralyzed. 

It is an incident of special interest that the first news- 
[japer published in the State — the Falmouth Gazette, 
started January i, 1785 — was established to concentrate 
and promote the expression of public opinion in behalf 
of separation. A preliminary convention was held at 
Falmouth, October 5th, of the same year, at which an 
address to the people of the district was voted, and a 
call issued for a delegate convention, to meet January 4, 
1786, to consider further the question of separation. 

We need not follow the agitation and discussion 
through the next third of a century. The fullness of 
time for the rising Commonwealth of the Northeast ar- 
rived in 1819. The Democratic newspajjers and poli- 
ticians now generally advocated separation; the Federalists 
as generally opposed it. Nevertheless towns in the dis- 
trict petitioned the General Court, in May, for separation. 
A law was a|jproved June 19th, submitting to the voters 
of Maine the cjuestion: "Is it expedient that the Dis- 
trict shall become a separate and independent State upon 
the terms and conditions provided in 'an Act relating to 
the separation of the District of Maine from Massachus- 
etts proper, and forming the same into a separate and 
independent State'?" On the fourth Monday of July 
the people responded "yes" by a vote of 17,091 to 
7,132. October nth, a convention assembled in Port- 
land, and proceeded with the preparation of a constitution 
for the new State. It was approved by popular vote in 
town meetings on the first Monday in December, and 
application was promptly made to Congress for admission 
into the Federal Union. Many weeks of delay were 
caused by the agitation in that body concerning the ex- 
tension of slavery, arising from the contemporaneous 
appeal of Missouri for admission, which resulted in the 
famous Missouri compromise. All obstacles were cleared 
by the 3d of March, 1820, when the act for the admis- 
sion of Maine was passed, and on the 15th of that month 
and year she became a sovereign State. 

The intelligence was received in Bangor with great 
satisfaction and general gratulation. On the day when 
separation became finally an accomplished fact, a salute 
of three guns was fired at daylight, another of thirteen at 
sunrise, and eleven more at noon. 

We reserve for another chapter some account of the 
county organizations affecting the Penobscot country. 




General Harris M. Plaisted, of Bangor, Governor of 
the State, was born in leffcrson, New Hampshire, No- 
vember 2, tSzS, son of Deacon WilHam and Nancy 
(Merrill) Plaisted. His parents possessed little of this 
world's Roods beyond the resources of a rocky farm with- 
in the shadow of the \\'hite Mountains, but to their chil- 
dren they left a rich inheritance in their exemplary lives 
of industry unremitting, and of piety most pure and sin- 
cere. For nearly forty years they were members and pil- 
lars of the Baptist Church in Jefferson. The father died 
in 1854, and the mother two years later. Noticing his 
death the local paper (Coos Democrat) said of him: 

He was a good man, and true in all his relations of life; a good 
husband and father; a good citizen and an honest man. Scarcely have 
we ever known one whose character was 50 positive, and whose life 
was so earnest, so universally respected and beloved by all who knew 
hitn. We never heard a word spoken, we never heard of a word 
spoken, to his dispraise— not even one of those little qualifying words, 
" but" or "if," so often used to cloud commendations that can but be 

General Plaisted was one of a family of nine children, 
six sons and three daughters — three of whom, besides 
himself, made their homes in Maine — Hon. William 
Plaisted, of Lincoln, who has been a member of the State 
Senate from this county; Dr. Plaisted, late of Farming- 
ton, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College, Philadel- 
phia, and surgeon of a Maine regiment during the war ; 
Mrs! Church, deceased wife of Cyrus P. Church, Esq., of 
Bradford. One son, Charles, is now living in Lancaster, 
New Hampshire, who has represented his town in the 
New Hampshire Legislature. 

General Plaisted comes of good le.?al as well as fight 
ing stock. His giandfather, the Hon. Samuel Plaisted, 
was for several years Judge of the New Hampshire Court 
of Common Pleas, and a native of Berwick, in this State; 
was descended from Colonel John Plaisted, of Ports- 
mouth, who was a member of the New Hampshire As- 
sembly from 1693 to 1727; Speaker in 1697, 1717, and 
1727; a member of the Royal Council from 1702 to 
1716; a Judge of the Supreme Court from 1699 to 1719, 
and Chief Justice in 1716-19. The father of Colonel 
John was Captan Roger Plaisted, a distinguished officer 
in the Indian wars that make so dark a chapter in the 
early history of New England. Roger came to Berwick 
about 1650, and was killed in battle with the Indians 
October 17, 1675. The savages, about one hundred and 
fifty, made an attack on the settlement, and were stoutly 
resisted by Captain Plaisted in command of the two up- 
per garrisons. At the first alarm he sent a messenger to 
Major Waldron, at Dover, New Hampshire, importunate- 
ly beseeching aid; "for," said he, "we are all in great 
danger of being slain unless our God doth wonderfully 
appear for us," and, in the true spirit of the age, added : 
"They that cannot fight let them pray." No assistance 
came to him, but in the fight the next day his desperate 
resistance saved the settlement, though at terrible cost. 

" Being greatly over matched," says the historian, "some 
of his men sought safety in flight, but he, disdaining to 
fly or yield, though urged again and again to surrender, 
fought with desperate courage until literally hewed down 
by the enemy's hatchets. Two of his sons, unwilling to 
leave the intrepid man, sought their retreat too late and 
were slain. Such bemg the fate of this Spartan family, 
whose intrepidity deserves a monument more durable 
than marble. The father had represented Kittery four 
years in the General Court, and was highly respected for 
his uncommon valor, worth, and piety. He and his sons 
were buried on his own land near the battle-ground, full 
in view from the highway leading through Berwick; 
whose lettered tombstone tells succeeding ages: 'Near 
this place lies buried the body of Roger Plaisted, who 
was killed by the Indians October 17, 1675; ^g^^ forty- 
eight years.' " * 

Among the descendants of the brave old Indian fighter 
are Governor Goodwin, of New Hampshire, and Gov- 
ernor Fairfield, of this State, also Judge Peters, of the 
Supreme Court of Maine. 

General Plaisted is the eighth in descent from Roger 
Plaisted. Until the age of seventeen he remained at 
home in New Hampshire, working on his father's farm 
and attending the district school. During the next three 
years, spring and fall he attended the academy at Lan- 
caster, St. Johnsbury, or at New Hampton, paying his 
way by " doing chores " for his board, and " ringing 
the bell " for his tuition ; teaching school winters and 
working on the farm summers. 

In 1S49 he entered college at Waterville, Maine, (Colby 
university) where he graduated in 1853. During his col- 
lege course he taught the village school in Waterville 
three winters, and was principal of the Waterville Liberal 
institute three terms. He was also superintendent of 
schools, elected by the town, for three years. 

In 1855 he graduated from the law school of the Uni- 
versity of .'\lbany with the highest honors of the institu- 
tion, winning the first prize, the gold medal, for the best 
essay on equity jurisprudence. After pursuing his studies 
one year in the office of Hon. A. W. Paine, of Bangor, 
he was admitted to the Bar in 1856, and in October, the 
same year, opened an ofifice in that city, where he has 
since made his home. He was for three years — 1857-60 
— a member of the staff of Governor Lot M. Morrill. 
His first vote was cast for Hon. A. P. Morrill, Temper- 
ance candidate for Governor in 1853. 

In 1861 he entered the army as lieutenant-colonel of 
the Eleventh Maine infantry, and was soon after pro- 
moted to colonel. He entered active service in March, 
1862, and commanded his regiment through the Penin- 
sular campaign of General McClellan, participating in 
most of the great battles of that memorable campaign 
from the Siege of Yorktown to Malvern Hill. He 
commanded a brigade in the Siege of Charleston under 
General Gillmore in 1863. In April, 1864, he was trans- 
ferred, with his brigade, to Virginia, and commanded 
his brigade in General Grant's great campaign against Rich, 
mond in 1864-65, which resulted in the overthrow of the 

* Williamson's Historv of Maine. 


Confederacy. During this campaign his command was 
engaged with the enemy and liad men killed and wound- 
ed on fifty-nine different days — losing in the aggregate 
one thousand three hundred and eighty-five out of two 
thousand six hundred and ninety eight, and his command 
never moved to the front without him while he was in the 
service. He was twice promoted by the President "for 
g:;llant and meritorious conduct in the field," to brigadier- 
general, and major-general by brevet. 

Durmg the war he was at home — once on sick leave, 
and recruited over three hundred men — once for the 
purpose of filling up his regiment, which had been more 
than decimated in battle, and recruited three full com- 
panies. Directly and indirectly, he succeeded in keep- 
ing his regiment full and in the service to the close of the 
war. The recruiting fees allowed him, as well as any one 
who recruited for the army, amounted to over eighteen 
hundred dollars — all of which he turned over to his sol- 
diers. For this generous and patriotic act he received, 
in the spring of 1864, through the Portland Press, the 
felicitations of Mayor McLellan. 

On taking leave of his old brigade General Plaisted 
made to it the following farewell address, full of sensi- 
bility and pathos, such as can animate only the citizen 
soldier "whose bayonet thinks" — from every line of which 
shines out the spirit of the true soldier and patriot: 

To the officers and soldiers of the Third brigade— Eleventh Maine, 
Tenth Connecticut, Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, One Hundredth 
New York, Two Hundred and Sixth Pennsylvania. 

At last, soldiers, it becomes my duty to say farewell ! That word 
may sometimes be spoken and not carry with it the heart's regret, but 
not by him who has, for years, shared tlie pleasant companionship of 
soldiers. companionship with you I have shared in a campaign which 
will be celebrated even in the' world's history, celebrated for the brave 
deeds and manly virtues of a patriot army contending for government, 
freedom and empire; yes, soldiers, with you 1 I will not rehearse your 
historv in that campaign. Suffice it to say. the record shows you en- 
gaged your country's loes and had killed and wounded some of your 
number on hlty-nine different days! that your losses in the aggieg.ate 
were one thousand three hundred and eighty-tive out of two thousand 
six hundred and ninety-eight. Your name and fame are as familier as 
household words in the camps of this army corps and among your fel- 
low-citizens at home. Your iron will and hrmness have won lor your- 
selves the proud title of "The Iron Clads." That cowardly cry, "weare 
n, inked," has never been heard in yourr.inks. When other troops have 
given way on your right or your left you have shown to your enemy 
that >ou'had no ilani<s, no'iear; that the Third brigade was all front, 
and that, too, of steel. How well that front has been maintained the 
long list of vour casualties sadly but gloriously attest. Your brave 
deeds will be remembered in your country's history and be the proud 
boast of your descendants. 

When reviewed by the Lieutenant General and the Secretary of 'War, 
not long since, your soldierly bearing won from those high officials the 
stiongest expre'ision of their approbation and delight. What would 
they nave thought had they seen >ou imght! 

Be proud of your record, veterans; you have a right to be. 

The respect and confidence of such troops after such service is honor 
enough. It is sufficient reward for the best efforts, the best endeavors 
of a lifetime. I am indebted to you, comrades. Your conduct has 
afforded me the keenest pleasure of my life, and while life shall last 
memory will constanUy recur to the conduct of the "Iron Brigade" 
with as much pride and gratitude as the heart is capable of. 

May the day come <|uickly when you can return to your homes to re- 
sume your peaceful iJuisuits' and to receive the honois which belong 
to our country's defenders. Then will you in your civil life vindicate 
the high character of the army by aiding to restore and preseivc the pub- 
lic nior.ils, and by proving to your lellow-citizens that in learning to be- 
come good soldiers you have 'become the best of citizens. 

In conclusion, 1 desire to repeat for your encouragement the language 
of Washington to his brave troops, who had won for us the cause we 
are now contending to niainlain: "Let me remind you," said he, "you, 
the private soldiers, of the dignified part you have performed in the 
great struggle. For hnppy — thrice happy — will he be accounted here- 
after, who has contributed, though in the least degree, to the establish- 
ment ol this gigantic Republic on the broad basis of human freedom 
and empire." Immorial honors will belong to you as mivkwcj of the 
Republic, no less than to our fathers as founders of it. Karewell! 

To the Eleventh Maine, my old companions, farewell ! 

H. M. Pl.msted. 

The military career of General Plaisted from the com- 
mencement of the war in iS6i, when as a private citizen 
he raised a company of volunteers and took the field in 
the cause of his country, to the victorious close of the 
great struggle in 1865, when, as l^revet Major General of 
volunteers, he returned to his home in Bangor, forms 
one of the brightest pages in the history of Maine troops, 
and links that history with the most brilliant achieve- 
ments of the Union army. It is fitting that, to a record 
so brightly told, we add the expressed recognition of his 
merits by his superior officers and conirades in arms. 

During the Peninsular campaign in 1862, he served 
under General Naglee. The latter having been promot:d 
to the command of a division, was desirous that Colonel 
Plaisted should cotiimand his (Naglee's) old brigade, 
and wrote to the Vice President, Mr. Hamlin, as follows: 

At my instigation our mutual friend. Colonel Harris M. Plaisted, is 
an applicant for promotion that he may command my old brigade. I 
can assure you it cannot fall into better hands. He has been well tried 
on the Chickahominy, at I-'air Oaks, While Oak Swamp, and other 
battlefields of the Peninsula, and snstained himself and regiment in 
such a manner that his State will refer to the history of the war and the 
conduct of the Eleventh Maine with pride and extreme satisfaction. 
Let me ask of you as an especial fa\'or, that you will use your influence 
with the President and secure the "star" lor Colonel Plaisted. 

In 1863 General Plaisted commanded a brigade under 
General Gilmore in the siege of Charleston, and was 
warmly recommended for promotion. 

In October, 1864, he was again reconimended for pro- 
motion by Major Generals Terry, Ames, and Foster, his 
corps and division commanders. Major General Terry, 
the hero of Fort Fisher, wTOte as follows: 

Colonel Plaisted is a brave, patriotic, and loyal man, and h:ts faith- 
fully served the country since eaily in the war. Mis regiment is not 
only one of the best in the Tenth Army Corps, but one of the best 
which I have ever seen. 

He is more than ordinarily attentive and zealous in the performance 
of his duty, and equally careful for the comfort and welfare of his 
men. In the battle of the 7th instant (New Miirket Road) he handled 
his brig.ide with marked skill and ability, and it was as much due to 
his eftorts as to the efforts of any one else that our flank was not turned 
and the battle not lost. 

General Foster wrote: 

The discipline of his brigade (the Third of the First Division) is of 
the highest order, and its lighting qualities unsurpassed by any in this 
army. Colonel Plaisted having commanded it since its organization 
at Hilton Head, is, in my judgment, entitled to the greater share of 
the credit for the remarkable efficiency which it has attained. Colonel 
Plaisted is an officer of unbounded zeal and energy, and his loyalty 
and patriotism knows no bounds. 

General Ames (from Maine) wrote: 

The credit for the excellence of his regiment undoubtedly falls to 
him. I have been connected with this corps for months, ami it is my 
opinion, as well,as that of the officers of the higher gr.ades in the corps, 
that the Eleventh Maine Volunteers is far superior to any Maine regiment 
in the .Army of the James, in fact that it is unsurpassed by any regiment 
from other States. '1 he conduct of the Eleventh Maine in every battle 
it has participated in has called forth the highest praise from all, and I 
must acknowledge it causes me the strongest feelings of State pride in 
Maine troops. 

The following tribute from the officers of One of the 
regiments of his brigade was forwarded to General 
Plaisted after his return home: 

At a meeting held the 30th day of May, t865, by the commissioned 
officers of the Tenth Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, at camp near 
Richmond, Virginia, Colonel E. S. Greely being president, and Lieu- 
tenant J. W. Hawxhurst secretary. Captain F. G. Hickerson, Captain 
James H. Linsley, and Chaplain H. Clay Trumbull were appointed a 
committee to draft resolutions expressing the feelings of the officers of 
this regiment towards General Plaisted, their late late brigade com- 
mander. The following piearnble and resolutions having been reported 
by said committee, were unanimously adopted: 

" WHIiREAS, General H. M. Plaisted, our brigadecommanderduring 
long and arduous campaigns, has been forced, in consequence of fail- 
ing health, to lea\e the military service he loved and adorned, and has 


now retired to private and civil life, that be may ha\'e formal assurance 
of what, from his long association with us, he must fully understand 
are the true and hearty personal sentiments and opinions of the officers 
of (he Tenth Connecticut — 

"Resolved, That while our commander. General Plaisted, had our 
sincere esteem for his genial social qualities .ind his ever kindly and 
courteous personal bearing, our respect for his high integrity and 
marked attainments in scholarship and military science, and our con- 
fidence in his brave and experienced soldierly lead, he merited our es- 
pecial admiration for his moral courage, in choosing, on more occasions 
than one, to risk his own advancement rather than to risk in foolhardy 
assaults the lives of the brave men he commanded, while his presence 
with them when they were most exposed showed that he never held 
them back from unwillingness to share all dangers to which they were 
properly called of duty. 

"That the unvarying and remarkable successes of his command are 
the best evidences of General Plaisted's faithfulness and ability as a 
soldier, and that no higher tribute of praise can be paid to his skill and 
bravery than that he was a worthy commander of tiie 'Iron Brigade.' 
That until the memory of the events in which we bore a part with him and 
under him have passed from our minds, we shall ever cherish pleasing 
recollections of General Plaisted as an able commander, a gallant 
soldier, and an estimable Christian gentleman. 

"Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted by our 
president and secretary to General Plaisted, with assurance of our in- 
dividual respect and regard. 

" E. S. Greely, President, 
Colonel Tenth Connecticut Volunteers. 

"Lieutenant [. W. HAW.Xll'JR.ST, Secretary." 

That Getieral Phisted possesses the highest moral as 
well as physical courage is evidenced by the tollowing 
order issued by him prohibiiing "whiskey rations" to the 
officers under his command: 

Hereafter requisitions for whiskey — the one gallon per month — by 
commissioned ofticers of this brigade will not be approved at these 

The colonel commanding tiie brigade believes that a scheine could 
not be devised better calculated to ruin the young men holding commis- 
sions in our army and to impair the discipline of the service than this 
"one gallon a month " whiskey allowance; for such an habitual use of 
into.^icating diink cannot fail to engender habits which, if not in the 
service, must in after years prove ruinous to those who indulge in it. 

But this gallon of whiskey — this jug of rum a month — is degrading 
to the high character of an officer in the United States army, both in 
his own estimation and in the estimation of his men. It destroys t!ie 
respect which is due him as an officer and gentleman, and thus saps the 
very foundation of military discipline. 

Whiskey, as a beverage, it must be admitted, is a useless indulgence 
at the best, and one which the officer must deny to liis men. The Col- 
onel commanding is free to say that no officer possesses the true spirit 
of a soldier who is not willing to practice that self-denial which it is his 
duty to enforce upon the men of his command. It is believed by him 
that the officers of his command have a proper appreciation of them- 
selves and of the service, and, therefore, will readily discountenance a 
practice which tends to the greatest evils, and which can be only a use- 
less indulgence. 

In May, 1865, after leaving the service, General Plais- 
ted returned to Bangor to resume the practice of his pro- 
fession, worn down by fever and ague from the effects of 
which he has never fully recovered. 

In 1867 he was elected Representative from Hangor 
to the State Legislature, and re-elected in i868." He 
was delegate, from the State at large, to the Republican 
National Convention at Chicago in 1868, wliich nomi- 
nated General Grant for the presidency. He was elected 
Attorney General of the State by the Legislature in 1873 
after a severe contest, and re-elected in 1874 and 1875. 
It fell to his lot as Attorney General to conduct, in be- 
halt of the State, during his three years of office, four- 
teen capital cases, among which were the celebrated trials 
of Wagner, Gordon, Lowell, Reed, Benner, Robbins, 

the "Annie B." murderer, and Carson, twenty-two days 
on tiiil. 

So carefully and skilfully were these cases prepared and 
managed no verdict was set aside by the full bench on law. 
Some of these cases called for advocacy of the highest 
order. He was always equal to the occasion. The cele- 
brated Wagner case was the first which called forth all 
his powers. This lifted him in reputation as advocate to 
a high rank in his profession. In a column of editorial 
comments the Boston Daily .Advertiser, of June 20, 
1873, characterized his argument in this case as a 
"model for such speeches," and as a " piece of masterly 

He was a member of the LXIVih Congress from the 
Fourth District, serving on the Committee of Public Build- 
ings and E.xpenditures of the Treasury Department. He 
was also member of special committees on ventilation of 
the Representative Hall, and Proctor Knott's committee 
to investigate the " Whiskey Frauds," so-called. For the 
whole of the long session, up to the middle of August, 
1876, General Plaisted was taken from the floor of the 
House by the labors of these committees. He also 
served for several weeks a member of the sub-committee 
appointed from the Committee on the Treasury Expendi- 
tures. General Plaisted was not a candidate for a second 
term, on account of a vote of the convention of 1875, 
which gave the succession to Aroostook county. 

Immediately on his return from Washington General 
Plaisted resumed work in his office. In 1877 he en- 
gaged with F. H. Appicton, Esq., m the preparation of 
"Plaisted and Appleton's Digest," a digest of the sixty- 
eight volumes of the Maine Reports— a work of four- 
teen hundred pages, which was coinpleted the day he 
was nominated for Governor. He had previously pub- 
lished two other works, "The Lowell Trial," and "The 
Wagner Trial." He has also jjrepared for future pub- 
lication the history of the Plaisted family. 

June T, 1 880, General Plaisted received the unanimous 
nomination for Governor of two conventions — the Green- 
back convention of one thousand five hundred and fifty 
delegates, and the Democratic convention of seven hun- 
dred and fifty delegates. He was elected in September 
following, after the most hotly contested election per- 
haps ever known in the State, receiving 73,770 votes to 
73.554 cast for Hon. Daniel F. Davis. January 13, 188 r, 
he was inaugurated Governor of the State for two years. 
The Legislature elected at the same time is Republican. 
Among the public acts of Governor Plaisted, which ex- 
cited general discussion, were his inaugural address, his 
vetoes of thirty-one bills for the re-charter of State banks 
of issue, and his veto of the bill to apportion the State 
for Senators and Representatives. 

Governor Plaisted cast his last vote for the Republican 
ticket in 1878. He had previously taken his stand pub- 
licly in favor of Government currency as against bank 
currency. He is opposed to all banks of issue and in 
favor of Government issues to constitute, with gold and 
silver, the entire circulating medium of the country. The 
following extract from his inaugural address to the Legis- 
lature presents the issues upon which he was elected: 

History of pEKOBscot county, Maine. 

Debt, public and private ; debt and taxation are slowly but surely 
undermining our free institutions. Government bonds not only escape 
taxation themselves, but they furnish a cover for all other kinds of evi- 
dences of debt that are tax.ible. This double iniquity must l>e borne so 
long as United States bonds are endured. It would seem that the prop- 
osition to refund the seven or eight hundred millions of United States 
bonds now maturing, could meet with but liitle favor by the mass of 
the people in this State; that their interests demanded that these bonds 
should be paid, not refunded to remain a burden for a generation at 
least, and perhaps for generations. Then that other proposition be- 
fore the American Congress, to retire and destroy the 346,000,000 legal 
tender notes, — burn them, so that out ot their ashes may arise a like 
amount of interest-bearing bonds to further tax the labor and industry 
of the country ! V\'ould it not be more in accordance with the interest 
of the toiling masses in this country, to require the National banks to 
retire their cuirency, some over three hundred millions, and replace it 
with United Slates legal tenders, and thereby pay off a like amount of 
United States bonds, burn them up and thus relieve the people of so 
much burden of interest, and above all, from the baneful influence of 
these bonds upon the currency and business of the country ? 

The Treasurer of the United States in his last report says: "In- 
stead of the volume of the circulation being regulated by the business 
needs of the country, it is governed by the price of United States 
bonds !" The power that controls the volume of the people's money is 
certain to control the people's destinies. 

This cjueslion of the currency is one about which honest men may 
honestly differ. It is an important question. Its decision will be of 
far reaching consequence. If the bank currency win the wole field of 
circulation, then we shall have a never ending national debt, mam- 
tained by the banks as the basis of their existence; yes, fostered by 
them as ''a national blessing" — to the banks, ever increasing in num- 
ber and power as the country increases in wealth and population, and 
certain to become, if not so already, a poluical machine, hostile to free 
government, mingling in the elections and legislation of the counir\-, 
corrupting the press and exerting its influence in the only way known 
to the money power — by corruption. 

But it is claimed that this bond policy is demanded in the interest of 
idle; that it is necessary to furnish "an opportunity for the snfe 
investment of idle capital." These safe investments for idle capital 
are destructive, not only of the industries, but of the morals of the 
people. As they render the trade of the money lender the most profit- 
able business, they tend to create a race of idlers, misers, and cowards 
who will never take any chances with labor in the productive industries 
while this opportunity lor safe investment and exemption from tax- 
ation is open to them. They take no risks. The Vanderbilts, with 
tens of millions of United States bonds, spending the interest in Eu- 
rope, and the tens of thousands of lesser bondholders, who produce 
nothing and do nothing except clip coupons, what are they to this 
country and its industries but a class of gilded paupers supported by 
the labor of the country? 

We have in this country five thousand persons who own and possess 
five millions of property, mostly accumulated within the last fifteen 
years, and that, too, through unequal laws. Twenty years ago a mil- 
lionaire in this country was as rare as a prince, and so was a tramp. 

According to Poor's Manual on Railroads, the number of miles of 
railroads in operation in this country increased from 9,000 in 1851 to 
86,500 miles in 1879; and the gross earnings from $36,000,000 in 1851 
to $529,000,000 in 1879. These facts serve to illustrate the most start- 
ling development of the age — the development of corporate power. 

The presidents of the great trunk lines in this country control prop- 
erty, three of them, valued at $1,818,000,000: and three others prop- 
erty valued at $943,000,000. 

These great trunk lines have been in the habit of combining, and 
raising and lowering rates,^not according to business principles, but ac- 
cording to their selfish interests. It is notorious that the change of these 
rates in a single week recently added $5,000,000 per week to the burdens 
of the people, and put many times that amount into the hands of 
Eastern holders of grain, some of whom were railroad directors. 

How, then, can any reflecting mind, any patriot, contemplate with- 
out anxious concern, the tendency of the legislation of this country to 
create such rapid accumulation of property in the hands of the few at 
the expense of the many ? 

"The freest government," says Webster, "cannot long endure. 
where the tendency of the law is to create a rapid accumulation of 
property in a few hands, and to render the masses of the people 
poor and dependent." 

Universal sufl'rage and great landed estates cannot long exist together, 
for eitlier the owners of the estates must restrict the right of suffrage, 
or that right of suffrage will in the end divide their estates. 

Is it not time we paused in our career, and reviewed our principles ? 

Our institutions were founded upon equality, or rather, grew out of 
equality — that condition of comparative equality as to property that 
characterized the early settlers of New England. They brought with 
them no great capital, and, fortunately for humanity, there was noth- 
ing here productive, to tempt investments. If one miUionaire had 
come over in the Mayflower, he would have blasted the prospects of a 
continent; for ours, then, would have been a government not to pro- 
tect labor but capital. Capital would have shaped it. Our ancestors 
came here all upon an equality as to property, or rather as to poverty. 
But the lands were all open and free to them. They entered into 
possession and established the town system, the hundred acre lot sys- 
tem, the district school system, and upon this foundation they builded 
their free and Christian Rej>ublic. All were tillers of the soil, farmers 
—not tenant farmers, but freeholders, having absolute dominion over 
their acres, recognizing no man as lord or master, no power between 
them and the God ihey worshipped. They were lords and sovereigns 
themselves, and if we are a nation of sovereigns to-day it is only so 
far as we are a nation of freeholders. When these sovereigns got to- 
gether to form a government what kind of a government could they 
form ? Only that under which all were equals, all were sovereigns. 
They could not have formed any other if they had tried. It was this 
necessary act of parceling out the land into small freeholds, "that 
fixed the future frame and form of their government." 

Our New England ancestors not only began their system of govern- 
ment under a condition of comparative equality as to property, but all 
their laws were of a nature to favor and perpetuate that equality. This 
is undoubtedly the true principle of legislation. .Any system of legisla- 
tion, therefore, that tends to destroy this happy equality, wipe out the 
small free-holds and centralize the ownership of land in the hands of the 
few, not only destroys the prosperity and independence of the people, 
but strikes at the very foundation of our republic. There is nothing in 
this country so sacred as the free-hold. It was the inmiediate parent of 
our free-school system and constitutes the essential condition of its exis- 
tence, for in a country of great landed estates the district school system 
is as impossible as it is unknown. 

.At the foundation of our free system, therefore, lies the principle of 
equality, and it is only upon that principle it can be preserved ; for it 
can rest in the love of all only as it rests in the interests of all. Move it 
from this basis of ecjuality and our temple of liberty falls, and then who 
shall raise up its shapely columns again? It is only by a happy concur- 
rence of the most fortunate circumstances our Constitution was framed 
and adopted. No other people, no other country, no other age was 
equal to the work. How far above the powers of the American people 
to-day is such an achievement? We should know, since we are not 
able to supply its one little defect, in relation to counting the electoral 
votes. The wisdom and patriotism of Congress is unequal to the task, 
though urged to it by every consideration of public safety. No, if our 
experiment of free government shall fail from the earth, it will be the 
knell of popular liberty the world over and for all time. 

Cicero, in one of his orations, is led off into a panegyric upon the 
Roman Constitution. How apt are his words, when applied to our im- 
maculate charter, the crowning glory of the Revolution. — that master- 
piece of human invention, at once the wonder and hope of the world. — 
the Constitution under which we live! for. says the great orator. "O 
wonderful system and discipline of government which we have received 
from our fathers !—I,ET us PRIiSERVE IT." 

General Plaisted married, September 21, 1858, Sarah 
J., daughter of Chase P. and Mary J. (Clough) Mason, 
of Waterville. They had three sons — Harold Mason, a 
recent graduate of the State College, and now messenger 
to the Governor and Council; Frederick William, a pupil 
in the Bangor high school, and Ralph Parker, also in the 
public schools of this city. Mrs. Plaisted died October 
25, 1875, ^"d on the 27th of September, 1881, the Gov- 
ernor was again married, this time to Mabel True, 
daughter of Hon. Francis W. and Sarah A. (True) Hill, 
of E.\eter, in this county, and grand-daughter of Colonel 
Francis Hill. 





The Seventeeiuh Century — First White Settlements in Maine — A 
Possible French Fort on the Penobscot in the Si.vteentli Century— 
The Plymouth Pilgrims at Cistine— The Earthquake of 1638— Re- 
ports and Statistics of Growth— Castine Village— The Old Fort- 
Baron de St. Castine — Other Inhabitants of Pentagoet— Castine the 
Younger — First English Settlers on the Penobscot. 


The first permanent settlements upon the present soil 
of Maine were made upon Arrowsick Island and the 
mainland about the Sagadahoc river, and at Sheepscot, 
Damariscotta, Pemaquid, and the St. George's river, as 
early as 1613. A permanent settlement was begun 
about this time at the mouth of the Saco. Monhegan, 
says Williamson, "was permanently peopled about the 
year 1622." But Bryant & Gay's History holds Bidde- 
ford and Saco, planted by Richard Vines and John Old- 
ham in 1630, to be the most decided beginnings of set- 
tlements in Maine. Four years previously, the New 
Plymouth colonists had followed their trading ventures 
up and at the mouth of the Kennebec with the erection 
of a "truck house'' at Penobscot, where they began trade 
with the Tarratine Indians. It was the first English 
trading-house in the Penobscot waters. 

Governor Sullivan, in his History of the District of 
Maine, says there were at this time eighty-four families, 
besides fishermen, about Sheepscot, Pemaquid, and St. 
George's. Reasoning from this datum, Mr. Williamson 
thinks that in 1636 the whole number of whites between 
Piscataqua and Penobscot must have exceeded 1,400, 
and might possibly have reached 100 more. 

In 1653, from the data supplied by the submission 
made by the five towns of Maine te Massachusetts, the 
same writer estimates : " If there were 250 families in 
the five towns, and fifty farms on the Isles of Shoals, at 
seven in a family, the whole number of persons would 
be 2,100." 

Eleven years after this, or in the year 1664, when 
the Geographical and Historical Description of North 
America was published by Monsieur Denys, he said: 
"The French have a fort on the east side of the Penob- 
scot Bay; and on the other hand the English are set- 
tled in great numbers, and have a large country cleared 
and under imi)rovement." The next year, when the 
Royal Commissioners are said to have erected the 1 )uke 
of York's Sagadahoc Territory into the County of Corn- 
wall, the settlements along the coast are believed by Wil- 
liamson to have comprised "probably 300 families;" 
though Sullivan finds but 145 in 1673. In the later jear 
a census of "Acadia" was taken by the French authori- 
ties ; but we get from it no statistics as to the territory 
now occupied by Maine, except of the Baron de Cas- 
tine's settlement on Penobscot Bay, which had thirty-one 
white persons, including the soldiers of the garrison. 

The next year the outbreak of King Philip's War led 
to an enrollment of the militia, which appears rather to 
have been estimated than exactly ascertained, if one 
may judge by the "round numbers" in which returns 
were made. From these, however, it may be ascer- 

tained, with reasonable certainty, that the white popu- 
lation between the Piscataqua and the Penobscot 
numbered 5,000 to 6,000. Leaving out, however, " Dev- 
onshire" and the settlements west of the Sagadahoc, 
the "residue of the Duke's patent" was returned as con- 
taining but fifty men capable of bearing arms. The 
statement of Captain Sylvanus Davis, however, then a 
resident agent on the Sagadahoc and extensively ac- 
quainted with the settlers, is that there were this year 
(1675) 158 families east of that river. But there was 
not yet, nor until eighty-five years thereafter, a single 
permanent white settler on the bank of the Penobscot. 
The next year the total population of Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire, the Maine and Sagadahoc Provinces, was 
but 150,000 souls. This is the statement of Mr. Wil- 
liamson, who cites some older authorities. Mr. Palfrey 
(History of New England) scouts this estimate as alto- 
gether too large, and thinks there were probably in New 
England at this time, leaving Maine altogether out of 
the account, 40,000 to 45,000 people of English stock. 
Hubbard, in his Narrative of the Troubles with the 
Indians in New England, published in 1677, gives the 
following account of the beginnings of settlement in 
Maine: , 

The first place that was ever possessed by the English, in the hope of 
making a plantation in those parts, was a tract of land on the west side 
of the river of Kennebeck, then called Sagatohocke, since Saga-de- 
hocke; other places adjoining were soon after seized, and improved for 
trading and fishmg. The more remote and furthest northward at the 
time belonging to the English (Penobscot forty years since being sur- 
prised by the French and by them held at this day) is called Pemma- 
quid, distant seven or eight leagues from Kennebeck, and is the utmost 
boundary of Xew England, being about forty leagues distant from the 
mouth of Pascataqua river. That Pemmaquid is a very commodious 
haven for ships, and hath been found very advantageous to such as use 
to come upon these coasts to make fishing voyages; southwest, or 
southeast, from whence, about six or seven leagues, lies an island called 
Monhiggon, of much use on the same account for fishing, it lying three or 
four leagues into the sea from Damaril's Cove (a place of hkc advantage 
for the stages of fishermen in former times). There have been for a 
long time seven or eight considerable dwellings about Pemmaquid. 
wnich is well accommodated with pasture-land about the haven for 
feeding cattle, and some fields also for tiU.ige; all the land improvable 
for such uses being already taken uj) by such a number of inhabitants 
as is already mentioned. 


The old French navigator and writer, Andre Thevet, 
who wrote of the Penobscot waters, or the "river of 
Norumbegue," in 1556, makes the first mention of any- 
thing like civilized settlement upon its banks or the 
shores of the bay. He speaks of a small fort erected by 
the French some ten or twelve leagues up the river, 
which was called "the Fort of Norumbeque." He sup- 
plies, however, no fnrther facts concerning it; and, as 
nothing more is known of it and no vestiges of it have 
ever been discovered, it seems probable that no such fort 
existed in fact, and that Thevet transmogrified in his 
relation the older story of an aborignal capital on the 
Penobscot, which was itself named "Norumbega." 


Early in 1626, or perhaps the next year, — at all events, 
but a very few years after the landing at Plymouth, — 
the Pilgrims, without charter or other warrant of author- 
ity, made a lodgment upon the shore of Penobscot Bay, 



on the Castine peninsula. Already sundry enterprises 
had been undertaken by the Plymouth colonists, by 
which they had become heavily involved. A number of 
their principal men — twenty-seven, it is said — gave relief 
by making a contract with the colony that they should 
have a monopoly of its trade for si.\ years from Septem- 
ber, 1627, with the use of its vessels, implements, and 
goods, for the consideration of payment of its debts and 
an annual supply of ^50 worth of hose and shoes, in 
exchange for corn at six shillings a bushel, and either six 
pounds of tobacco or three bushels of corn, as the col- 
ony might elect. The company, with the addition of 
four persons in England, was called by the rather 
gloomy and forbidding title of the "Undertakers." 
Judge Godfrey, in his paper on The Pilgrims at Penob- 
scot, says of their operations : 

They were carrying on si profitable traffic with the Indians at Penob- 
scot, exclianging with them coats, sliirls, rugs, blanl<ets, biscuit, corn, 
peas, and wampum (of whicli latter tliey liad the monopoly in the LCast, 
and which came to be much coveted by the natives), for beaver, otter, 
and other furs, when, by the agreement of Allerton and the English 
partners, a young man by the name of Edward Ashley, in whose integ- 
rity the Pilgrims had little confidence, was rather forced upon them. 
They knew that he had wit and ability; they also knew that he 
was "a very profane young man, who had lived amonge ye Indians as 
a savage, and wente naked amongste them and used their maners.' 
But he had learned their language, which was a useful and valuable 

Ashley came into the business in 1629 and took charge of the estab- 
lishment at Penobscot. Fearing to trust him alone, the Plymouth 
partners caused to be joined with him Thomas Willet, a young man 
from Leyden, honest, discreet, and trustworthy, whom they instructed 
to keep him "in some good measure within bounds." 

Ashley was well supplied with goods by the Undertakers from both 
England and Plymouth, and carried on so brisk a trade with the In- 
dians that it was not long before he had accumulated a large quantity 
of beaver. The Plymouth Undertakers, however, did not realize 
directly from it as they expected. He paid no attention to the liabili- 
ties of the house to them for supplies, but sent all his beaver direct to 
England, though he still continued to obtain goods from them as well 
as from England. Consequently he did not rise in their favor. Never- 
theless they were compelled, through their connection with the Enghsh 
partners, who had confidence in him, to buy and man a vessel for his 
use and render him other assistance. But after he had been there a 
year or more, he "was taken in a trap," Governor Bradford says, "for 
trading powder and shote with ye Indians," in violation of the proc- 
lamation of King James, which forbade it. For this the authorities 
seized a half a ton of beaver, which he had on hand belonging to the 
house, and would have confiscated it, had not the Plymouth Under- 
takers proved by his bonds to them in 500 pounds, that he was " not to 
trade any munition with ye Indians, or otherwise to abuse himselfe." 
It appearing that he alone was responsible for the ofTense, and had 
violated his bond in every respect, he was sent to England and impris- 
oned in the Fleet. They were thus rid of him, to their greet relief. 

On the 31st of December, 1631, the English Attor- 
ney-General was directed to take proceedings against 
Ashley for furnishing arms and ammunition to the sav- 
ages. He was seized and confined in the Fleet Prison, 
in London, from which he was discharged on the 17th 
of February following, because his offense was found to 
be committed before the issuance of the King's procla- 
mation; but he was placed under bond "not to offend 
in the like kind hereafter." 

Isaac Allerton, one of the original adventurers in the 
Mayflower, who had lieen a partner in and the agent of 
the company, was also dismissed, partly because he 
tried to divert trade from the Penobscot, by engaging in 
business with a Mr. Vines of Saco and sending goods 

eastward. The Undertakers then managed solely the 
business at Penobscot, which, says Judge Godfrey, 
"prospered and made large yearly returns." They con- 
tinued to thrive here until 1631, when a French party, 
led by a renegade Scotchman, came with a small ship 
into the harbor, in the absence of all the Plymouth men 
except three or four servants, whom they compelled to 
carry about ;^,5oo worth of goods, including three hun- 
dred pounds of beaver fur, on board their vessel, and 
.sailed away with their plunder. The traders remained, 
however, even after the treaty of St. Germains, between 
England and France, March 19, 1632, had transferred 
the country, as "Acadia," to the latter power, and until 
1635, when the Seigneur D'Aulnay de Charnisey, com- 
monly called D'Aulnay, the F'rench Lieutenant-General 
commanding west of the St. Croix, dispossessed them in 
the name of the French crown. He politely took an 
inventory of the goods with their prices, and promised 
compensation for them ; but would allow nothing for the 
house and fortification, as "those who build on another 
man's ground do forfeit the same." He allowed the Pil- 
grims to take their shallop and food enough for the return 
voyage, and then packed them off to Plymouth, while he 
occupied their premises at Penobscot as his own residence. 
The colonists were greatly enraged, as they had been by 
the robbery of 1631; and procuring from Massachusetts 
Bay an armed vessel called the Great Hope, commanded 
by a rascally captain named Girling, they agreed with 
him for the recapture of the truck-house, for the reward 
of seven hundred pounds of beaver. He set sail for 
Penobscot in company with the redoubtable Miles 
Standish, who had a small vessel with twenty men and 
the beaver fur on board. Girling wasted his ammunition 
in distant and futile fire upon the fort, and Standish, 
going to Pemaquid for more, sent it to him, but sailed 
away to Plymouth with his own precious cargo, lest his 
faithless comrade should "ceiase [sieze] on ye barke, and 
surprise ye beaver," as old Hubbard puts it. He left 
Captain (Jirling to follow at his ease, which he did with- 
out renewing the attack. Some further effort was made 
by the Plymouth people to organize an expedition with 
similar intent; but to no purpose. 'I'he French remained 
in undisturbed possession at Penobscot for many years. 
The fort was burned, however, by La Tour's men, and 
the cattle of the settlement killed, in May, 1644. D'Anl- 
ney, just six years afterwards, ended his adventurous and 
troubled life by freezing to death in an open fishing-boat 
off the coast. May 24, 1850. 

One amusing incident of D'Aulnay's residence at 
Penobscot is the presentation to him by the Boston 
authorities, by w.iy of placating his revenge after the 
attack under Girling, of an elegant sedan chair, w'hich 
had been sent by the Mexican Viceroy to his sister in the 
West Indies. It had fallen into the hands of a sea cap- 
tain, who presented it to the Governor at Boston, from 
whom it was obtained for the gift to D'Aulnay. As 
another writer says: "Can one fancy the wife and 
daughter of D'Aulnay parading in it from the fort to the 
farm-house, and from the farm-house to the mill?'' 

F"or many years after their expulsion from Penobscot, 



the English had no settlement east of the Kennebec, 
except that at Pemaciuid. 


June I, 1638, the people of the Penobscot country, 
then numbering very few not aboriginal, shared in the 
remarkable disturbance of the elements made memorable 
as the "Great Earth(iuake." It occurred about the mid- 
dle of the afternoon. Mr. Williamson says: 

At the time the weather was clear and warm, and the wind westward. 
It commenced with a noise Tike continued tliunder or the rattling of 
stage-coaches upon pavements, and with a motion so violent that the 
people in some places found difficulty iu standing on their feet, and 
some chimneys, and many light moveables in dwelling houses, were 
thrown down. The soimd and motion continued four minutes, and 
the earth was unquiet at times for twenty days afterwards. It was 
generally felt throughout the northeast, and the course of it was from 
west to east. 

A tolerably severe earthquake was experienced by the 
Maine settlers on the twenty-ninth of October, 1727; 
and a much harder one, lasting some moments, in the 
early morning of November 18, 1775. From time to 
time ever since, slight shocks have been experienced. 
The last one observed at Bangor and vicinity occurred 
in the late evening of Sunday, July 24, 18S1. 


In July, 1665, when the Royal Commissioners repre- 
senting the Duke of York's interests were in Maine, they 
professed to have gathered the following facts for the 
slighting account which they gave of nearly all the colonies 
and settlements visited in their tour. Not much reliance 
is to be placed upon it. They asserted that beyond the 
Kennebec, in the Duke's Province, there were "three 
small plantations, the biggest of which had not above 
thirty houses in it, and those very near ones too, and 
spread over eight miles at least. Those people, for the 
most part, were fishermen, and never had any govern- 
ment among them ; most of them were such as had fled 
thither from other places to avoid justice." 

Six years later Mr. Cartwright, of this commission, 
reported to the council for foreign plantations, in the 
Home Government, that there were one thousand men 
able to bear arms in the province of Maine, of whom 
one hundred were in "Kennebec." But Dr. Palfrey 
characterizes his statement, which includes statistics 
from other colonies, as wrong in all particulars. It was 
probably a mere rough estimate, if not knowingly false. 

During the spring of i688, an account was taken by 
Governor Andros, of the white inhabitants between the 
Penobscot and the St. Croix, which exhibits at Penobscot 
only the Baron de Castine, his family, and his servant 
Ranne; at Edgemoragan Reach, Charles St. Robin, his 
.son and daughter, and M. La Tour and family ; at Petit 
Pleasants, on Mt. Desert, a French family, consisting of 
M. Lowry, his wife and child, and an English family 
named Hinds, being man, wife, and four children ; on 
the east side of Mt. Desert, at "Frenchman's Bay," Cad- 
mac and wife; and a few more settlers at Machias, Pas- 
samaquoddy, and St. Croi.x, the total enumeration reach- 
ing about forty-five souls. There is reason to believe 
that this was a fairly accurate census. The names in- 
dicate that, with the single exception noted and perhaps 

one other family, all the white inhabitants on this part of 
the coast were French. 

The next year President Danforth, in view of the fact 
that the forts east of Falimouth, and most of the settle- 
ments, had been abandoned in consequence of the 
Indian troubles during King William's War, ordered an 
account to be taken of all the inhabitants still resident 
within his province of Maine, and of those who had left 
it. We are not aware that this census has been preserved. 
If so, we have not been able to see a copy of it, or even 
to obtain its conclusions. 


One of the most interesting historic spots upon the 
Penobscot waters is that near Castine, which is thus 
described by the Hon. John E. Godfrey, of Bangor, in 
his paper upon The Pilgrims at Penobscot, contributed 
to the seventh volume of the Maine Historical Collec- 

About a cjuarter of a mile southerly of the principal street of the 
present village of Castine is a plateau, not large, but of sufficient 
extent for a trading establishment. It has a fine beach, and is pro- 
tected from the intrusion of the waves by a sweep of the shore, and 
sheltered from the northern blasts by high lands in the rear. Upon 
this plateau are the last vestiges of the old fort which probably was 
originated by the pilgrims, enlarged by D'Aulnay, and occupied by 
French and English alternately for more than a century, — " Oid Fort 
Penobscot, " as it is called. It is a spot full of interest to the historical 
pilgrim, and has attractions that bring to it, year after year, crowds of 
curious vistiors. 

In his essay upon the Baron Castine, in the same 
volume of the Collections, Judge Godfrey gives a some- 
what detailed account of the fort, as follows: 

This fort, it is supposed, stood on the site of the Plymouth tr.iding 
house of 1626-27, and was the fort of D'Aulnay. Vestiges of it are in 
existence. During sixty years it had been occupied by the English, 
French, and Dutch successively. In 1670 Sir Thomas Temple, who 
had claimed this portion of Acadia under a patent from Cromwell in 
1756, surrendered it under the treaty of Breda to the Chevalier de 
Grandfontaine. This was then the condition of the fort : 

On entering it, upon the left hand was a guard house, about fifteen 
paces long by ten, and upon the right a house of similar dimen- 
sions, of hewn stone, covered with shingles. Above these was a chapel 
six paces long by four broad, covered with shingles and built with 
terras, upon which was a small turret with a bell weighing eighteen 
pounds. Upon the left hand, on entering the court , was a magazine 
of two stories, built of stone, about thirty-six paces by ten, covered 
with shingles, very old and out of repair. Upon the ramparts were 
twelve guns weighing in all 21,122 pounds. In the fort were six 
"murtherers" without chambers, weighing twelve hundred pounds. 
Two eight-pounders were on a plateau faciiig the sea. Thirty or forty 
paces distant from the fort there was a building twenty paces bv eight, 
used as a cattle-house, and about fifty paces from this a square garden 
enclosed with rails in which were fifty or sixty trees bearing fruit. 

It is thought that St. Castine erected a house within or near the 
walls of the fort. Tradition locates the orchard on the upper side of 
the street, westerly of the fort, and it is alleged that some of the trees 
were removed to Sedgwick and bore apples in 1873. 

This peninsula, called by the Indians Matche-Biguatus, 
which was corrujated by the English into Major-Biguy- 
duce, and now sometimes called Bagaduce, w^as known in 
theearly day of settlement as Pentagoet or Penobscot, and 
finally by its present musical name of Castine. In 1670 
the fort and settlement were occupied by the French 
under the Chevalier de Grandfontaine, by the operation 
of the Treaty of Breda. Four years afterwards it was 
taken by the Dutch, and again by them in 1676, when 
they were driven out by the English. Before this came 



the Haron de St. Castine, who, with his descendants, 
occupied the site for many years. It was permanently 
settled by the English in 1760, was held by the British 
forces in the Revolution from 1779 to the [leace, and 
was also occupied by the British for nearly a year, during 
the War of 1812. Penobscot had thirteen hundred in- 
habitants when (iovernor Sullivan wrote, in 1794, "and 
that number," he said, "is increasing by the constant 
accession of new settlers from every part of the country." 
Penobscot town was divided February 10, 1796, and 
Castine incorporated. It became the shire-town of 
Hancock county, and remained such until 1838, when 
the courts were removed to Ellsworth. It had 12 15 
inhabitants by the census of 1880. 


This famous character of early Penobscot history, from 
whom the flourishing town at his old seat of power de- 
rives its name, has come frequently into these narratives, 
and deserves some special notice before proceeding 
further. Jean Vincent, the Baron de St. Castine, was a 
native of the town of Oleron, in France, on the skirts 
of the Pyrenees, born about 1636. He was of noble 
birth, received a good education, including military 
science, and, when only fifteen years of age, joined the 
famous Carignan Salieres regiment of the standing army 
of France. He served with his command in Germany 
against the Turks, and came with it to Quebec in 1665, 
where, after the war then waging with England was 
closed by the Treaty of Breda, the regiment was dis- 
banded and he discharged from the French service. He 
seems about this time to have become disgusted with 
civilized life, and, as La Hontan says, "threw himself 
upon the savages." He settled, with several Jesuit mis- 
sionaries in his train, at Point Bagaduce, where I)'.\ul- 
nay had been before him, about 1667, there built a 
more than usually spacious trading-house and residence, 
and restored the old fort of the English and D'AuInay. 
Mr. Williamson says of Castine: 

He wns a liberal Catholic, though devoted and punctilious in his re- 
ligious observances. . . . He learned to speak with ease 
the Indian dialect; and, supplying himself with fire-arms, ammuniton, 
blankets, steel-traps, baubles, and a thousand other things desired Ijy 
the natives, he made them presents and opened a valuable trade with 
them in these articles, for which he received furs and peltry in return, at 
his own prices. He taught the men the use of the gun, and, being a 
man of fascinating .address and manners, he attained a complete ascen- 
dancy over the whole tribe, they looking upon him, in the language of 
one writer, "as their tutelar god." 

To chain their attachments by ties not easily broken, in connection 
with gratification, he took four or five Tarratine wives, one of 
them the daughter of M.adockawando, sagamore of the tribe. He lived 
with them all by changes at the same time, and had several daughters 
and one son, Castine the younger, who was a man of distinction and of 
excellent character. 

Early habits and great success in trade rendered the Baron contented 
with his allotments; he lived in the country about thirty years; and, as 
Abbe Kegnal says, "conformed himself in all respects to the manners 
and customs of the natives." To his daughters, whom he "married 
very handsomely to Krenchmcn," he gave liberal portions, having 
amassed a property worth three lumdred thousand crowns. 

The (Governors of New England and of Canada, apprised of his in- 
fluence, wealth, and military knowledge, were, for obvious reasons, the 
courtiers of his friendship and favor. 

For seventeen years Castine was comparatively unmo- 
lested in the enjoyment of his independent life in the 

wilderness on the beautiful shore, of his lucrative trade, 
his large influence with the savages, and his harem of In- 
dian w'ives. During this time he maintained a trading- 
house at Port Royal as well as Penobscot, and accumu- 
lated his large fortune. In 1684 he experienced some 
annoyance from a "notice to quit," served upon him by 
Colonel Dungan, Governor of New York, unless he would 
recognize the English authority in that quarter, but more 
from the efforts of a troublesome countryman named 
Perrot, an ex-Governor of Montreal, to oust him from 
his profitable trading-house. Perrot virtually compelled 
him to withdraw from Port Royal, but he held his own at 
Penobscot for three years longer, when at last the Eng- 
lish power began to re-assert itself vigorously in this 
quarter. The harsh and arbitrary Commissioners, Pal- 
mer and West, appointed to manage the Duke of York's 
Eastern domain, in 1686 seized a cargo of wines con- 
veyed in a Piscataqua vessel, which had been landed 
near the Baron's seat, without paying duties in the cus- 
tom-house at Pemaquid. The next year they dispatched 
a party of fifty men to possess Pentagoet and the coast 
to St. Croix, as English territory, and directed Castine 
and the Indians, as well as two French settlers near this 
post, to disregard any orders t'rom French sources. The 
Baron accepted the situation, and was not molested. In 
the summer of 16SS the haughty Andros, the new Gov- 
ernor of New England, visited his Eastern domain, and, 
in the enlargement of his jurisdiction resolved to seize 
the Penobscot settlement. In advance of his coming he 
sent word to Captain George, of the frigate Rose, at 
Pemaquid, to get his vessel ready to sail against the ar- 
rival of the Governor and his suite there. George con- 
siderately sent word of the intended movement to his 
friend Castine. In a short time .A.ndros, in personal 
command of the expedition, presented himself in front 
of the Frenchman's stronghold — "before Castine's door," 
the old account says. An officer was sent ashore to an- 
nounce the unwelcome visitors, but found that the Baron 
and his adherents had taken to the woods. The account 
proceeds : 

The Governor landed, with other gentlemen with him, and went into 
the house, and found a small altar in the common room, which altar 
and some pictures and ordinary ornaments they did not meddle with 
anything belonging thereto, but took away all his arms, powder, and 
shot, iron kettles, and some trucking-cloth and his chairs, all of which 
were put aboard the Rose, and laid up in order to a condemnation of 

It was the Governor's intention also to restore the fort 
built by his orders some years before on the Penobscot, 
for which he had brought materials and workmen; but 
he found the work so ruinous that " he was resolved to 
spare that charge till a more proper time offered," and so 
retnrned to Pemacjuid. He had made a visit to the 
chief Madockawando, Castine's father-in-law, also giving 
him a handsome present, and now sent a message by a 
Tarratine sachem to Castine, that he should have his 
property back as soon as he could report at that place 
and make his allegiance to the English crown. But the 
Baron was now thoroughly enraged, and made no con- 
cessions to the English, but instead, it is generally be- 
lieved, stirred up the Indians to hostilities. He incited 



the savages to outbreak, it is said, by the promise to 
each, ■ hostile of a pound of powder, two pounds of lead, 
and a roll of tobacco. Others, as Judge Godfrey, think 
that Castine remained friendly to the English, and that 
the Jesuits provoked the strife. .\t all events, Indian 
outrages were recommenced. In August and in the fall 
another Eastern expedition, but of land forces, was set 
on foot, which had a campaign of great hardship and 
suffering, fruitful of nothing but the establishment of 
some garrisoned posts from Wells to Pemaquid. 

Again, in 1690, Castine apjjears on the war-path 
against the English, in joint command with his father-in- 
law Madockawando of a body of Tarratines going to 
join a mixed force of French and Indians, collected un- 
der the orders of Count Frontenac, Governor of Canada, 
for the expedition against Falmouth, and was present at 
the stipulations for the capitulation of Fort Loyal, at 
that place, to the faith and observance of which, Mr. Wil- 
liamson says, he " lifted his hand and swore by the ever- 
lasting God" — to little intent or purpose, as the massa- 
cre and plunder which speedily followed showed. Judge 
Godfrey thinks this story of Castine incorrect, and that 
he took no part in the attack. Six years later, he rein- 
forced Iberville and Villebon with 240 of his Indians in 
canoes, to whom Iberville distributed presents, on their 
way to the successful reduction of Fort William Henry. 
Meanwhile, in the fall of 1792, an unsuccessful attempt 
was made to kidnap or assassinate Castine at his place. 

After the affair at Fort William Henry, little is known 
of Castine. He disappeared from the Penobscot coun- 
try soon after the death of Madockawando in 1697 or 
'98. Mr. H. W. Longfellow, in his musical poem on the 
Baron, sends him to his old Pyrenees home, to find his 
father dead, to occupy the ancestral properly, and to be 
married according to the rites of the church, since — 

In course of time the curate le.irns 

A secret so dreadfnl that, by turns, 

He is ice and fire, he freezes and burns. 

The Baron at confession hath said 

That though this woman be his wife, 

He hath wed her as the Indians wed. 

He hath bought her for a gun and a knife. 

Judge Godfrey says, however: "That he was early 
lawfnlly married to a daughter of Madockawando is 
probable from the fact that his son had the priests' cer- 
tificate of his legitimacy." It is known that he came 
into his inheritance of ^^5,000 a year in 1686, and he 
probably retired to the old baronial home to spend his 
last years in the enjoyment of it and his large fortune 
gained among the Indians. He died some time before 

The other inhabitans of Pentagoet, during at least a 
part of Castine's residence there, were his servant Jean 
Renauld, with a wife and four children, and another 
Frenchman named Des Lines, with wife and three chil- 
dren. These, with Castine, his wife and one child, 
made up the white population of Penobscot in 1693. 
Four years previously only one white man, and one 
woman, both married, with a boy of fifteen (doubtless 
Castine, wife, and son), and one priest were reported 
there. The priests gave his place, ecclesiastically, the 

title of the Parish of the Sainte Famille (or Holy Family). 


Anselm de St. Castine was the son of Baron Castine 
and Matilda, daughter of Madockawando. He remained 
as a trader at Penobscot after the departure of his father, 
and was also ])rominent in the political and martial 
movements of the time. He took a leading [jart in the 
defense of Port Royal against the Massachusetts expe- 
dition in 1700, and, when it returned for a second attempt 
in August, he prepared an ambuscade which drove 
the enemy in disorder toward their boats. In the 
pursuit which followed Castine was severely wounded. 
He was married two months afterwards to Charlotte 
d' Amours, at Port Royal. In 1690, still residing 
at Penobscot, he there entertained Major Livingston, 
of another Massachusetts expedition which had effected 
the reduction of Port Royal, and accompanied him 
up the river to Quebec, to obtain the approval of 
the Governor-General of New France to the articles of 
capitulation. It was on this journey that they came to 
the island "Lett," as remarked by Livingston, the iden- 
tity of which has been so much in controversy. They 
had a terrible journey through the wilderness, and were 
nearly two months on the way, arriving at Quebec the 
1 6th of December in sad case. Here Castine was com- 
missioned lieutenant, and charged especially with the 
care of French interests among the Indians of his re- 
gion. He returned to Pentagoet, and presently under- 
took the re-capture of Port Royal, but without success. 
After the death of his father he was deprived of his 
inheritance under pretense of illegitimacy, and decided 
to remain in the wilderness. In August, 1721, he took 
part in a conference of the commanders of two hundred 
Abenakis, at Arrowsic Island, with Captain Penhallow, 
commanding the English there, for which he was regard- 
ed as an enemy, and was seized at Penobscot, carried to 
Boston, and imprisoned for five months. He declared 
"the highest friendship for the English," and that "my 
disposition is to prevent my people from doing them 
mischief," and was accordingly released. Some unim- 
portant incidents are related of him during the next ten 
years, when he altogether disappears from history. 
Many descendants of the Castines are known to have 
been among the Indians of the Penobscot, and some of 
their chiefs, as Orono, are believed to have been of their 

Mr. Williamson, closing an account of the third Indi- 
an (Queen Anne's, a ten-years') war, after a sketch of 
the character of Assacombuit, one of the most promi- 
nent on the side of the savages, says: 

There was never a greater contrast than between him and Castine 
the younger. This man possessed a very mild and generous disposi- 
tion. His birthplace and home were at Penobscot, upon the penin. 
sula of Biguyduce, the former residence of his father. Though a half- 
breed, the son of Baron de Castine, by a Tarratine wife, lie appeared to. 
be entirely free from the bigoted malevolence of the French and the bar 
barous, revengeful spirit of the savages. He was a chief .Sagamore of" 
the Tarratine tribe, and also held a conmiission from the French king- 
By his sweetness of temper, magnanimity, and other valuable proper 
ties, he was holden in high estimation by both people. Nor were the 
English insensible of his uncommon merit. He had an elegant French 
uniform, which he sometimes wore, yet on all occasions he preferred to 



appear dressed in the habit of his tribe. It was in him both policy and 
pleasure to promote peace with the Knglish, and in several instances 
where they had treated him with abuse, he gave proof of forbearance 
worthy of a philosopher's or Christian's imitation. The great confi- 
dence they reposed in liis honor and fidelity, as the companion of Ma- 
or Livingston through the wilderness from Port Royal to Quebec, was 
in every place well-placed and fully confirmed. He was a man o^ 
foresight and good sense. Perceiving how these wars wasted away 
the Indians, he was humane as well as wise, when he bade earnest wel- 
come to the "songs of peace." These immediately drew home fathers 
and brolhers. and wiped away the tears of their families. He thought 
his tribe happy only when they enjoyed the dews and shades of tran- 
quility. In 17ZI he was improperly siezed at Biguyduce, his dwelling- 
place, by the English and carried to Boston, where he was detained 
several months. The ne.vt year, according to Charievoi.i, he visited 
Rearne. in I'Yance, to inherit his father's property, honors, fortune, and 
seigniorial rights, from which country we have no account of his return- 


Fort I'ownall, at what i.s now called I'ort Point, where 
the waters of the river join of the bay, was built by 
the energetic Governor from whotn it takes its name, in 
1759. Under its protection the valley of the Fower 
Penobscot soon began to fill with the jjioneers of civiliza- 
tion. Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Western 
Maine principally furnished the immigration. .\ white 
settler was on the lower part of Orphan Island in 1763, 
and Colonel Jonathan Buck at Bucksport the ne.xt year. 
Bnt Lieutenant Joshua Treat, celebrated in the older 
writings as the " great hunter," who settled for conveni- 
ence of traffic near Fort Pownall in 1760, is supposed to 
have been the first permanent settler on the river, Set- 
tlement crept slowly up the stream, however, and did not 
reach the site of Bangor until 1769, when Mr. Jacob Bus- 
well, or Bussell, set down his stakes at the head of tide- 
water. The rest of the story will be told elsewhere. 



Captain 'Weymouth with his Cross— Fathers Baird and Masse— The 
St. Sauveur Mission at Mt. Desert— Its Precise Locality— The Cross 
—On the Castine Peninsula— The Capuchins— D'Aulnay and the 
Castines— The Parish de S.iint Famille— Father Gabriel Druillettes- 
The Fathers Vincent and Jaques Bigot— Father Thury— Father Se- 
bastian Ralle— The Missionaries on the Penobscot— Father Romagne 
—Usefulness of the Missionaries among the Indians— A Touch o 


was early brought up the Penobscot waters, but rather 
for political than religious purpose.s. If the theory be 
true that Captain Weymouth, in June of 1605, ascended 
the Penobscot, he was the first to explore its resources; 
and it is thus made the more noteworthy that the voya- 
gers bore with them, as the journal relates, a cross "a 

thing never omitted by any Christian travellers, which 
we erected at the ultimate end of our route," fifty or 
sixty miles from the entrance to the Bay. Indeed one 
later writer a.sserts that Weymouth "set ujj crosses in 
several places." Here, then, two and three-(iuarters 
centuries ago, was planted the emblem, if not the emis- 
saries, of the Christian religion. 

The next year the grant of the North and South Vir- 
ginia patent was expressly, in part, for the bringing of 
the infidel savages to a knowledge of the Christian re- 
ligion and the true worship of God, to a civilized life and 
a settled government. Hubbard, in his History of New 
England, says that the declared intent of the adventurers 
was to propagate God's holy church. A similar purpose 
is expressed in many other instruments relating to the 
colonization of America. 


About the year 1610, when Biencourt, son of Poutrin- 
court, then the chief man of the French at Port Royal, 
returned to France for aid to the suffering and struggling 
colony, all that he received from the tiueen regent was 
two Jesuit fathers, M. Biard and Masse. They had a 
gift of 2,000 crowns for expenses, and set sail for the New 
Wodd. Father Biard reached the Kennebec, where he 
was cordially received by the Canibas, and labored with 
some success, especially in collecting supplies of pro- 
vision for the people at Port Royal, where he had his 
own headquarters. Masse also set out for the wilder- 
ness, but was taken severely sick on the way, and presently 
recovered. The Marchioness de Guercheville, a jjious 
Catholic lady who is elsewhere mentioned in this work, 
had the missionaries now under her patronage, and pre- 
vailed on the queen mother to assist in dispatching a 
vessel to plant a religious establishment independent of 
Port Royal. In 16 13, under command of the Sieur de 
la Saussaye, and with two other Jesuit Feathers, Quentin 
and Gilbert du Thet, the vessel proceeded to Maine, 
picking up Biard and Masse on the way, at Port Royal. 
Governor Lincoln, in the first volume of the original 
series of the Maine Historical Collections, thus continues 
the story : 

They disembarked, with twenty-five others, on the northerly bank of 
the Penobscot. Father Biard made an excursion from this place to 
visit the neighboring peaple, and arriving near a village of the Etche- 
mins, he heard frightful cries, like those of lamentation for the dead. 
He hastened lorward with the prompt anNiety which generally impels 
the ecclesiastics of certain orders to be present at that scene, where 
pleasure, interest, or duty are generally satisfied by the offering of pen- 
itence, bequests, and hom.nge. He ascertained that the occasion of the 
clamor was the illness of a child, and found the inhabitants of a village 
ranged in two rows on each side of it; the father holding it in his amis 
and uttering loud cries, to which the whole assembly responded with 
one accord. The missionary took the child, and having administered 
the sacred mystery of baptism, prayed with a loud voice that God would 
vouchsafe some token of his power. He forgot not, however, to use 
the means which might contribute, humanly speaking, to the miracle 
he petitioned for, and presented the child to the warmth and cherishing 
virtue of the maternal bosom. It soon became well. Whatever else 
may be said, it must be admitted that the administration of baptism 
was judiciously seasonable; for the Indians were persuaded that its di- 
vine efficacy drove away the disease which had so much distressed 
them, and they looked upon the missionary as one who could call down 
from the master of life the health of his children. 

This mission, known as St. Sauveur, is commonly lo- 
cated by writers on Mt. Desert. It did not long endure. 
The Virginians, under Argal, swooped down upon it, as 
is heretofore related, killed Du Thet while in the act of 
firing a gun, also some others, compelled the surrender 
of the place, and then destroyed everything they could 
not plunder. Notwithstanding these outrages, Father 
Biard, it is said, guided the invaders to Port Royal, 



which they also reduced. We hear no more of the sur- 
viving three of the Jesuit quartette in the affairs of 


It is an interesting fact that these missionaries, when 
they sailed down the coast of Maine in May, 1613, were 
on their way to Kadesquit, now the site of Bangor, to 
establish their mission. Father Biard had selected the 
very spot during a former journey of his from Fori Royal 
to the Penobscot. The reason for their change of pur- 
pose and detention at Mt. Desert is this prettily told in 
Bryant & Gay's History of the United States: 

Such .1 fog enveloped them off Menans (Grand Manani that they 
had to lie to for two days. When the weather cleared up they saw the 
island which Champlain named Monts Deserts, and which the Indians 
called Penietig, which means "at the head," from its commanding 
position. The lifting fog disclosed Great Head, rising sheer from the 
ocean to bmtress the forests of Green and Newport mountains. On 
their right was the broad sheet of water since called Frenchman's Bay, 
extending far into the land. Into this they gladly sailed and dropped 
anchor inside of Porcupine Island, effected a landing not from the 
bar which gives its name to a little harbor. There the broad flank of 
Green Mount, with Newport just alongside to make a deep and still 
ravine, greeted the eyes which sea-spray and the fog had filled. Eagle 
Lake lay buried in the forest in front of them, and the wooded slopes 
srretched along to the right as far as they could see. The islands with 
bronzed cliffs to seaward and bases honeycombed by the tide, wore 
sharp crests of fir and pine. The American coast does not supply an- 
other combination so striking as this, of mountains with their feet in 
deep ocean on every side, lifting 2,000 feet of greenery to vie with the 
green of waves ; of inland recesses where brooks run past brown rocks, 
and birds sing woodland songs as if their nests swung in a country re- 
mote from sea-breezes. Delicate ferns fill the moist places of the wood, 
and the sea-anemone opens in the little caverns where the tide leaves a 
pool for them. Nature has scattered the needled cones, of shape so 
perfect, from those of an inch high to the finished tree artfully dis- 
tributed in the open spaces. The Frenchmen hailed this picturesque 
conclusion to their voyage, and named the place and harbor St. Sau- 

Several Indian villages were on the island. A smoke rose as a 
signal that the men were observed ; they signalled with another smoke, 
and the natives came to see them. Father Biard had met some of 
them on the Penobscot, and now inquired the way to Kadesquit. They 
answered that their place was better, and so wholesome that sick na- 
tives in the neighboring parts were brought thither to be cured. But 
when Father Biard could not be persuaded, they belied their own sani. 
tary praises, and begged the good father to come and see their saga_ 
more, .-\sticon, who was very sick, and like to die without the sacra- 
ment. This wily stroke prevailed : they took him round to the eastern 
shore of a bay which is now called Somes's .Sound, from a Gloucester 
man who settled there in 1760. Great shell-heaps still indicate the site 
of Asticon's village. He only had an attack of rheumatism ; so the 
father asked the natives to show him the place which they esteemed to 
be so much better than Kadesquit. They took him around the head 
of the Sound, to a grassy slope of twenty or thirty acres, with a stream 
on each side, running down to the tide. The bay was as still as a 
lake ; the black soil fat and fertile, the pretty hill abutting softly on the 
sea and bathed on its sides by two streams, the little islands which 
break the force of waves and wind. 

These islands are the Great and Little Cranberry, and Lancaster's. 
The cliffs rise to a great height, and the water at their base is deep 
enough for any ship to ride a cable's length from the shore. No won- 
der that Father Biard thought no more of Kadesquit. They planted 
the cross, threw up a slight entrenchment, and La Saussaye began to 
plant, for the time was early June. 

Fernald's Point, on the wfttern side of Somes's Sound, 
about two miles from Southwest Harboi, is the spot 
assigned by local tradition as the seat of this first and 
transient mission in Maine. The "little hill" mentioned 
in Father Biard's Relation is, according to Mrs. Clara 
Barnes Martin, author of a capital guide-book for 
Mount Desert, a bold promontory (the Flying Mountain) 

joined to the eastern spur of Dog Mountain by a narrow 
isthmus, on which are Mr. Fernald's pastures. There is 
a spring at high-water mark on each side of the Point, 
and a brook runs from the mountains through the pas- 
ture. The mountains in Biard's day were covered with 
a heavy hard-wood growth, and as the Sound here is 
completely land-locked, the Point and Cove would offer 
the most tempting shelter to the storm-tost missionaries. 
"About half across the isthmus and a little up the hill, 
so as to command the water on either side without losing 
its shelter, are two holes in the ground which are shown 
as the ruins of the Frenchmen's cellars. They are a few 
rods apart, running north and south, ten to twelve feet 
long at present, from two to three feet deep, and of vary- 
ing width." 


The Castine Peninsula seems next to have been sought 
by the zealous and persevering emissaries of the cross. 
In 1646, according to Father Druillettes, who was at 
Pentagoet this year, a small hospice or monastery of 
Capuchins was in e.\istence there, with Father Ignatius, 
of Paris, as superior. The little community welcoined 
the new comer, says Mr. Parkman, "with the utmost 
cordiality." It is thought, says Da Costa, that this visit 
of Druillettes led to the erection of a new and more 
permanent hospice. This appears to have been put up 
or at least coinmenced in 1648, by the evidence of an 
inscription upon a copper plate found in 1863, near the 
ruins of the brick battery commonly called the Lower 
Fort. It is in Latin, with the words much abbreviated, 
but may be easily translated as follows: 

"1648, January 8. 1, Friar Leo, of Paris, Capu- 
chin Missionary, l.\id this foundation in honor of 
Our L.\dy of Holy Hope." 

No traces of this establishment can be found after the 
next year, when D'Aulnay, the patron of the Capuchins, 
was dispossessed by La Tour. 

Catholic missionaries much frequented this stronghold 
of the wailike Frenchman and religious zealot D'Aulnay, 
about the middle of the seventeenth cenutry. Mr. Wil- 
liamson says that no other place in this Eastern region 
was so much inhabited by them; and further: 

His priesthood, consisting wholly of friars, made the savages believe 
that Catholic rites and ceremonies were the essentials of religion, and 
that the dictates of the missionaries were equivalent to the precepts of 
Divine authority Indulgences and super- 
stitious forms, as allowed by the Jesuits, were altogether more accordant 
with their notions and habits than the self-denying doctrines of restraint 
and the rigid precepts of reform, as taught by the Protestant mission- 

During the occupancy at Pentagoet by the Castines, 
and perhaps subseciuently, the Catholic Parish de Saint 
Famille (Parish of the Holy Family) was maintained 
there, with at least one priest in charge. 


afterwards labored among the natives on the Kenebec. 
According to Charlevoix, he was the first Catholic mis- 
sionary to the Canibas Indians, among whom he began 
to reside in 1646. At the same time, says this author, 
" the Capuchin priests had a trading-house and religious 
hospital at Pentagoet." In 1688 




was at Penobscot for the purpose, Governor Lincoln says, 
" of gathering the savages into a new village on the lands 
of the king of France and to guard them against the 
efforts of Governor Andros to draw them to the English." 
M. Denonville, in a letter to the French Minister of Ma- 
rine, acknowledged the good offices of the brothers Bigot 
in "the good intelligence" he had preserved with the 
Abcnakis and the success they had reaped in their ex- 
peditions the English. Jaques, the younger 
Bigot, is supposed to have been at this time a missionary 
on the Kennebec* The following is related by Govern- 
or Lincoln of the elder brother, he who was at Penob- 
scot : — 

Charlevoix allc-gcs that Vincent Higot once accompanied the .•\bonakis 
in an expedition against New England, and knowing that on iheir re- 
turn a large party was in purstnt, he endeavored to urge tlieir flight. 
They replied that they did not fear the English, and refused to hasten 
their march. At last they were overtaken hy a force twenty times as 
numerous as their own, and, having placed the missionary in safety, 
they with cool intrepidity engaged in battle, strewed the field with dead 
bodies, and, maintaining the fight the whole day without the loss of a 
man, compelled the enemy to retire. 

These missionaries were of the family of the Barons Bigot; and, 
when we consider that circumstance and compare it with the life of 
more than patriarchal simplicity which Vincent led at the established 
seat of his mission, we shall know how to appreciate the apostolic zeal 
with which he was inspired. Although often among the Abenakis 
of Maine, the place of his residence was at the village of Francois, to 
which the Governor of Canada had attracted many of the alert and 
intrepid warriors of our tribes, to guard the important and central set- 
tlement of Three Rivers from the incursions of the Iroquois. The 
father dwelt among them and devoted his life to their conversion and 
guidance. His domicil was a rude cabin of bark, his bed a bearskin 
si)read upon the earth, his dishes were_ taken from the birch-tree, and 
his food was the sagamite and the game which the savages furnished 


was a Jesuit priest of great adroitness, and an unceasing 
enemy of the English, who had his mission at Penobscot 
about 1687, when the conquest of Nova Scotia by Sir 
William Phips had pushed the boundary of New Eng- 
land to its present halting-place, the river St. Croi.x. Th^e 
French could not yet attempt the reconquest of the ter- 
ritory, since their inability to defend it had cost them its 
possession; but they could still use the savages, already 
exasperated by the encroachment of the F;nglish, to an- 
noy and perhaps destroy their adversaries. Father 
Thury was a fit agent among the powerful tribes about 
the Penobscot. In 1689 he is said to have called to 
gether the Indians at his chapel, and, with an ajjpearance 
of the deepest sorrow in his face and bearing, to have 
set before them a vivid and e.xciting image of British ag- 
gression in these words : 

My children, when shall the rapacity of the unsparing New En^land- 
ers cease to afflict you? And how long will you suffer your lands^to be 
violated by encroaching heretics? By the religion 1 have taught by the 
liberty you love, I exhort you to resist them. It is time for you to open 
your eyes, which have long been shut ; to rise from your mats and look 
to your arms, and make them once more fight. This land belonged to 
your fathers, long before these wicked men came over the great water ■ 
and are you ready to leave the bones of your ancestors, tliat the cattle 
of heretics may eat grass upon your graves? The Englishmen think 
and say to themselves, "we have many cannon ; we have grown strong 
while the red man has slept; while they are lying in their cabins and do 

' He was pretty certainly there as kite as 1699. 

not see. we will knock them on the head ; we will destroy their women 
and children, and then shall we possess their land without fear, for 
there shall be none left to revenge them. My children, God commands 
you to shake the sleep from your eyes. The hatchet must be cleaned 
of its rust to avenge him of his enemies and to secure to you your 
rights. Night and day a continual prayer shall ascend to him for your 
success ; an unceasing rosary shall be obser\'ed until you return covered 
with the glory of triumph. 

Such an apjieal, to such an audience, could not be 
without tremendous effect. General Lincoln says: "The 
savages were transported with all that fury of which they 
are so susceptible, and a hundred warriors inade a vow 
at the altar to inarch to Pemaquid, and never to return 
until they had driven the English from the fort. They 
e.xecuted the resolution with a sort of pious mania of 
courage, and twenty pieces of cannon were surrendered 
to address and valor, as will be found more accurately 
traced in the history of this tragic event. 

Mr. Williamson adds the following testimony as to 
the aid rendered by religionists of this stamp to Count 
Frontenac, then governor of Canada: 

Fit instruments to effect his purpose were the French missionaries, 
The four or five who were pre-eminent in his service were M. Thury, 
Vincent and Jaques Bigot, and Sebastian Ralle, all of whom were ar- 
dent and bold enthusiasts, always ready, with tearful eye, to preach 
from a text in their creed, that "it is no sin to break faith with heret- 
ics." Thury and Vincent Bigot had been a long time among the Tar- 
ratines, and were well acquainted with their dispositions, language, and 


sent from France into the French colonies by the society of Jesuits, 
passed about four years among the tribes in the vicinity of Canada! 
and in 1693 chose Norridgewock for his abode, where he dwelt twenty- 
si.'C years. His entire devotion to the religious interests of the Indians 
gave him unlimited ascendancy over them. 

Father Ralle awakened so great an attachment among 
the Indians that the mere attempt of the English under 
Colonel Westbrook to sieze him, at his station at Nor- 
ridgewock in 1722, was the chief exciting cause of the 
three-years' Indian war. He was barbarously killed, 
scalped, and mutilated, August 12, 1724, by Captain 
Moulton's men, in an attack upon Norridgewock. Char- 
levoix says: "Thus died this kind shepherd, giving his 
life for his sheep, after a painful mission of thirty-seven 


By this time Fathers Le Masse, de la Chasse, and 
Lauverjat, had become missionaries to the Indians on 
the great central river of "Mavooshen." According to 
Greenleafs Sketches of the Ecclesiastical History of the 
State of Maine, published in 1821, the Catholic mission- 
aries very early pushed their enterprises up the Penob- 
scot. He says: 

.Some time in the reign of Louis XIV. of Fiance [about 1700] a 
French architect came over from that country and erected a place for 
public worship in Indian Old Town, an island in the Penobscot above 
the head of tide-waters, which was then and still is considered the 
headquarters of the Penobscot tribe. This church was burnt by the 
Anglo-Americans in the old French war [in 1757], because the Indians 
adhered to the French, to whom they have ever been friendly; and it is 
said that the goveinor or king of this tribe wears to this day, as a 
badge of honor, a medal with the likeness of Louis XIV. 

At the period of the Revolution the Catholic mission- 
ary on the Penobscot was Father Juniper Bathmaine. 
Then, from Boston in 1762, came the Reverend Father 
Anthony Matignon. His successors have been, in order 






the Right Rev. Bishop (afterwards Cardinal) Cheverus 
and James Romagne, the Rev. Father Stephen Caril- 
leaux, a native of Paris; Father Dennis Ryan, who had 
been ordained by Bishop Cheverus in 1818; Fathers 
Basset, O'Brien (now of St. Mary's, Bangor), and others. 
The Indians on the Penobscot reservation have never 
been self-supporting in their religious services, and the 
State appropriates but one hundred dollars per annum 
for the sustenance of their priest; so that the work 
among them still partakes largely of a missionary char- 
acter. Of late years, as has been noticed, a convent of 
the Community of Sisters of Mercy has also been located 
upon Oldtown island. 


For a score of years, during the latter part of the Inst 
century and the fore part of this, the Catholic interests 
among the Passama(iuoddy and Penobscot Indians were 
served by M. Romagne, a French priest. Governor Lin- 
coln says of him: 

He became acquainted wilh their language so as to be 'able to con- 
verse in it, and the affectionate remembrance in which he is lield by 
them is proof of the discreet manner in which he conducted towards 
them. He is spolien of as having been a faithful missionary and a man 
of unspotted life. He has been succeeded by various occasional in- 
structors, eiich of whom has discharged his duty in a manner to com- 
mand respect even from those who have, perhaps, some of the prejudices 
against his doctrines, and to be very useful to the savages. During the 
term of his visit among the Penobsccts he lives in their village, in a 
small teneiTient prepared and kept for the purpose, and devotes himself 
to adjusting the balance of sin and repentance, to dealing out salutary 
admonitions, :Mid to performing the rites of his church and the func- 
tions of his office among his pupils. 

Father Roniagne returned to France in 1819. Nar- 
rowing gradually to the Penobscot country, we have not 
included notices of the later missionaries to the Passama- 
quoddy Indians, who have been at least C(iually self-sac- 
rificing and laborious. 

Of the general usefulness of the missionary element 
in the colonization of the country, notwithstanding the 
attachment of the early emissaries to the cause of France, 
there can be no reasonable question. They undoubtedly 
uplifted and purified, to some extent, the savage nature. 
.Mr. Williamson says of the labors of Hiard, Masse, 
Druillettes, the Bigots, Rallc, ami tiic rest among the 
.Vbenakis and Ftchemins : 

They effected great changes in the views antl practices of the natives. 
The Powows lost their influence, and came to an utter end. Supersti- 
tious rites and rituals, blended witli endeavors to inculcate and deepen 
the moral sense and to encourage religious worship, becoming estab- 
lished, are still extant among the remnants of the tribes. But neither 
their morals, manners, or virtues, liave undergone any very extensive 
t)r real improvements. 

AN'ith the following poetic touch from the pen of our 
own \\'hittier, in his poem of -Mogg Megone, we close this 
rapid sketch: 

A rude and unshapely chapel stands. 

Built up it: wild by unskilled hands; 
Yet the traveller knows it a place of prayer. 
For the holy sign of the cross is there; 
And should he chance at that place to be 

Of a Sabbath morn, or some hallowed day 
When prayers are made and masses are said. 

Some for the living .and some for the dead, 
Well might that traveller start to see 

The tall , dark forms that lake their way 

From the birch canoe, on the river-shore, 

."Knd the foiest paths to that chapel door; 
And marvel to mark the naked knees 

.'\nd the dusky forehead bending there, 
Wliile in coarse, white vesture, over these, 

In blessing or in prayer. 
Stretching abnjad his thin, |>ale hands. 

Like a shrouiled host, the Jesuit stands. 



Yorkshire— Lincoln County — Hancock County— Penobscot County — 
Its First Officers— The County Buildings— The Civil List of Penob- 
scot — Hannibal Hamlin — Representatives in Congress — Governors of 
the State — Supreme Judicial Court — Presidents of the Senate — .Secre- 
retaries of the Senate — Speakers of the House of Representatives — 
Clerks of the House— Secretary of State— State Treasurer— Attorney- 
Generals — .'Xdjutant-Generals — State Land Agents — The Courts and 
their Officers— County Clerks — Sheriffs— Registers of Deeds— Treas- 
urers — County .Attorneys. 

The ancient and obsolete counties, — of Canada, Corn- 
wall, and the rest, if any — which were practically un- 
known in the affairs of Penobscot county, although nomi- 
nally covering its present territory, have received sufficient 
attention in previous chajjters. 


The first county organization that takes hold u])on the 
modern history of Maine, those of which the present 
York and Somerset counties are lineal successors, were 
the districts or counties of York and Somerset, or New 
Somerset, the former of which is commonly known in 
early annals as Yorkshire. Sir Ferdinando Gorges, or- 
ganizing his province between the Piscataqua and the 
Kennebec, under his patent of February 3, 1635, had 
established his government under the name of New 
Somersetshire. When, four years later, April 3, 1639^ 
he received a charter from Charles 1. his territory and its 
inhabitants were erected into a body politic by the title 
of the Province or C'ounty of Maine, commonly called 
the Province of Maine. The next year a division cf 
this was made upon the river Kennebunk, into two dis- 
tricts or counties, called respectively "West" and "East," 
but which came in tiine to be known by the names be- 
tbre given. In 1652, upon the submission of the people 
of Kittery and Agamenticus to the authority of Massa 
chusetts, one of the conditions of the submission was 
that the Isles of Shoals and all the territory northward 
and eastward belonging to Massacliusetts — that is, below 
the parallel of 43' 43' 12" — should form a county called 
Yorkshire. The borough bearing the aboriginal name of 
Agamenticus, which had been made by Gorges an exten- 
sive city (on paper), named from himself Georgeana, 
was at the same time made a town by the name of York, 
the second town created in the Slate, and was continued 
as the shire-town. 

The Court of Common Pleas, which was organized in 
the county the next year, was steadily maintained until 



the separation of the District of Maine from Massachu- 
setts in 1819. 

In 1 69 1 the provincial charter granted by ^Villiam and 
Mary to the Royal Province of Massachusetts, extended 
the country and so practically the County of Yorkshire, 
to the river St. Croi.\ or the confines of Nova Scotia. 

In 17 16, however, the General Court of .Massachusetts 
formally attached to the county of Yorkshire, which 
theretofore had embraced strictly only the old Province 
of Maine, "all the families and settlements eastward of 
Sagadahock" — and of course within these the Penobscot 
country. \'orkshire county was, in fact, now legally ex- 
tended to the St. Croix. \'ork was retained as the shire- 
town for this great county. In 1735 the county had nine 
towns, and sustained a levy of ^,46, 7 shillings, and 2 
pence, or nearly one-twentieth of the entire assessment 
u[)()n the counties of Massachusetts liay. 


The county of York, or Yorkshire, embracing the 
whole of the present .State of Maine, remained in exist- 
ence for nearly a century and a quarter from the organi- 
zation under Corges. Before 1760 a subdivision of the 
county had been called for by the growth of the popula- 
tion eastward; and directly after the reduction of Que- 
bec by the English the agitation was renewed, and a pe- 
tition was presented to the General Court at the opening 
of the January session, which "enumerated the incon- 
veniences arising from the establishment of the courts 
and the jjublic offices in the corner of the county, where 
all the jury trials were, except a few of a minor class, 
which were tried at a single term of the Inferior Court 
each year, at Falmouth; and prayed that the county 
might be divided, a new one erected, and that [Falmouth] 
appointed a shiretown, in which, it was said, a good 
court-house and a sufficient goal were already finished.'' 
A counter memorial was ])resenteil by the Plyjuouth |)ro- 
prietors, asking that the eastern ]iart of the .Maine settle- 
ments might form a separate coimty, with the shire-town 
at Pownalborough. \'ork county was accordingly cut 
down to very narrow limits, (-omparatively ; anil two 
new counties were erected by an act of June 19, 1760, 
called, respectively, Cumberland and Lincoln. The lat- 
ter included the Penobscot valley in its extensive terri- 
tory, which embraced the whole of the Maine coimtry 
from Nova Scotia to the east line of Cumberland county, 
namely "the eastern shores of New Meadow's river to 
Stevens's carrying-place at its head; thence to and upon 
Merrymeeting Bay and the river Androscoggin thirty 
miles; and thence north two degrees on a true course to 
the utmost northern limits of the Province." It was a 
vast, and, except for a thin fringe Cf settlement along the 
seaboard, a wilderness county. Pow'nal borough, a large 
town in ])oint of territory, covering the later site of VVis- 
casset and tw^o other towns, which had first been incor- 
porated and named in honor of Governor Pownall, was 
made the seal of justice for the new county. 

In 17O4, by a rather loose census, ordered by the 
liritish Lords of Trade, Lincoln county exhibited a pop- 
Jation of 4,347. No jilaces nearer to the jiresent Pe- 
nobscot county are mentioned in this return, than 

Broadbay, Georgekeag, and Meduncook (now Thomas- 
ton, \\'arren, and Friendship). These together num- 
bered, probably by estimation, but 200 souls. 


Thirty years more (lassed, while the grand army of 
civilization was slowly, but surely, on the march. The 
tide of emigration had swept with the sea tides ui) the 
Penobscot and every great river of Maine, and the be- 
ginnings of many a jjrosjjerous city had been made by 
the sea. The time had come for another subdivision in 
Eastern Maine; and the (General Court, by act of June 
25, 1789, carved two new counties out of the trans- 
Penobscot part of Lincoln. These were fitly named, in 
the freshness and fervor of patriotic memories, Washing- 
ton and Hancock. The act went into effect May i, 
1790. Mr. Williamson thus defines the boundaries of 
these counties: 

The divisional liiu* between Lincoln and tiancock, commencing on 
the margin of i'enohseot bay. al ihe corner of Camden, pro- 
ceeded westerly in the upper line of Ihat town to its corner; thence 
northerly to the north limit of the Waldo patent, and thence north to 
tlic Highlands.; leaving to Lincoln the seacoast tjetween New Meadows 
and l\'nobscot Uays. and all the opposite islands. 

Tlie dividing line between I-Iancock and Washington commenced at 
tile head of Goldsborongh river, east branch, and proceeded to the 
southeast corner of township number si.Klecn, and thence due north to 
the Highlands. The eastern boundary of Washington county was 
drawn l)y the river St. Croi.x, and thence north so as to include all the 
lands within tlie Commonvvealth eastward of Hancock. 

Both counties were Ijoiuided on the nortli Ijy the utmost northern 
limits of the State, and to each county were annexed all the opposite 

The whole of the present IVnobscot county, except a 
part of the western lower i)art, was in Hancock county. 

Penobscot, since Castine, was made the shire-town of 
Hancock county. 'In 1814, Bangor, to accommodate 
the northern part of the settlements in the county, was 
made half-shire-town with Castine, with regular courts 
and registry of deeds thereat, and remained such until 
the erection of Penobscot county. 

The first county officers in Hancock were: Paul D. 
Sargent, of Sullivan, William Vinal, of Yinalhaven, and 
Oliver Parker, of Penul)s( ut, 'Jiulges of the C^ourt of 
Common Pleas; Paul 1). Sargent, also Judge of Probate; 
Jonathan Fxldy, of Penobscot, Register of Probate; 
Simeon Fowler, of Orrington, County Treasurer; Thomas 
I'hillips, Clerk; Richard Hunnewell, of Penobscot, 
Sheriff; William Webber, of the same. Register of 

Hancock couiuy in 1798, according to Morse's .Xmer- 
ican Gazetteer of that date, was a large maritime county 
of the District of Maine, bounded north by Lower Can- 
ada, south by the ocean, east by Washington county, 
and west by Lincoln county. It was 190 miles long 
from north to south, and nearly 60 broad; thus having 
an area of 10,500 square miles, or almost one-third of 
the entire area of Maine, being a tract larger than Ver- 
mont, New^ Hampshire, or Massachusetts. It contained 
twenty-four townships and j)lantations, "of which Penob- 
scot and Castine are the chief" In 1790 it had a pop- 
ulation of 9,549. A great part of the county, it was 
hardly necessary to state, was still imsettled, the popula- 
tion not yet reaching one |)erson to the square mile. 



■■■''' ll£'.| WATERWORKS. 

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View of Water Works anb Public Buildings, Baingor, Maine. 



"The towns along the sea-coast, and on the banks of 
Penobscot and Union rivers, are the most fertile and 
populous." Castine was the shire-town or county seat. 
The population of Hancock county, by the first Federal 
census, taken the year of its erection, was 9,549. Ban- 
gor and adjacent places had 567; Brewer, with Orring- 
ton and adjacent places, 477 ; and Eddington, 110. In 
1 814 the county had 6,852 rateable polls, or about two- 
fifteenths of all in the State; with a valuation of $168,- 
973.13, and a ratio of $26.08 in the $r,ooo. 


The first county to be cut out of the immense tract of 
Hancock, and the ninth and last to be formed in the 
District of Maine before the separation from Massachus- 
etts, w'as the county of Penobscot. It was incorporated 
by act of the Massachusetts Legislature F'ebruary 15, 
1816,. the law taking effect April ist next following. It 
simply embraced all the northern part of Hancock, from 
north line of Frankfort and Bucksport to the Canada 
boundary. Bangor, already, as has been noticed, a half- 
shire town with Castine, was made the county seat; but 
all matters cognizable by the Supreme Court and arising 
in the new county, were still to be tried at Castine, and 
the jail of Hancock county was to be used in common 
with Penobscot for the term of three years. 

The name of this county, according to Judge Godfey, 
was reported by the French in si.Nty different ways, dur- 
ing their occupancy to 1664. The principal was Pana- 
wanskake. The English — that is, the new Plymouth 
colonists — caught the word Penobscot, by which it was 
known as early as 1626. The Indian name was Penob- 
skeag, or Penobscook, suggested by the rocky falls just 
above Bangor — Penobsg (rock), uteral (a place) — a rocky 
place. In another dialect, Penopse (stone), anke 
(place) — the rock river. According to Mr. Springer au- 
thor of the entertaining book on Forest Life and Forest 
Trees, Penobscot, or Penobskeag, was the name of only 
that part of the river from the head of tide-w-ater above 
Oldtown. Below that section, he says, the stream was 
called Baum-tu-quai-took, the broad river, or "all waters 
united." Still another division of the river was called 
Gim sit-i-cook, smooth or dead water. ]!ut whatever the 
origin of the name, or however it may have been aj)- 
plied, the designation of the great and beautiful river, or 
of some part of it, was fitly transferred to the new- 

The first corps of county officers for Penobscot were 
Samuel E. Dutton, of Bangor, Judge of Probate; Allen 
Gilman, one of the earliest lawyers in that place, Regis- 
ter of Probate; Jacob McGaw, another of the pioneer 
lawyers, County Attorney; Thomas Cobb, also of Ban- 
gor, Clerk of the Courts; Jedediah Herrick, of Hamp- 
den, Sheriff; John Wilkins, of Orrington, Register of 
Deeds and County Treasurer. As late as 1834 the salary 
attaching to the first of these ofifices was but $150, and 
the Register of Probate received but $324 as salary. 


occupied by the new county was the frame building now 
owned by the city of Bangor, occupied as a city hall. 

and standing on Columbia street, near Hammond, and 
nearly opposite the present court-house. It had been 
built, the tradition goes, in 181 2-13, although Bangor 
was not made a half-shire town with Castine until 18 14. 
The old structure has changed somewhat in appearance, 
having been removed to its present site, remodeled and 
repaired in 1850. It formerly stood upon the adjacent 
lot nearer Hammond street, and fronted upon Main 
street, or toward West Market S<[uare. In it many 
of the British troops were quartered during their brief 
occupation of Bangor in 1814. It was occupied as 
the county court-house, as well as somewhat for relig- 
ious purposes before church edifices were put up 
here, until 1831, when the present temple of justice 
and official business, upon the site now occupied 
on Hammond street, between Court and Franklin, 
was erected at a cost of twenty thousand dollars. 
In 1859 the county bought from the city a part of 
the street in the rear of the court-house premises, about 
ten thousand square feet in all, for the sum of two thou- 
sand dollars. In 1858-59 the new jail, with Sheriff's 
residence attached, was put up at an expense of one 
hundred thousand dollars; and the county work-shop, 
west of the jail proper, a rather novel and most com- 
mendable institution, in 1875, costing twenty thousand 


The town of Corinna was not in the original assign- 
ment to Penobscot county. By an act of February 10, 
1833, it was set off from Somerset, and annexed to this 

March 23, 1838, Piscataquis county was incorporated, 
taking to the north line of it, then the State boundary, 
three ranges from Somerset county and, as may be 
stated with approximate accuracy, four ranges north of 
the line of Penobscot towns beginning with Dexter, from 
this county. 

March i6, 1839, upon the erection of Aroostook 
county, Penobscot sustained the further loss of so much 
of the third, fourth and fifth ranges as lay north 
of Mattawamkeag, Kingman, and Drew Plantation. 
Later, March 21, 1843, a further cession was made to 
Aroostook of so much of the territory of Penobscot as 
lay in ranges six, seven and eight, north of the townships 
numbered eight. It may be noted also that the next 
year, March 12, 1844, all tlie former possession of this 
county north of the same line, but then in Piscataquis, 
was annexed to Aroostook, with enough more from the 
old tract of Somerset to make about sixty townships. By 
the same act the division lines between Penobscot and 
Washington and between Penobscot and Piscataquis, 
and Aroostook, were altered. 

There has been no further subtraction from the Penob- 
scot area since the Aroostook annexation of 1843. Had 
the British succeeded in establishing the boundary line 
they claimed under the treaty of 1783, it would have 
cut off about the equivalent of three townships from the 

* The several acts of the legislature relating to the erection of the 
county and cliange of its area, will be found in the .Appendi.x. 



present n<jrlhcrn part of tlic county, and very much more 
as the county lay at the time the claim was pressed. 


Penobscot county has contributed her full share to the 
roll of civil and well as n>ilitary honor in the Pine-tree 
State. Her sons have done grand service to the Nation 
and the Commonwealth, through more than two genera- 
tions. We give a civil list as nearly complete as possible: 

Hannibal Hamlin, Speaker of the Maine of 
Representatives 1837 and 1839; Representative in Con. 
grass, 1843-47; Senator of the United States, 1857-61^ 
and 1869-81 ; Governor of the State, 1858; Vice-President 
of the United States, 1861-65. 


William I). Williamson, of Bangor, 1821-23; Samuel 
Butnarn, Di.xmont, 1827-30; (lorham Parks, Bangor, 
•^33-37; Elisha H. Allen, Bangor, 1841-43 (now Chan- 
cellor of the Sandwich Islands and their Minister to the 
United States); Hannibal Hamlin, Hampden, 1843-47; 
Charles Stetson, iJangor, 1849-51; Israel AVasliburn, jr., 
Orono, 1851-60; John A. Peters, Bangor, 1867-73; 
Samuel F. Hersey, Bangor, 1873-75; Harris M. Plais- 
ted, 1875-77; George W. Ladd, 1879-83. 


\\illiam I). Williamson, Bangor, (acting,) 1821; Ed- 
ward Kent, Bangor, 1838 and 1840; Hannibal Hamlin, 
Hampden, 1857; Israel Washburn, jr., Orono, 1861- 
62; Daniel F. Davis, Corinth, 1880; Harris M. Plaisted, 
Bangor, 1881. Penobscot county has thus furnished 
about one-fifth of the Governors of Maine. 


This was established here October 2, 182 1. Present at 
this first session: Prentiss Mellen, of Portland, Chief 
Justice; William Pitt Preble, and Nathan Weston, jr., 
Associate Justices; Isaac Hodsdon, of Bangor, Clerk J 
Josiah Brewer, of Brewer, Crier; George W. Brown, of 
Bangor, Foreman of Grand Jury; Nathaniel Burrill, 
Foreman of Traverse Jury, first panel; Daniel \\'ilkins, 
I'oreman of the second panel. The first actions were 
those transferred from the Supreme Judicial Court held 
at Castine, June term, 1821. 

John Appleton, Bangor, Associate Justice May 11, 
1852, to October 24, 1862, and Chief Justice since the 
latter date; Joshua \V. Hathaway, Bangor, May 11, 
1852, to May 10, 1859; Jonas Cutting, Bangor, Apri] 
20, 1854; reappointed .'\i)iil 20, 1861, and April 20, 
1868, served till 1869; Edward Kent, Bangor, May 11, 
1859; reappointed May 11, 1866, served till 1S73; John 
A. Peters, Bangor, May 20, 1873; reappointed May 20, 
1880, and now serving. 

Reporters of the Court. — John A])])lcton, Hangor, 
March 5, 1841, to January 22, 1842 (volumes 19 and 20 
of the decisions). 


Presidents of the Senate.— William D. Williamson, 
Bangor, 182 1; Samuel H. Blake, Bangor, 1842; Samuel 

* The roll of Stale Senators and Representatives from Penobseot 
county lias necessarily to be postponed to the Ajjpendix. 

Butman, Dixmont, 1853; Franklin Muzzy, Bangor, 1855; 
Josiah Crosby, Dexter, 1S68: Charles Buffum, Orono, 
1 871; John B. Foster, Bangor, 1873. 

Secretaries of the Senate. — Daniel Sanborn, Bangor, 
1 841; Ezra C. Brett, Oldtown, 1863. 

Speakers of the House. — Hannibal Hamlin, Hamp- 
den, 1837 and 1839; Elisha H. Allen, Bangor, 1838; 
George P. Sewall, Oldtown, 1851; Lewis Barker, Stet- 
son, 1867; FMward Ix Nealley, Bangor, 1877; Henry 
Lord, Hangor, 1878. 

Clerks of the House. — Thomas McGaw, Bangor, 
1831; ¥.. W. Flagg, Bangor, 1849; George W. Wilcox, 
Dixmont, 1857; S. J. Chadbourne, East Dixmont, 1868. 

Secretary of State. — S. J. Chadbourne, East Dixmont, 

State Treasurer. — Silas C. Hatch, Bangor, 1874. 

Attorney-Generals. — Jonathan P. Rogers, Bangor, 1832; 
Samuel H. Blake, Bangor, 1848; G. W. Ingersoll, Ban- 
gor, 1850; John A. Peters, Bangor, 1864; Harris M. 
Plaisted, Bangor, 1873. 

Adjutant-Generals. — Isaac Hodsdon, Bangor, 1841; 
Albert Tracy, Bangor, 1852; John L. Hodsdon, Bangor, 
1861-66; Melville M. Folson, Oldtown (acting), 1879. 

Land Agents. — John Hodsdon, Bangor, 1834-47, 
Elijah L. Hairilin, Bangor, 1838 and 1841; Levi Bradley, 
Levant, 1842; Isaac R. Clark, Bangor, 1855, 1864-67, 
and 1S79; James Walker, Bangor, 1856; Noah Barker, 
Exeter, 1857; Edwin C. Burleigh, Bangor, 1876-77. 


The Circuit Court of Common Pleas, for the third 
Eastern District, was established July 2, 18 16. William 
Crosby, of Belfast, presided as Chief Justice; Martin 
Kinsley, of Hampden, Justice; Thomas Cobb, Clerk; 
James Poor, of Brewer, Crier. David Perham, of Brewer, 
afterwards of Bangor, was presiding Justice from 1823 to 

William Crosby, Chief Justice, presided to 1822; Eze- 
kiel Whitman, of Portland, Chief Justice in 1S26, '31, 
'32, and 34; James Campbell, November, 1816; Sam- 
uel E. Smith, 1S24-30; John Huggles, of Thomaston, 
1 83 1 -34, presided as Justices. 

This Court was abolished May 12, 1839, and the Dis- 
trict Court for the Eastern District was established, May 
28, 1839. Anson G. Chandler and Frederic H. Allen, 
were the Justices; Charles Stetson, Clerk; Charles C. 
Cushman, County Attorney; J. Wingate Carr, Sheriff. 

The following Justices have presided: — Anson G. 
Chandler, 1839-43; Frederic H. Allen, of Bangor, 
1839-49; Daniel Goodenow, 1847; Joshua W. Hatha- 
way, of Bangor, 1849-52. This Court was abolished 
in 1852, and all law business is transacted in the Su- 
preme Judicial Court. 

The Circuit Court of Common Pleas for the third 
Eastern District, established July 2, 18 16, and sitting as 
a Court of Session.s, held their first session in Bangor on 
that day. Present : William Crosby, of Belfast, Chief 
Justice; Martin Kinsley, of Hampden, Justice; Moses 
Patten, of Bangor, and Moses Greenleaf, of Williams- 
burg, Session Justices; Thomas Cobb, Clerk. 



Chief Justices of this Court. — Enoch Brown, 1S19-22; 
John Godfrey, 1S23-24 ; .Xnios Patten, 1825-26; Ed- 
ward Kent, 1827-28; Thomas A. Hill, 1S29-30; all of 

Associate Justices. — Isaac Hodsdon, 1820-21 ; and 
Seba French, 1821-31, of Bangor; Ephraim (loodale, 
of Orrington, 1821-31 ; and Joseph Kelsey, 1831. 
The last session of this Court was held .\|iril 5, 1831. 


is held on the last Tuesday in each month. 

Judges. Samuel E. Button, 1816-19; David Par- 
ham, 1820-21; Martin Kinsley, 1822-23; William D. 
Williamson, 1S24-39; Samuel Cony, 1840-46; E.G. 
Rawson, 1847-53; Daniel Sanborn, 1854-56; John E. 
Godfrey, 1S57-80; Elliot Walker, 1881. 

Registers. — Allen Gilman, 1816-19; Alexander Sav- 
age, 1820-35; Mason S. Palmer, 1836-40; Henry V. 
Poor, 1841 ; John Williams, 1842-49 ; Joseph Bartlett, 
1857-68; Ambrose C. Flint, 1869-78; John F. Robin- 
son, 1879. 


was established in 1831, and held its first session Sep- 
tember 3, 1831. A. Hill, Chairman. This 
Court has held its sessions four terms each year, quar- 
terly, with an adjourned session on the first Tuesday of 
each month, from that time to the present. Its chief 
business now relates to roads, bridges, and ferries. The 
clerk is the County Clerk of the Courts.* 


The officers of the county are the Commissioners, 
Clerk of the Courts, County Attorney, Register of 
Deeds, Treasurer, Sheriff, and Jailor, Deputy Sheriffs, 
Coroners, Judge of Probate, and Register of Probate. 

County Clerks : Thomas Cobb, 1816-20; (Mr. Cobb 
was Clerk from 1802, in Hancock and this county). 
Isaac Hodsdon, 1821-37; Charles Stetson, 1S38-41 ; 
Isaac S. ^Vhitman, 1841-42 ; William T. Hilliard, 1842- 
52; Nathan Weston, jr., 1853-58; Augustus S. French, 
1859-64: Ezra C. Brett, 1865 76 ; James H. Burgess, 
1877-79; Ruel Smith, 1880. 

Sheriffs; Daniel \\'ilkins, 1829-36; Joshua Carpen- 
ter, 1836-37; Otis Small, 1837-38; J. Wingate Carr, 
1838-39 and '41 ; Hastings Strickland, 1839-40 and 42-43; 
Jabez True, 1843-50; John S. Chadwick, 1850-53, and 
'61-64; Francis W. Hill, 1853-54; Charles D. Gilmore, 
1854-55. and 1857-60; John H. Wilson, 1855-56, and 
1865-74; Simon G. Jerard, 1875-78; Louis F. .Stratton, 

Registers of Deeds : John Wilkins, 1S14-24: Charles 
Rice, 1825-31; Stevens Davis, 183234; Jefferson 
Chamberlain, 1842-57; John Goodale, jr., 1858-67; 
Amos E. Hardy, 1868. 

County Treasurers : John Wilkins, 1S17-26; Charles 
Rice, 1826-31; Levi Bradley, 1832-37; Abner Taylor, 

* The .ibove notes, concerning the courts and their ofticers. are con- 
tributed by E. F. Duren, esq., of Bangor, We add that the first ses- 
sion of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, in Bangor, began Octo- 
ber 2, 1821, and held for five days. Justices Mellen, Weston, and 
Preble were then on the Supreme Bench, 

1837-38; Isaac C. Haynes, 1838-45; John S. Chadwick, 
1845-5°; Edward H. Burr, 1850-53; Thomas A. Tay- 
lor, 1S53-54; Ambrose C. Flint, 1854-69; Horace J, 
Nickerson, 1S70-78; Levi Bradley, 1879-80; Miner D, 
Chapman, 1881. 

County .'\ttorneys : John Godfrey, 1825.33 ; Albert 
G. Jewett, 1833-38; William H, McCrillis, 1838-39; 
Charles C. Cushman, 1839-42 ; George B. Moody, 1841- 
42; Gorham Parks, 1843-45 ; Lsaiah Waterhouse, 1846- 
51 ; .\sa Waterhouse, 1852 ; John H, Hilliard, 1856-58; 
Charles Crosby, 1859-61; Charles P. Stetson, 1862-73; 
Jasper Hutchings, 1874-79; Benj.imin H. Mace, 1880. 



The Muscongus or Waldo Patent— The Twelve Townships Grant— 
Mt. Desert— Grant to Soldiers, East of Union River— Eddinglon— 
The Eastern Lands— Grants "for the Encouragement of Literature" 
— Oiiginal Proprietorship in Penobscot County— The Lottery Lands 
—Division of Lands between Maine and Massachusetts— Growth of 
the County — Dates of Settlement of the Towns— Statistics of Pop- 
ulation—Comparative View from 1790 to 1880— Statistics of Ta.\- 
ation, Wealth, Business, etc. — The Shipping Interest — The First 
Steamboat — The Lumber Interest — The Ice Industry. 


The first subdivision of lands in Maine, aflfecting the 
Penobscot country, was under the Muscongus or Waldo 
patent, granted by the Plymouth Council, March 2, 1630, 
to Bealichamp and Leverett, of Boston, in England, and, 
nearly a century afterwards, taking the name of the Waldo 
patent, from the family designation of its then principal 
proprietors. It included about one million of acres, or 
thirty miles square, and was not made for immediate 
purposes of sale, settlement, or civil government, but 
solely to secure to the grantees a monopoly of the trade 
in that quarter with the Indians, whose consent to the 
grant or cession of the lands does not seem to have been 
considered as in any way necessary. The original sur- 
vey of the patent, probably, did not enter at any point 
the present Penobscot county; at all events, the north 
line of the Patent was subsequently settled as being upon 

the south line of this county west of the Penobscot 

that is, upon the boundary of Hampden, Newburg and 
Dixmont. In 1785 the Government proposed to the 
Waldo proprietors that the thirty-mile tract should be 
surveyed and set aiiart for them, if they would quiet the 
titles of all settlers found upon it, who were in possession 
before April 19, 1775, and execute a release to all other 
lands they claimed under the patent. The proposal was 
accepted; but the survey made ran so far to the west as 
to include several townships held under the Plymouth 
Patent. A re-survey became necessary, and was ordered 
February 23, 1798. Thomas Davis was appointed agent 
of the Government, to assign to the Waldo proprietors a 
tract above the north line of their territory equal to that 
they had lost by the re-survey. He selected for them 
four townships now among the most valuable in this 


county, reserving only the lots of settlers already upon 
them. They were Bangor, 18,740 acres; Hampden, 
22,188; Harmon, 24,360; and Newhurg, 17,497—84,- 
785 acres in all. To this e.xlent, then, the county of 
I'enobscot may be held to have been in some sense 
within the Waldo Patent. The assignment to the pro- 
prietors was made February 5, 1800. About 3,200 acres 
from these townships afterwards reverted to the (lovern- 
ment, and were divided between Maine and Massachus- 
etts in the arrangement of May 21, 1828. 


In 1762, the settlements about Penobscot, and to the 
east of it, multiplying somewhat rapidly under the in- 
creased feeling of security produced by the erection of 
Fort Pownall, many petitions were sent to the Provincial 
authorities for the concession of lands. Twelve town- 
ships, each to be six miles square, or its equivalent, were 
accordingly granted by the General Court, in the expec- 
tation that the Crown would confirm the grant. The 
townships were to be laid out east of the Penobscot 
River, in a regular contiguous manner. Six of them fell 
upon the cast side of Union River, which took its name 
as the line of meeting for the halves of the grants, the 
other six townships lying between it and the St. Croix. 
The former six were granted to David Marsh and 359 
others named in the patents; the latter to several 
bodies of petitioners. Mr. Williamson gives the follow- 
ing account of the conditions of the grant: 

These grantees, as voluntary associates and tenants in common, 
individually bound themselves, their heirs and assign.s, in a penal bond 
of ^50, conditioned to lay out no one of the townships more than si.v 
miles in extent, on the bank of the Penobscot or on the scacoast; to 
picsent to the General Court for their acceptance plans of the survey 
by the 3rst of the ensuing July; to settle each township with si.\ty 
I'rotestant families within six years, after obtaining the King's appro- 
bation, and build as many dwelling-houses, at least eighteen feet 
square; also to ht for tillage three hundred acres of land, erect a meet- 
ing-house, and settle a minister. There were reserved in each township 
one lot for parsonage purposes, another for the first settled minister, a 
third for Harvard college, and a fourth for the use of schools. 

In these and all other conveyances of the Crown lands lying between 
Sagadahock and St. Croix, the patents or deeds were signed by the 
Cjovernor and Speaker, countersigned by the Provincial Secretary and 
conditioned, according to the restrictive clause in the charter, to be 
valid whenever they were confirmed by the King — othenvise without 
effect. The names also of the patentees were inserted, the boundaries 
described, and the conditions expressed; each ])atent closing with a 
proviso that the grantee "yield one-fifth part of all the gold and silver 
ore and precious .stones found therein. " 

In a narrative of certain well-known military events 
upon the Castine peninsula in 1779, dated 17S1, and 
entitled Siege of Penobscot by the Rebel.s, with an Ac- 
count of the Country of Penobscot, by John Calef, vol- 
unteer, we find the following record of these townshi[)s, 
with some notes of progress: 

At the end of the last w.u-, viz., in 1763, the (Jeneral .Assembly of 
Massachusetts Bay granted thirteen tow nships, each of six miles square, 
lying on the cast side of I'enobscot river, to thirteen companies of jjro- 
prietors, who proceeded to lay out the said townships, and returned 
plans thereof to the General Assembly, which were approved and ac- 
cepted. In consequence of this measure, about sixty families settled 
on each township, and made great improvements of the land. 

The settlers employed the then agent for the said Province at the 
Court of Great liritain, to solicit the royal approbation of those grants, 
and in the year 1773 as also in the last year (1780) they sent an agent 
expressly on their own account for the [same purpose, and further to 

pray that his Majesty would be graciously plctsed to sever that District 
from the Province of Massachusetts Bay and erect it into a Government 
under the authority of the Crown; which solicitation has hitherto, how- 
ever, been without effect. 

In October, 1772, there were in this District forty-two towns and 
2,638 families, who have since greatly increased, at least in the propor- 
tion of one-fourth, which is 559 families, making in the whole 3.297 
families. Reckoning, then, five souls to each family (which is a moder- 
ate computation!, there are now 16,485 souls. 

To lliis new country the Loyalists resort with their families (last sum- 
mer, in particular, a great number of families weri' preparing to remove 
thither) from the New l-".ngland provinces, and find an asylum from the 
tyranny of Congress and their tax-gatherers, as well as daily employ- 
ment in fishing, lumbering, and clearing and preparing land for their 
subsistence; and there they continue in full hope and pleasing exjjecta- 
tion that they may soon re-enjoy the liberties and privileges which would 
be Ijcst secured to them by laws, and under a form of government 
modelled after the Uritish constitution; anrl that they may be covered 
in their possessions, agreeably to the petition to the Throne in 1773, 
which was renewed last year. 

Mr. Calef probably included in his enumeration of 
townships, in order to make up thirteen, the island of 
Mt. Desert, which was granted by the General Court to 
Governor Bernard — for his "extraordinary services," 
they said, but very likely, as Williamson suggests, "in 
fact and in policy, to secure his influence and efforts to- 
wards obtaining the royal assent." They make, indeed, a 
pertinent hint to him in their resolution or address : "Your 
immediate and undivided attention to the subject is more 
especially requested because a sufficient number of sub- 
scribers or applicants have come forward, ready to go 
and settle thirteen townships [including his own] as soon 
as the royal confirmation can be obtained." We do not 
learn that the King's assent to the grants was definitely 
given; but they were never formally revoked. After the 
Revolution, in 1785, the grants were confirmed by the 
Legislature of Massachusetts, with some new conditions. 

In the representations the agent of the settlers was in- 
structed to make to the British Government, the settlers 
reported the soil "as lemarkably good, well adapted to 
the culture of every sort of English grain, and hemp, 
flax, etc. — and especially good for grazing, in which it ex- 
cels any other part of America, — and for raising cattle. 
Its woods abound with moose and other kinds of deer, 
and several kinds of game, good for food. 

On the rivers and streams arc two hundred saw- 
mills. . . , It gives promise of being a 
rich and fruitful country." 

None of these townships lay within the boundaries of 
Penobscot county. They were nearer to the coast. As 
a part of the history of the valley, however, and of the 
settlement of the l'',astern country, we have thought the 
twelve townships worthy of this notice. 


In 1764 the General Court, in answer to numerous 
apjieals from those who had served in the various wars 
of the period, caused a list of them to be made, begin- 
ning with those who had been in the first Louisburg ex- 
pedition, and then had for them a second tier of town- 
ships east of Union river siuveyed, and all the islands 
on the coast, except Mt. Desert, in order, as they said, 
"that soine further reward for their brave services might 
be given them in the una])propriated lands of this Prov. 
ince." The King, it is said, encouraged by his procla. 



mation the making of these grants, without any pecuni- 
ary terms or conditions. 

About the same time, two "ranging parties," in the in- 
terest of public land opeiations, were employed by the 
Government to e.\i)lurc the IV-uubscot aiul .St, Croix 

THic i;i>i>v c;rant. 

In 17S5 C'liloncl Jonathan luidy, of Norton, Massa- 
chusetts, but a resident near Fort Cumberland, at the 
head of Chignecto Bay, Nova Scotia, before the Revolu- 
tion, and his companions in a courageous exploit at the 
outbreak of the war, they having become refugees after 
the struggle closed, were recommended by Congress to 
the consideration of the State of Massachusetts. 'I'he 
Commonweallh accordingly granted to Colonel Eddy 
and nineteen others of the refugees, by an act of June 
14, 1785, tracts of various size on the east side of the 
Penobscot, in the neighborhood of the head of tide- 
water. Altogether they made up 9,000 acres and now 
constitute the major part of the town of I'.ddington, 
which is named from Colonel Eddy. J'he grants were 
conditioned that each grantee should erect a dwelling on 
his lot within two years after the concession, and that 
the place should be immediately settled. 

The islands in Penobscot Bay were surveyed about 
this time, and the settlers thereon allowed their lots for a 
merely nominal consideration, making them in effect 
free grants from the State Covernment, on account of 
sufferings and privations during the Revolution. A 
minister was also employed by the Slate, to jjreach dur- 
ing half the year in the destitute plantations of Lincoln 
county, then including the present Penobscot, who was 
to be paid out of the State tax derived from the inhabi- 


These were originally regarded as including the large 
ungranted tracts lying in the present counties of Penob- 
scot, Washington, Somerset and Oxford, belonging to 
the Slate. The first Commissioners of Eastern Lands 
were Jedediah Preble, of Falmouth, Jonathan Creenleaf, 
of New Gloucester, David Sewall, of \'ork, John I>ewis, 
of North Yarmouth, and William I.ithgow, of George- 
town. They were ai)pointed by the General Court of 
Massachusetts, May i, 17S1, with duties, according to 
Mr. Williamson, "to impiire into all the encroachments 
upon the wild, unap[)ropriated lands of the State, to ex- 
amine the rights and pretexts of claimants, and to pros- 
ecute obstinate intruders and trespassers, yet li(iuidate 
fair adjustments with all such as were dis[)osed to do 
right, upon principles of equity, good faith, and duty." 
There was beginning to be, it seems, considerable lim- 
ber-stealing from the public lands. 

This commission resigned its powers three years after- 
wards, hiving done arduous and faithful service; and in 
March, 1784, Samuel Phillips, jr., of Roxbury, Nathan- 
iel Wells, of Wells, and Nathan Dane, of Beverly, were 
appointed a new commission, with enlarged powers. 
"These were instructed by the General Court to inquire 
into all trespasses, illegal entries, and encroachments 
upun the [jublic lands; to ascertain how far grantees 

had comjilied with their engagements, and what were the 
limits of the tracts owned or claimed by the Indian 
tribes; and to report the expediency of employing skil- 
ful surveyors to run out six townships on the river St. 
Croix, four on the west side of Penobscot, above the 
Waldo I'atent, and all the territory on the eastern side 
of the latter river between the Indian lands and the 
twelve townships conditionally granted before the war. 
For these purposes they were directed to send one of 
their number to visit this F)istrict, in person." The Com- 
mission was authorized to offer an actual settler a tract of 
150 acres anywhere upon the navigable waters of Maine 
at the rate of one dollar per acre, or to give him outright 
as much as 100 acres elsewhere, if he would make a 
clearing of sixteen acres thereon within four years. A 
State land office was now opened ; General Rufus Put- 
nam was appointed Surveyor-General, and the public- 
lands were advertised for sale in quantities to suit [uir- 

By June, 1795, parcels of F^astern lands had been sold 
to the value of two hundred and sixty-nine thousand 
dollars, anti a contract made for the purchase from the 
(Jovernment of 2,839,453 acres more, with a reseivation 
of 103,080 acres for masts. 431,000 acres had been 
granted for the encouragement of literature "and for 
other useful and humane purposes," and yet 8,700.000 
acres were left. Nearly one-third of these were sold, or 
granted for various ]iublic purposes, during the next 
twenty years; and in 181 6 it was believed but about 6,- 
000,000 were still in the hands of tlie Commonwealth. 
More exactly, there were in Maine 6,596,480 acres of 
public land still unsold, of which about five millions 
were in Penobscot county. 


A number of the grants mentioned as made " for the 
encouragement of literature"' came into Penobscot 
county. The act of incor|)oratioii of liciwdoin College, 
in June, 1794, gave for its foundation five full townships 
of unappropriated lands — saving three lots of three hun- 
dred and twenty acres apiece in each upon every one 
of which fifteen families were to be settled within twelve 
years. 'Phe College committee selected Dixmont, in 
this county, and the four townships now Sebcc, I'oxc roft, 
Guilford, and Abbott, in I'iscataquis county. F^lna and 
part of I'lymouth were afterwards acquired by IJowdoin 
college. Marbleliead academy secured Exeter, Leicester 
Academy Stetson Plantation, and AN'illiams ('ollege 
(iarland and Lee. Bridgeton Academy got Maxfield, 
Warren Academy a township in the Waldo Patent, 
and Waterville College a large part of townshij) three, in 
the west side of the Penobscot. Hopkins Academy 
Grant, fifty miles north of Bangor, still retains that name. 

The totLil grants to literary institutions in the present 
State of Massachusetts amounted to 354,230 acres; in 
Maine 490,545 acres. Some thousands of acres were 
also granted for other jnirposes; as, in the Penobscot 
region, 5,760 to the proprietors of the Duck trap bridge, 
to aid in building that work. A part of Kingman, in 
this county, was included in the grant for building the 
bridge. Newbiu'g. in Penobscot, it should be added, 



is on jjart of the large tract granted to General Knox for 
his military services. By 1816, 617,257 acres of public 
lands had been sold in Penobscot county, at an average 
of thirty-four cents [ler acre, or a total sum of $210,- 
400.13. The acres remaining unsold in incorporated 
towns and plantations of the District numbered 487,040; 
in those not incorporated or settled, 1,281,860 acres were 
owned by private persons — the Indians, however, held 
460,000; and 6,233,400 were still owned by the State. 
The total acreage of the District of Maine was then 8,- 


The following list of townships in the Penobscot Val- 
ley, with their acreage of public lands alienated in each 
by the year 1820, and their original proprietors, is de- 
rived from Oreenleaf's Survey of the State of Maine, 
published in 1829: 


Brewer 23.708 Mo.scs Knapp ct al. 

Orrington ".759 Brown & Kowler. 

Carmel 22,623 M. Kin.sley. 

Corimh 23,010 John Peck. 

Charleston 24,794 John Lowell. 

Dixmont 21,284 Bowdoin College. 

DuUon [Cjlenburn[ 22,692 H. Jackson. 

De.Nter 25,522. Amos Bond el al. 

E.xeter 22,682 Marblehead Academy. 

ICddinglon 9.834 Jonathan Eddy et al. 

IClna 25,708.* .... Bowdoin College. 

Garland 22,536 Williams College. 

jarvis Gore [Cliflon] 15,000 Leonard Jarvis et al. 

Kirkland [Hudson] 23,085 H. Jackson. 

Levant 22,325 William Wetmore. 

Maxfield 10,950 Bridgeton Academy. 

Newport 21,104 David Green. 

Orono 21,946.' .Settlers et al. 

.Sunkhaze PI. [Milford] I3.>39 " 

Xo. 4 K. of Pi' . . . . 3,795 J. Bracken et al. 

Stetson Plantation 23,040 Leicester .Academy. 

N'o. I, 6th R 23,040 J. P. Boyd. 

No. 3, 8th R 11.220 W. C. Whitney ct al. 

No. 5, 9th R 23,040 'I'own of Boston. 

No. 2, 2d R., N. of lottery landsir, 220 |. E. P'oxcroft. 

No. 3, 2d R. " " 3.040 Williams College. 

No. 6, 9th R.. N. of Waldo pat. 1 1,520 Warren -\cademy. 

No. 7, 4th R 23,040 Thos. Munkhouse. 

Gore adj. ICddington. 1,000 T. Harding. 

No. I, W. side Penobscot.. 505 .Settlers. 

Nos. 2 & 3, " " .. 5,000 John Bennock- 

Rem. of No. 3. " ..29,164 Waterville College. 

No. 4 (Orono) 9.303 Sundry. 

No. 1, E. of Penobscot 961 .Settlers et al. 

Coldstream PI 5.000 Joseph Treat. 

No. 6, 4th K., N. of lotteryrnds.5,760 Proprietors Duck tr,i|) Bridge 

"l.O'lTKRV I,.-\NI)S." 

The uiention of these in the above table, as well as 
the general interest and importance of their place in the 
early land history of the State, justifies a notice of them 
here. The close of the war of the Revolution left Mas- 
sachusetts heavily in debt, and it was resolved, as we 
have seen, to raise money by the sale of the unsettled 
lands in Maine. Sales through the land office dragged, 
however, and in 1786 it was resolved to organize a lot- 
tery for the disjjosal of fifty townships, between the 
Penobscot and the Passamaquoddy. Tickets to the 
number of 2,720, each for a tract of land, of size varying 
from a quarter-section, or half a mile S(|uare, to an entire 
townshij), in a siiecilied township, were jjut on sale at 

the uniform jirice of si.xty pounds apiece, for which 
jjayment might be made in the notes or evidences of in- 
debtedness given by the State to its soldiers, or in any 
other of its public securities. Had all been sold the 
avails would have been ^.163,200. The lands were not 
yet sufficiently in demand, however, from the general 
ignorance concerning their value and the poverty {)ro- 
duced by the war; and only 437 tickets were purchased, 
bringing ^26,220, or $87,400, into the State Treasury. 
The drawing took jjlace in March, 1786, under the 
management of the Eastern Lands Commission, and 
165,280 acres were found to have been drawn, at an 
average price of fifty-two cents per acre. The Govern- 
ment subsequently exchanged other lands w-ith those 
jiurchasers who had drawn a whole township, or its 
equivalent. Mr. VVilliaiuson thus. describes the jjrojaerty 
drawn : 

These townships were Nos. 7, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, i, 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7=15 in the east division; and numbers from 14 to 43, both in- 
chisive:^30 in the middle division ; and Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6^5 in the 
northern division, beginning at the northwest corner of No. 3, at 
Union River, thence north 30 miles, and including one tier north of 
the end of that line, except the corner township ; thence east to the 
Schoodic [St. CroixJ ; then southerly through Denny's River to Orange- 
lown ; thence westerly back of Machias, Columbia, etc., to the first 
corner mentioned. 

The townships drawn, and their inhabitants, were to 
be exemjited from taxation for fifteen years. Neverthe- 
less the scheme was not an eminent success. Mr. Wil- 
liamson says that "if this. project drew in a large amount 
of the public securities, it did not promote the settlement 
of Maine." The lottery land business was stopped, and 
straight sales were relied upon by the State thereafter. 
About 1795 an era of speculation in Eastern lands set 
in, and in that year the State stopped the sales for a 
time. Grants were liberally made, however, during the 
last decade of the century, for educational and other 
purjjoses, as we have noticed. Some lands thus appro- 
priated were bought back at once by the State ; others 
were held and sold by the grantees. 'I'he land market 
thus soon became glutted. 

From each townshij) sold by the State there were re- 
served four lots of 320 acres each--one for the State, one 
for the first minister of the gospel whom the people voted 
to settle, one for the ministerial fund jirovided for the 
suj)j)ort of the said minister, and one for the common 
school fund. The jiurchasers of townshijjs were required 
to secure a certain number of actual settlers upon each 
by a specified time, under ]m\n of forfeiture. Some 
buyers obtained an extension of time from the General 

By the close of the last century a vast breadth of the 
wild lands of the State had been surveyed. Between 
1785 and 1 810 a great number of acres were sold (more 
than three and one-half millions of acres, or the equiva- 
lent of 150 townships, were transferred by sale or gift by 
1795); but the settlement of the District was not greatly 
promoted. The prices obtained, too, were very low, 
until 1820 averaging but 20 cents per acre. By that 
year 739,428 acres in Penobscot county had been settled 
or incorporated, with an average pojiulation of twelve 
persons to the square mile. 




demands a brief notice. Present at the drawing of the 
lottery, probably, in March, 1786, was Mr. William Bing- 
ham, of Philadel])hia, a man of large wealth and enter- 
prising views. He relieved the State of such of the 
lottery lands as were not drawn by ticket-holders, and 
also purchased of the latter many of their prize lots. 
These constitute the famous "Bingham Purchase," in 
which some of the lands of Penobscot county lie. Mr. 
Williamson, writing about 1830, says: "The heirs own 
another large tract in Maine — 2,350,000 acres in all." 

THE "burnt LAND.S," 

according to Morse's Universal Geography, edition of 
1819, which cites the Rev. Mr. May as authority, ex- 
tended "from near Penobscot river fifty or sixty miles in 
a westerly direction, and south of those high clusters of 
mountains which pass under the names of Abema, the 
Sisters, and Spencer mountains. The breadth of these 
lands is very irregular; perhaps ten miles may be con- 
sidered as the mean breadth. The trees on this exten- 
sive tract were first [irostrated by some violent tempest, 
which happened about the year 1795. The general face 
of these lands is level, and the tempest must have 
poured over the mountains like water over a dam, for 
the bodies of the trees fell from the north, in which direc- 
tion the mountains lie. This extensive tract was set on 
fire (whether by lightning or by the carelessness of the 
hunters, or through design, for the convenience of hunt- 
ing, is uncertain) about the year 1803, at the time the 
inhabitants first began to settle on those ranges of town- 
ships which lie north of the Waldo patent, and sjjread 
over the whole tract. A fire was again kindled on this 
tract in the summer of i8ii, but being baffled by shift- 
ing winds and finally extinguished by rain, it continued 
its ravages but a few days and spread over but few miles 
of territory. But the trunks of trees, the outsides of 
which are now reduced to coal, and the combustibles an- 
nually accumulated from the leaves of decayed veget- 
ables, from such a body of timber as that a fire, in any 
dry time and fanning wind, would renew and extend its 
ravages over the whole tract. The face of Nature has 
been laid bare by conflagrations. The hills, ponds, and 
streatiis are no longer embowered, as in the wilderness, 
but are laid open to the eye of the beholder from chosen 
eminences. The appearance of the whole country, in 
the season of vegetation, is not unlike that of a culti- 
vated country, but we can nowhere behold the dwellings 
of men or the shelters of animals nurtured by his care, 
but are left to fancy them in rocks, which have the ap- 
pearance of the abodes of men at a distance. The 
margins of a few of the rivers, where the land was low 
and marshy, are lined with its ancient growth, which 
keeps the eye from tiring with the uniformity of the 
prospect. Multitudes of animals must have perished, 
the bones of which have been discovered." 


of Maine from Massachusetts, the act of 1820 provided 
that the public lands in the district remaining unsold 
should be surveyed and divided ecpially between the ' 

States., The first division under this arrangement was 
made December 28, 1822. The old Indian Purchase 
on the Penobscot was divided according to the act. The 
reserved lots in the townships of Corinth, Newport, 
Dutton (Glenburn), Kirkland (Hudson), Orrington, Co- 
rinna, and No. i, Range 6, were assigned to Massachu- 
setts; those in Charleston, Carmel, Jarvis Gore (Clifton), 
and No. 3, Range 8, were turned over to Maine. There 
were subse(iuently other divisions. 


The transfer of these by treaty has been sufficiently 
noticed, for the purposes of this History, in our chapter 
on the Indians of Maine. The following observations, 
however, inadvertently omitted in that place, may be fitly 
given here. They are from the authorship of the Hon. 
John E. Godfrey, in his valuable article on The .Ancient 
Penobscots, contributed to the seventh volume of the 
Maine Historical Collections. He is treating in this of 
the arrangements with the Penobscots: 

The Indians, hoHever, afterwards claimed title to the territory six 
miles wide, on lioth sides of the river, above the thirty miles relin- 
quished in 1796, to .in indefinite extent, and assumed to sell the timber 
from it. To preVL'nt this, the Government of Massachusetts appointed 
another commission, in 1818, consisting of Edward H. Robbins, Dan- 
iel Davis, and Mark L. Hill, who met Governor Etienne, Lieutenant- 
Governor Neptune, Captain Francis, and other chiefs of the tribe — in 
all twenty-seven — on the 24th of June, at Bangor. 

A Masonic celebration occurred at this time, and it was deemed ex- 
pedient by the municipal officers to make the occasion memorable by a 
general celebration. Accordingly, they provided for a holiday and a 
procession. The Freemasons gave the Commissioners a dinner at 
Lumbert's then famous hotel, on Hancock street; after which the pro- 
cession, consisting of the municipal officers, m.igistrates of the county, 
military officers; Rev. Thomas Williams, strangers, and citizens, 
escorted them to the court-house ["ancient city hall"], where a large 
audience of ladies and gentlemen was assembled. The chiefs, who 
were rather noble looking sons of the forest and showily dressed, 
accompanied by General lohn Blake ^Indian agent]. Major Treat, and 
Captain Webster, afterwards entered the honse. As they entered, the 
Commissioners arose to receive them. Solicitor General Davis— who, 
tradition says, had a kindly regard for the fairer portion of the tribe — 
addressed them. Lieutenant-Governor .Neptune, a chief of command- 
ing figure, of great dignity of manner,»and extensive influence among 
his people, made the reply. The result of the conference was that 
Massachusetts obtained a release of all the Indians' interest in the terri- 
tory, excepting four townships, six miles square, two contiguous to the 
nine townships foimerly released, and two near the mouth of the Mat- 
tawamkeag River— one on each side of the Penobscot and opposite 
each other — which, with the islands in the river above Oldtown Falls, 
were to belong to the Indians, for occupation, forever. .As compensa- 
tion for this relinquishment, the Commissioners agreed that the Indi- 
ans should have also, for occujjation, two acres of land in Brewer, 
op]3osite Kenduskeag I'oint; to employ a suitable man to leach them 
husbandry; to repair their church at Oldtown; to deliver there in Octo- 
ber yearly, 500 bushels of corn, 15 barrels of flour, 7 barrels of clear 
pork, I hogshead of molasses, 100 yards of broadcloth (of blue and 
red), 50 blankets, 100 pounds of gunpowder, 400 pounds of shot, 150 
pounds of tobacco, 6 boxes of chocolate, and $50 in silver. At the 
time they made them a present of i six-pound gun, i swivel, i box of 
pipes, 50 knives, 6 bniss kettles, 200 yards of calico, 2 drums, 4 fifes, 
and 300 yards of ribbon, .•^n annual stipend of $3^0 was aiipropriatcd 
by the Government for theii religious teacher. 

After the separation of Maine from Massachusetts, Maine .assumed 
the obligations of Massachusetts to the Indians, and renewed the 
treaty at the court-house, in Bangor, on the 17th of ,\ugust, 1820. 

The Commissioner on the part of Maine was Hon. Lathrop Lewis. 
The first meeting was on the 15th of .\ugust, when the Commissioner 
made the proposition that Maine would take upon itself the obligations 
of Massachusetts, provided the tribe would release Massachusetts. 
The chiefs — who were the same who made the last treaty with Massa- 
chusetts—took time to consider. On the 17th the conference was 



renewed. The chiefs were dressed in scarlet coats or robes, ornament- 
ed with silver brooches and with beads, after the Indian mode of that 
day, and made quite a distinguished appearance. Captain Francis 
made a speech, and, in behalf of the tribe, accepted the propo.sition of 
Commissioner Lewis, to which Colonel I^wis replied. After the 
treaty was signed. Colonel I^ewis presented from Governor King to 
Governor Etienne and Lieutenant-Governor Neptune, a fine piece of 
scarlet broad-cloth, for each a coat. To each of the other chiefs he 
gave a silver breast-plate, upon which was engraved the arms of the 
State of Maine. The presents were received with great apparent 

We conclude tliis chapter with some notes on the 
growth of I'enobscot county. 'I"he progress of settlement 
and the increase of population in the Province have 
already been noted, to the year 1769, when the founda- 
tions of civilization were laid at Pangor. Mr. William- 
son has an interesting note concerning this period. Un- 
der the date of 1768 he writes: 

The increase and extension of settlements in the Penobscot 
country had become so affronting to the Tarratines that some of them 
began to utter bold threats against their progress. Hence the Gover- 
nor told the House that a chajMain ought to be under constant pay at 
Fort Pownall, who might preach to the settlers in the audience of 
the Indians: "for," added he, "there is no minister of the Gospel 
within a circle of loo miles' diameter, now generally peopled, though 
but thinly: and the settlers of themselves are un.ible to maintain one." 
Nay, if the claim to t'he territory eastward of I'enobscot river were 
to be maintained against the natives, and the improvement of it pro- 
moted by an enterprising population, the fortress, he said, must be made 
a more respectable establishment. Happily agreeing with him in his 
Eastern politics, the General Court augmented the garrison from twelve 
to twenty men, and provided for the support of a cliaplain, at the ex- 
pense of £4 by the month. 

During the previous year the enterprising Governor 
had had his eye ujjon the promotion of settlement in the 
Penobscot country. The same historian says: 

Animated by a perspective of the Penobscot country filled with peo- 
ple, the Governor told the General Court, during their winter session, 
that "a great many families" stood ready to remove thither and settle, 
provided there w^ere no obstacles in the way of their obtaining a title to 
the lands. The subject was popular, and he urged its importance upon 
their consideration with earnestness, believing tliat permanent .settle- 
ments there would become supports essential to the strength and inter- 
ests of the Province. 

In 1795, with a view to the more rapid settlement of 
the Eastern lands, the "Massachusetts Society fur tlie 
Aid of Emigrants" was formed. 

A "truck-house" had [ireviously, in 1760, been estab- 
lished at the Eort, which did a large business, and yielded 
the Government considerable profit. The commander 
of the Eort was "truck-master." This was the same year 
that Lieutenant Joshua Treat settled near P'ort Pownall. 


of the county in 1790 (that is, the portion of the State 
now constituting the county) was 1,154; in 1800, 3,009; 
in 1810, 7,831; 1820, 13,870; 1830, 22,962; 1840, 
46,049; 1850, 63,089; i860, 72,737; 1870, 75,150: 
1880, 70,478. In 1870 the population was the largest 
of any county in the State except Cumberland. 

The number of polls in the county in 1880 was 
17,407 — largest of any in the State except Cumberland; 
and its estates had an assessed valuation of $22,697,890 
in 1870, and $21,408,151 ten years later. The county 
has now fifty-five towns, one city, and seven incorporated 
l)lantations^the largest number of towns of any county 
in the State. 

The following table presents a comparative view of 
the growth of the several parts of the coimty during the 
last hundred years : 




















■ 558 











































































1 341 



































■ 498 






























Kingman {formerly In- 

dependence Plantal'n) 









1 361 




















Mnunt Chase 
















Paltagumpus Plantal'n. 









Siacyviile Plantation... 

138! .84 
937. 729 







Webster Plantation.... 

2S 118 

West Indl.'in Plantal'n.. 




7.4' 898 









No. J, Crand Falls Pl'n 


* Including .'idjacetit settlements. 

tTaken with Orrington and adj.icent settlemenls. 

t Formerly Jarvis's (lore. 

§Formerly Dutton. 

IITaken with Maxfield. 

^[ Formerly Kirkland. 

"K.' Indian Plantation. 

tt Formerly .Sunkha^e Plant.itlon. 

By the census of 1800, the "townships in I'enobscot,' 
Nos. I, 2, and 3; those east of the liver, Nos. i, 2, and 
3 (Sunkhaze, now Milford), and 4, and the people "on 
State's land," numbered together 149. In 1810 the town- 
shijjs on Penobscot, Nos. i, 2, and 3, had 46, and in 
1820, 108. In 1820 No. I had 60, and No. i east of 
Penobscot 99. In 1810 No. 2 east of Penobscot had 39, 
No. 3 (Sunkhaze), 98, and No. 4, 136; in 1820 these 
townships, respectively, had 18, 146, and 125. In 1810 
the residents "on .State's land" nnmbercd 71, and in 1820 
37. In the latter year, No. i. Sixth Range, had 2; No. 




7, Eighth Range, 4; and No. 6, Ninth Range (now in 
Piscataquis county), 12. In 1S40 Township No. 4 had 
41; Township 3, Range 8, 29; Lower Indian Township, 
west of Penobscot river, 37; Indian Township, Wood- 
ville. No. 2, 6; Hopkins .'\cademy Grant, 3; unincor- 
porated townships north of Lincohi, 147; west half of 
Township No. 6, 147 ; Township No. 7, 30. In 1880 
No. 3 had 12; No. 3, Range 3, 17 ; and No. 2, Range 
2, and No. Range 4, together, 9. 

By 1790, 120 square miles in the jiresent territory of 
Penobscot county had been settled, with an average pop- 
ulation of nearly ten to the square mile. Ten years later 
more than three times the space of 1790, or 390 square 
miles, were inhabited, but with a population slightly thin- 
ner, numbering scarcely eight to the mile. In 1810, the 
numbers, respectively, were 970 and 8; in 1820, 1,143 
(739,428 acres), and 12. At the latter date the average of 
population for the whole State was but 8-3 to the mile. 
The gain of population in this county from 1790 to 1800 
was 1855, or 161 per cent; from 1800 to i8to it was 
4,822, or 160 per cent; from 1810 to 1S20, 6,039, O"" 77 
percent; from 1820 to 1830, 9,092, or 65. 4^ per cent; 
from 1830 to 1840, 23,087, or a little more than 100 per 
cent; from 1840 to 1870, 17,040, or nearly 30 per cent. 
The increase since has not been so rapid; and during the 
decade 1870-80 the population of Penobscot, like that 
of many other counties, fell off by a small percentage. 

Of the population of 1820, 13,870 in all, 2,858 were 
engaged in the pursuits of agriculture, 251 in manufac- 
tures, and 140 in commerce — in proportions, severally, 
to every thousand engaged; of 880, 77, and 43. 


Full notes of these will be made in our special histo- 
ries of the towns of the county and of Bangor. A rapid 
summary of dates has been prepared for this work by 
Mr. Elnathan F. Duren, of the latter place, as follows : — 

The earliest regular settlement of the county com- 
menced in Bangor, in 1769; then followed settlements 
at Brewer and Orrington, 1770; Hampden, 1772; Old- 
town, 1773; Orono, 1774; Veazie, 1786; Eddington, 
1780; Holden, 1786; Hermon, 1791; Newport, 1794; 
Charleston and Corinth, 1795, Carmel, 1796; Levant 
and Newburg, 1798; Dixmont, 1799; Hudson, Kendus- 
keag, Milford, and Stetson, 1800; Dexter and Exeter, 
1801; Garland, 1802; Bradford, 1803; Corinna, 1804; 
Glenburn, 1806 ; Etna and Plymouth, 1807 ; Clifton 
and Greenfield, 1812; Passadumkeag, 1S13; Maxfield, 
1814; Bradley, 181 7; Alton, Argyle, Howland, and La- 
grange, 1818; Enfield and Lowell, 1819; Chester, Green- 
bush, Medway, Pattagumpus, \\'est Indian, and Wood- 
ville, 1820; Lincoln, 1823; Burlington and Lee, 1824; 
Mattamiscontis, 1825; Edinburg, 1827; Patten, 1828; 
Carroll, No. 2 Grand Falls, and Springfield, 1830; Mat- 
tawamkeag, 1834: Winn, 1835; Prentiss and Whitney 
Ridge, 1836; Mount Chase, 1838; Webster Plantation, 
1843; Drew Plantation, 1845; Stacyville, 1850; Lake- 
ville Plantation, 1855; Kingman, 1864. 


In the table of valuations for the taxation of 1801 in 

Hancock county, in which Penobscot was then included, 
only Bangor, Hampden, and Orrington appear as repre- 
sentatives of what is now Penobscot county. Hancock 
county, all told, had then but 1,917 polls. The average 
price of dwelling-houses for taxation in that county at an 
earlier date (1793) was but i6s, id. 

In 181 6 the first year of Penobscot county, it had 
1,593 polls, estates valued at $37,503.86, and a tax of 
$6.52 on the $1,000, as against $19.56 in the older Han- 
cock county. 

The number of buildings and [nincipal manufacturing 
establishments in the county, as rendered to the Legis- 
lature in 1820, was as follow: Dwelling-houses, 1,315; 
barns, 1,212; shojjs attached to dwellings, 28; shops 
and stores detached, 74 ; tanneries, 5 ; pot- and pearlash 
works, 9; grist-mills, 30, with 36 pairs of stones; saw- 
mills, 36, with 43 saws; carding machines, 15; fulling- 
mills, 9; all other mills, i; bakehouse, i; all other 
workshops, i ; warehouses, ropeworks, distilleries, cotton 
and woolen factories, spinning machines, slitting-mills, 
ironworks, and furnaces, none. These numbers com- 
pared favorably with those of most other counties in the 

In 1826 the values per acre affixed by the Legislature 
to the wood and unimproved land in the several towns 
and townships of Penobscot county were as follow: Ban- 
gor, $1.50; Brewer and Orrington, $1; Carmel, Atkinson, 
Corinth, Dixmont, Newburg, Sebec, and Sangerville, 75 
cents; Eddington, Newport, and Orono, 80 cents; Fox- 
croft, Guilford, and Williamsburg, 60 cents; Etna, Dut- 
ton, Kirkland, Maxfield, Brownville and Stetson Planta- 
tion, 50 cents ; Blakesburg and Milo, 40 cents; Bowerbank 
and Jarvie's Gore, 30 cents; Kilmarnock and adjoining 
lands, and No. i. Range 6, 25 cents; No. 3, Range 2, 
east of river, No. 3, 8th Range, and No. 5, 9th Range, 
20 cents. 

The net amount of postages accruing in each post- 
office of the county the same year was : Atkinson, $16.- 
67; Bangor, $802.49; Birch Stream, 35 cents; Blakes- 
burg, $4.72; Brewer, $60.69; Brownville, $8.85; Carmel, 
$6.08; Corinth, $11.08; East Corinth, $3.75; Dexter, 
$31.90; Dixmont, $48.31; Dover, $26.49; Dutton, $2.19; 
Etna, $5.09; Exeter, $31.08; Foxcroft, $30.20; Garland, 
$20.03; Guilford, $13-37; Howland, $2.77; Hampden, 
$110.45; Kirkland, $1.94; Kilmarnock, $3.37; Maxfield, 
$1.48; Milo, $15.79; Newburg, $14.54; North Charles- 
ton, $20.14; Newport, $23.03; Orono, $53.48; Oldtown, 
$10.80; Orrington, $37.05; Sangerville, $31.32; Sebec, 
$33.39; Williamsburg, $12.95. The total net amount 
of postage for the county was but $1,491.34. This, 
however, was more for each inhabitant, on an average, 
than was paid by any other county in the State, except 
Cumberland and Washington, being 10.7 cents against 
1 1.7 and 15.7 in those counties. In amount paid per 
$1,000 worth of taxable property, it exceeded Cumber- 
land and every other county but Washington, standing to 
this in the ratio of $1.65 to $1.91. 

In 1820, the official returns made to the State Legis- 
lature from this county exhibited in much detail its de- 



velopment and resources at that date. The reports were 
tabulated as follow below. The first four columns of 
figures are in terms of acres ; those relating to grain in 

bushels, hay in tons, and the last column gives the num- 
ber of cows that the pasture of the township would 






































































































Exeter. . ... 



































:J: Jarvis Gore 










" 145 












































1 104 































No. 4, E. of Penob 

- 5 







9476 I 















*Afterwards Glenburn. +Oats and barley included 

The relative wealth of Penobscot county at different 
periods of its early history, averaged to each individual 
of its inhabitants, the average to each person in the State 
being taken at $100, is represented by Mr. Greenleaf (A 
Survey of the State of Maine, 1829,) as follows: 1790, 
79; 1800, 6s; 1810, 92; 1820, 93. The aggregate valu- 
ation of estates in the county the last-named year, as 
fixed by the Legislature, was $903,683,90. The val- 
uation of the State was not quite $21,000,000. The 
account of tonnage of shipping and stock-in-trade, as 
returned the same year by the several towns, was as 


Towns. Tons. 


Bangor 56° 

Rrewcr 57 



Eddington 45 


Hampden 631 

I ^vant 


Orrington 338 

Sebec '. ■ ■ 



Total 1,631 $40,005 

There were also reported from the county this year 
$.189 money in hand, $1,649 ■" bank stock, $1,185 
bridge and turnpike stock, $3,384 money at interest, and 
680 owners of plate. The estimated value of goods, 
wares, and merchandise exchanged — otherwise the stock 
annually emi)loyed in domestic trade — was $280,000. 
The estimated circulation of commercial capital, or the 
surplus of products and exchanges, was $388,360. 

J Afterwards Clifton. § Now Hudson. ||Now Milford. 

A notice of Penobscot county in Morse's American 
Universal Gazetteer for 181 9 includes the following: 
"This county contains 10,250 square miles, as many as 
in the whole state of Vermonl." It had 19 townships in 
1 81 6, the year it was erected. 


$ 150 















Almost from the beginning of white settlement on the 
Penobscot, the building and sailing of vessels has been a 
prominent industry. By the close of 1809 the Penob- 
scot collection district, which included only the ports on 
the east side of the bay and river, had 6,624 tons of 
shipping in the foreign trade, and 8,840 tons employed 
in coasting — in all, 916 tons to every 1,00 of population. 
The shipping of the Penobscot District in 1814 was re- 
ported at 15,684 tons, against 16,294 in the Waldo- 
borough District, to which Bangor and other ports on 
the west of the Penobscot belonged. 

The next year the District of Penobscot had a regis- 
tered tonnage of 7,17s, enrolled 8,306, fishing vessels 
1,226 — total, 16,707. X 

In 1816 shipping to the amount of 1,710 tons was 
owned in Bangor alone. 

In 1820 the Penobscot District had the largest ratio of 
coasting tonnage of any in the State, being 9.3 to every 
$1,000 of taxable property, and also the largest propor- 
tion of such tonnage to the absolute wealth of the people. 
Much merchandise was already directly imported, 
amounting to a value of 40 cents on every $1,000 of ta.\- 
able property, or $2.31 on every $1,000 entire wealth. 

In 1825 the Penobscot ports had a total of 20,194 
tons of shipping afloat, at an average cost of $40 per 
ton, and a total value of $807,760. The tonnage doing 



business in the Penobscot ports, however, amounted to 
30,132. The number of shops, stores, and warehouses 
employed in commerce in the county that year was 37, 
with an average valuation of $230, and a total of $8,510. 
The number of people engaged in commercial pursuits 
was 140, representing an average investment or business 
of $285 a person. 

The latest report at hand of the shipping business on 
the river, now largely concentrated at Bangor, is that of 
the Harbor Master of that city, dated February 21, 1881. 
As exhibiting the varied character of the vessels entering 
and clearing here, as well as that of the foreign and do- 
mestic imports and exports, it is well worth extracting in 
almost its entirety : 

I respectfully submit the following as my report for the year 1880 : 
The river was open to navigation, and the business of the port began 
on .April 6th. The harhor remained open until Noieniber 26th, a pe- 
riod of 235 days, During this period, 2,068 vessels of all descriptions, 
(not including fishing and other craft under 25 tons), arrived, classified 
as follows ; 

Barks 6 

Barkentines 7 

Brigs 30 

Three-masted schooners 109 

Fore-and-aft schooners 1.655 

Sloop and schooner y.achts (i steam yacht) 7 

Four-masted schooners (sch. Weybossett) 3 

Steamers (17 different steamers) 250 

2,068 vessels, with a tonnage of 393,795 tons. 


Molasses, hhds 3 .396 

Salt, bush 4, 160 

Flour, bbls 12,165 

Corn, bush 432,601 

Pork, bbls 3.35° 

Coal, tons 26,044 

Lime, bbls 15,000 

Apples, bbls i ,626 

Lumber, M 133 

Oats, bush 15,000 

Pig iron, tons 510 

Codfish, cwt 6,018 

Nails, kegs 2,315 

Cement, bbls 2,500 

Moulding sand, tons 655 

Marble workers' sand, tons 100 

Pottery clay, tons 150 

Limerock, tons 1,200 

Hides (dry), bales 250 

Guano, tons 1 32 


Lumber, feet 123,450,537 

Ice, tons 115,945 

Iron, tons 2,315 

Shooks, feet 145,000 

Potatoes, bush 50,000 

Hay, tons , . , 3, 000 

Bricks, M 8,000,000 

Slate, squares 20,000 

Fish barrels 100,000 

Staves, bundles 108, 552 

Lime, bbls 500 

Drain tile, feet 12,000 


Salt, bush 67,540 

Plaster rock, tons 455 

Spruce knees i, 165 

Grindstones , tons 90 


Shocks, feet 445, 740 

Lumber, feet 1,907,720 

Potatoes, bush 500 

Spars 266 

Ice, tons 890 

Bricks 621,000 

Oars, feet 4.458 

Lime, bbls 600 

Foreign vessels arrived, Britisli, 8; Italian, 2; total, 10. 

The year 1880 was one of the busiest ever experienced by the port 
of Bangor, and the prospect for the coming year is bright. . 

Ch.vs. V. L.'\NSII., Harbor Master. 

Mr. E. F. Dureii contributes the following historic 
note: — 

The first steamboat on the Penobscot, the Maine, 
Captain Cram, arrived in Bangor May 23, 1824. The 
next day it made an excursion to Bucksport. It ran to 
Portland in the summer season. The Bangor, a larger 
boat. Captain George Barker, arrived in 1834, landing 
at the wharf at the foot of Exchange street. This steamer 
was on the route to Portland, and afterwards ran from 
the port of Constantinople, Turkey. There are now two 
steamers of the Sandford line, which ply between Ban- 
gor and the towns on the river to Boston, most of the 
year making three trips weekly. A steamer ran until 
1880 to Portland, making three trips weekly and connect- 
ing with another steamer at the mouth of the river (Rock- 
land) for Mt. Desert, and east as far as Eastport and 
Calais. Steamer run direct to Mt. Desert from Ban- 
gor, and smaller steamers are employed to tow vessels 
up and down the river, and accompany barges on pleas- 
ure excursions. In 1849, small and flat-bottomed steam- 
ers commenced running above Bangor, affording beauti- 
ful views of island, forest, and river scenery. They have 
not, however, been plying of late. 


We have also the following from Mr. Duren: — 
Lumbering, and the manufacture of lumber in various 
forms, large and small, have largely engaged the attention 
of the people of the county. Lumbermen, mill-men, 
river-drivers, log-drivers, and raftsmen form an active and 
important part of the population. Logging-camps are a 
unique and interesting feature of forest-life. The first 
Surveyor-general of timber was Thomas F. Hatch, ap- 
pointed in 1832. From a report furnished by Colonel 
C. V. Crossman, who has held that office several years, 
it is stated that the amount of boards surveyed at Bangor 
in 1832 was 37,556,093 feet; in 1866 it was 237,147,606; 
in 1872, 246,453,649; in 1878, 122,500,000. From 1832 
to 1843 it was 842,886,233; 1844-55, 2.135.716,416; 
1856-67, 2,122,208,374; 1868-78, 1,953.736,540. To- 
tal for the 47 years, 7.o54.S47,563- Average, 150,069,- 
756 feet. 
The lumber exported coastwise in 1826 was as follows: 

Boards, plank, and joists surveyed. .23,473,180 feet, 
" shipped without survey.... 3,354,000 " 

26,827,180 at $8. 14— $218,471 

4333 tons timber, average price $2.75 per ton 11,929 

99,671 feet, ranging timber, " 2.50 " 2,491 

Shingles, clapboards, and laths 96,000 

Oars, staves, heading, hoops, etc., etc 7,000 

Total estimated value $3351891 



Other statistics, somewhat in detail, will be presented 
in that division of this work treating of the history of 

Mr. JohnS. Springer, who wrote about 1845 a sprightly 
book on Forest Life and Forest Trees, says that about 
ten thousand men were then engaged in lumbering on 
the Penobscot, and that the number of men, oxen, and 
horses employed in operations would aggregate 
twenty thousand. He adds the following statistics of 
that period : — 

Number of saw-mills on the Penobscot and tributaries, 
240; of clapboard-machines, 20; of lath-machines, 200. 
Amount of long lumber sawed annually, 200,000,000 feet 
at $10.00 per M; laths sawed annually, 400,000,000 
pieces at $1.00 per M; clapboards sawed annually, 5,500- 
000 pieces at $18.00 per M; shingles sawed and split 
annually, 110,000,000 pieces at $2.50 per M; pickets 
sawed annually, 10,000,000 pieces at $6.50 per M. 


is an affair of recent creation and growth, but is already 
extensive, and [iromises to add largely to the revenues of 
the Penobscot valley. 



War.s and Warlike Incidents — Fort Pownall Built — The Penobscot 
Valley in the Revolution — The Affair at (.'astine — The War of 1812- 
15 — Destruction of Property at Hampden and Bangor — Roll of 
Militia Out in the Affair — The Aroostook Flurry — Men of Pen- 
obscot in It — The Me.'iican War — Officers from the County — The 
Great Rebellion — The Principal Participants in the Struggles from 
Penobscot — Bangor in the War — Roll of Its Honored Dead — 
Home Guards — State Guards — The First Recruits from Maine — 
Aggregate Enlistments and Other Credits in the County — The 
Roster of Penobscot Soldiers — The First Infantry and First Veteran 
Infantry — The Second Infantry — Third — Fourth — Fifth —Sixth 

— Seventh — Eighth — Ninth — Tenth — Eleventh — Twelfth — 
Thirteenth — Fourteenth — Fifteenth — Si.xleenth — Seventeenth — 
Ninteenth — Twentieth -- Twenty-tirst — Twenty-second — Tvv'en- 
ty-fifth — Twenty-eighth — Twenty-nintli — Thirtieth — Thirty-first 

— Thirty-second — First Infantry Battalion — Third, F'ourlh, Fifth, 
Sixth, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Twelfth, Thirteenth, F'ourtcenth, Fif- 
teenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Nineteentli, Twentieth, Twenty-first, 
Twenty-second, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, Twenty-eighth, and 
Thirtieth Unassigned Companies — Coast Guards Battalion — Militia 
Companies in F'ederal Service — Company D, Second United States 
Sharpshooters — First Maine Sharpshooters — First Cavalry — .Sec- 
ond Cavalry — F'irst Regiment District of Columbia Cavalry — First 
Heavy Artillery — F'irst Mounted Artillery — F'irst Mounted Battery 

— Second Battery —Third — F'ourth — F'ifth — Sixth .Seventh — Enlist- 
ments in the F'irst Army Corps — In Other Commands — in the 
United States Army — In the Navy — List of Substitutes — Statisti- 
cal: Bounties Paid in Penobscot — Aid to Soldiers' Families — Pri- 
vate Benefactions — The Local Militia. 


Notice has heretofore been taken, with probably suffi- 
cient fullness, of most of the martial events in the Penob- 
scot waters. They are as follows : 

161 7. Canoe-loads of Tarratine Indians, numbering 
120 warriors, leave Pannawanske (probably now Old- 

town) on an expedition against some place near the 
mouth of the Kennebec. 

1633. The attack of the F'rench upon the "truck- 
house" of the New-Plymouth colonists founded at Pen- 
obscot five or six years before. 

1635. A renewal of the attack and plunder of the 
trading-house, by the French under D'Aulnay. Counter- 
attack by the English in the vessel Hope, commanded 
by Cirling, resulting in failure. 

1643. Attack by the forces of La Tour upon l)'.\ul 
nay, at Penobscot. Skirmish at D'.Vulnay's mill, near 
the fort (Pentagoet). 

1644. Affair of the F'.nglish and PVench at D'.Aulnay's 
farm-house, five or six miles from the fort, in which 
W'auneston, of the assailants, and one of the Frenchmen, 
were killed. Victory of the English. 

1676. CajJture of Fort Pentagoet from the FVench 
by the Dutch. Expulsion of the Dutch by an English 
exjiedition from Boston. 

1688. Appearance of the frigate Rose before the 
fort, brought to possess it by Governor Andros in person. 
The fort abandoned by the Baron de St. Castine. 
Workmen had been brought to strengthen the fort, but 
it had fallen so much into disrepair that the undertaking 
was dropped. 

1696. Concentration of Indians in two hundred 
canoes at Penobscot, and their union, under Castine, 
with Iberville and Villebon's force for the reduction of 
F'ort William Henry, at Peiriaquid. 

1703. Unjirovoked raid of the ICnglish upon the 
younger Castine, at Penol)scot. I'hey plunder his house 
and perpetrate great spoil. 

1704. Colonel Church, during the Third Indian 
War and upon his fifth Ivistern exiiedition, anchors his 
fleet in the bay and captures three Frenchmen and a 
Canadian Indian upon one of the Green Islands. He 
then takes several of his transports and whale-boats up 
the bay and river, and "killed and took a considerable 
number both of French and Indians" — among the cap- 
tives the Baron Castine's daughter and her children. 
This is the first hostile movement, save that first men- 
tioned and the unrecorded struggles of the Tarratines 
and the Mohawks, upon the river. 

1723. Colonel Westbrook's expedition, of 240 sol- 
diers, against the Indian fort and village on the Penob- 
scot — "probably Nicola's Island, at Passadurnkeag," 
says Judge Godfrey. The place was deserted, and was 
burned by Westbrook's men. 

1725. Captain Heath's expedition from the Kenne- 
bec against the French and Indian village at F'ort Hill, 
near the head of the tide, which was also destroyed. 

1755. Barbarous attack of Captain Cargill and his 
men upon a party of Indian hunters, near Owl's Head, on 
the bay. Twelve of the latter murdered, and a friendly 
squaw and her babe butchered as the scouts return to 
their garrison. The 'Parratines are consequently in- 
volved in the war which had been declared against all 
other Eastern tribes. 

1759. The erection at the Point of Wasaumkeag 
(F'ort Point) of 




This work, or a similar one, on the Penobscot had been 
recommended by Governor Shirley in a message to the 
General Court of Massachusetts three years before, in 
order to assure the possession of the Eastern country to the 
English. Its absolute necessity to the safety of the Eng 
lish possessions in this iiuarter was represented by Gov- 
ernor Pownall to the same body early in 1759, and it 
was resolved that an expedition of four hundred men 
should be dispatched to build the fortification. The 
Governor himself accompanied it, and supervised the 
work. Mr. Williamson gives the following interesting 
account of the preliminaries and the consummation of the 
object of the expedition : 

The enlislnu-nls for the " I'enohscol h'.xpcdilion " were completed 
without troulile or delay. The men being arranged into four compa- 
nies, each of too men, were put under the command of a colonel ; and 
the whole emljarked at Hoston on hoard the ship King George, the 
Massacliusetts sloop, and a few transports; all touching at Falmouth, 
May 4th, as they proceeded to the place of destination. In ascending 
the Penobscot liay, at this pleasant season of the year, the islands and 
shores exhibited a drapery of nature which could not fail to inake a 
deep impression upon the beholder, l-'arther into land, tlie banks in- 
dented with coves, and the acclivities clothed with mast-pines, rock- 
maples, or balsam-firs, the thick forest had power to excite the admi- 
ration of no one more than the Governor himself. It was to him a re- 
flection fraught with deep regret, that this fine country had been so 
long left to the savage hunter, the French renegades, and the wild 

Having examined suntlry places, and taken formal possession of the 
country, tlie Governor selected a crescent crowning elevation on the 
western side of the Potomac (in Prospect), 25 rods from the water's 
edge, and about a league below the foot of Orphan Island, as a site for 
the fortification. It was laid out square with the points of the com- 
pass, the east sHe facing the water; and at each corner were flankers. 
The dimensions of the fort were 360 feet, or 90 feet on each inner side 
of the breastwork, which was ten feet in height. This was circunival- 
lated by a moat or ditch 15 feet in width at top, 5 at bottom, and 8 
deep. ICaeh exterior side of the ditch, or the glacis, was 240 feet. In 
the centre of the ditch were palisadoes quite around the fort, except at 
the portcullis, or entrance at the east side, where a drawbridge 
crossed the excavation or ditch. There was also a pitjuet in the ditch 
at the foot of the wall. The houses of the commander and others 
were situated between the fort and the river. Within the breastwork 
or walls, was a square block-house, 44 feet on a side, with flankers 
at each corner, of diamond form, 33 feet on a side. The whole was 
constructed of square timber dovetailed at the corners, and treenailed. 
The height of the block-house, in 2 stories, was about 22 feet ; the roof 
was square or hipped, and had a sentry-box upon the top. There were 
several cohorns on the roof; and three or four cannon were mounted 
in the area between the breastwork and walls of the block-house, which 
was 20 feel in width. The upper story jutted over the lower about 3 
feet, the space being covered witli loose plank, easily removable. The 
lower story was used as barracks, and in the upper one, where 10 or 12 
small cannon were mounted, garrison exercise was performed in stormy 
weather. There were two chimneys, one in the northwest and the 
other in the southeast corner of the block-house. 

As soon as the laborers had commenced work, the (jovernor, attend- 
ed by General Samuel Waldo, with a guard of 136 men, ascended the 
river, near the head of the tidewaters, below the bend ; and. May 23d, 
went ashore on the westerly side of the river. From this place he sent 
a message to the Tarratine tribe, giving them notice of the enterprise 
undertaken at Fort Point, and assuring them, if they should fall upon 
the English and kill any of them, the whole tribe should be hunted and 
driven from the country. " But," added he, "though we neither fear 
your resentment nor seek your favor, we pity your distresses ; and if 
you will become the subjects of his Majesty and live near the fort, you 
shall have our protection, and enjoy your planting grounds, and your 
hunting berths, without molestation." 

General W.aldo took great interest in this expedition, expecting that 
the Muscongus (or Waldo) Patent extended to some place near the 
spot then visited by tho-in ; and that he and his co-proprietors would de- 
^^erive es.-.ential adv.mtage from the projected forlification. Withdrawing 

a few paces, he looked round and exclaimed, " here is my bound," and 
instantly fell dead of an apoplexy. He was 63 years of age. To com- 
memorate the spot, the Ciovernor buried a leaden plate, bearing an in- 
scription of the melancholy event. General Waldo was a gentleman 
of great enterprise and worth ; and the conspicuous part he acted in 
the first capture of Louisbourg, will be long recollected with intermin- 
gled pleasure and praise. His sons, Samuel and Francis, and the hus- 
bands of his two daughters, Isaac Winslow and Thomas Fluker, were 
the testamentary executors of his large estate, much of which was in 
the last mentioned patent. 

On the 28th of July the fortification, which cost about ^5,000, was 
completed, and called Fort Pownall. It was aftcnvards garrisoned by 
100 men, under the command of Brigadier-General Jedediah Preble. 
It was the most regular and defensible fort in the Province, and the ex- 
penses of building it were reimbursed by Parliament. 

In a subsequent address to the General Court, the Ciovernor stated 
that he had taken possession of a large and fine country belonging to 
the Province, within the dominions of the British crown — long a den 
for savages, and a lurking place for renegade Frenchmen ; and had es- 
tablished that possession by the erection of a fort, which would com- 
mand the river Penobscot and the outlet at Edgemaroggan Reach, the 
rendezvous of the Eastern Indians, in their excursions against our fron- 
tiers. He said the erection of it incurred a less charge to the Province, 
by ,^1,003, than if the same troops had joined the army. Highly 
gratified with the enterprise and its speedy accomplishment, the Gen- 
eral Court voted him their thanks, and granted him ^200, in addition 
to his usual salary of /, 1.300 lawful money. 

Mr. Williamson mistakes in regard to the purport of 
the leaden plate buried "at ye Root of a Large White 
Birch Tree, tliree large Trunks springing from ye one 
Root" — the head of the fust falls opposite Thompson's 
Point, Judge (lodfrey thinks. The Governor's journal 
has since been published, and from it we e-xtract the fol- 
lowing : 

At the of the Falls— buried a Leaden Plate with the following 
Inscription : 

MAv 23, 1758. Pkovinciv, Mass. Bay. Dominiii.n.s ok Gkkat 
Britain. — Possession conkikmku hy T. Pownai.l, Gov. 

Erected a flag staff. — Hoisted The King's Colors and Saluted them. 

24th. At High Water Returned. Got over the Ledge, and having 
a fair Wind and the Torrent of the Freshes in onr favor, arrived at the 
Camp by two 1'. M. 

I'lirther extracts from this interesting document, with 
the notes of its editor, concerning this ex|)edition and its 
labors, will be read with interest; 

[May, 1759] 8th. Embarked in .ill 333 men. Left the Rest to come 
with Flagg in the Sloops, who brought the luatenals. Proceeded for 

9th. At 3, A. M., arrived at the mouth of George's River [now in 
the town of St. George]. At 10, set out for the Fort [Fort tieorges, 
situated in the present town of Thomaston, in front of the location now 
occupied by the mansion of the late General Knox. It was erected in 
1719-20, by the proprietors of the Waldo Patent, and made a public 
garrison soon after. It resisted successfully repeated attacks from In- 
dians and French. The last auack was made in 1758 by a body of 
400.1 in the Barge, Yawl, and six Whaleboats for the Fort St. (jeorge's. 

At 3. 1'. M., arrived Herrick's company came 

u|i in a large Sloop, and L left Capt. CargiU with too men on board the 
King George for further orders, intending he shoultl land on the cast side 
(icorge's River at night, etc, , .' 

Orders to Brigadier Preble to march to the mouth of Pau.segasawac- 

keag, a river that runs into Penobscot about thirty miles from (ieorge's. 

Ordered Lt. Small, a good Surveyor, to chain the whole 

way, and keep a field book. 

,,tl,. . . . Sent oft' Lt. Saunders in the Sloop Massa- 
chusetts to I'almoutli to convoy the Sloops with the Workmen and Ma- 
terials— Taking out of him into the King George all the Intrenching 

Sailed for Penobscot, took with me the two Brick Sloops, and 
Preble's Lighter, with 40 hogsheads of Lime, which I laded at Cieorges. 

Came to anchor off the Green Islands in Penobscot Bay. 

14th. .'\s cold as ever I had felt it all Winter. Came to Sail, and 
[ arrived just before Sunselt off the north of Pausegasewackeag River. 



iSth. At 4, P. M. Preble arrived, made his Signal, which I answered, 
and he raised his fourth Smoak. Sent for liim aboard. He reported 
to me by the Survey they had marched thirty miles and sixty-four Rod. 

i6th. . . . Sail'd, and about half past four p. M., got 
within about two miles, or a League of Wasaumkeag Point [in the 
present town of Prospect, at the mouth of Penobscot river. It is now 
known as Fort I'oint. Tlie name Wasaumkeag occurs only in Gov. 
Pownalls journal,] and tho' the Breeze strong enough to keep all the 
Sails, Topgallants and all sleeping, yet coud not stem the Torrent of 
the Tide, on the contrary the Ship under no command of the helm — 
whirled about at random, so that C'apt. Hallowell let go the kechger— 
made several attempts, but coud not make it do to-night, so came to 

The Sloop, Patterson, Master, with the Stores and Cannon, arrived 
in the River, but coud not get up to us. Sent two whaleboats, arm'd, 
to Guard her. 

17th. A Fresh Breeze. Sent off two whaleboats with twenty men 
to C'apt. Bean, with Orders to cross over to the Western Shore, and 
take Post on the Opposite Point [Sandy Point, north of Wasaumkeag 
Point J. After several Puzzles, got up into the Harbour within Wasaum- 
keag Point. . . . We landed and Reconnoitred the whole, 
and took post at the Point - and encamjied the men. 

Came again on board -after Dinner sent Preble to see the Carrying 
Place. — He reported to me that it was not above eighty rod across— 
Went again ashore. Ordered a Party to look out for water. Sent 
ashore all the a.\es for clearing. -For having thoroughly Reconnoitred 
this Point, as I never yet saw so well suited a Site for a Fort, so I 
iinagin'd I should not find one more proper throughout this River. 
However, made no Determination about fixing the Fort. 

i8ih. Daylight, ashore, Clearing. Ordered them to set about Dig- 
ging a well. Sent off l.t. Small to survey the whole Neck, Capt. 
Nichols, with the Pickets to Guard him. Order'd a Breast Work or 
Barricade to be made round the Camp. 

Had a Return of Water, three spiings— Gave Orders for clearing tliem 
and fixing barrels to them. 

P. M. Barricade almost finished. Orders to Brigadier Preble to 
send two OflSccrs and 40 men early next morning, with 20 axes to clear 
the carrying place about a Rod wide from side to side. One Officer 
with 20 men to keep Guard the other, with 20 to work, Spell and Spell 
— To compleal the Breast Work, and have a detachment of 150 choice 
men, ofiicers included, ready to embark at a minute's warning in Whale 
boats with three Days' Provisions. 

Finish the Hospital. 

19th. .Ashore at the Carrying Place. Found it clear'd so as to see 
from water to water. Order'd Capt. Bean to build a I-ogg Redoubt ac- 
cording to Form I gave him, with a Guard room in it for an Officer and 
25 men, and wlien compleated to 'come off, leaving such Guard there. 
-Sent ashore from the King George some Swivel Cohorns to fix on the 
Breast Work at the Camp. Went to the Camp. Found that the Wei 
Diggers had come to good Water. — Drank Punch made of it. Recon- 
noitred the Springs and the Point, looking a proper Scite for llie F'ort 
in case 1 determined to fix on this Point. 

At night Kt. Small relurn'd from the Survey. 

20th. Visited the Post at the Carrying place. Found Ll. I'reble had 
finished the Redoubt and Ciuard house which Capt. Bean began. 

Thence to Camp. Order'd the like avenue to be cut across the iioinl 
where 'tis narrowest, not above 70 rods, to have the same kind of Re- 
doubt and G\iard built there. 

'lliis executed in two hours' time. . . . In the afternoon 
Order'd a road to be cut about two Rods wide in a Direct Line East and 
West to avenue on tho narrow of the Point. 'I'iiis executed before 

24th. . . . I'pon this Reconnoitring the River, and find- 
ing no place e<iual to this Point of Wassaumkeag either for Defence by 
its Scite, being nowhere commanding, and on the contrary having avery 
great command of the River and the Passes near it, Determined this to 
be the place for the Fort, erected the Flag Staff, and hoisted the King's 
Colours with all the Ceremonies usual on such Occasions, adding Divine 
Service to beg God's Blessing, for unless the Lord builds the House, 
the Laborer worketh but in vain. 

25th. Ordered the Cellar and Foundation at the Fort to be com- 
pleated. [The location selected by Governor Pownall is twenty-five 
rods from the water's edge, and about the same distance from Fort 
Point Light house. J At evening buried Brigd. Waldo at the Point near 
the FKagg Staff, with the honours of War in our Power. 

26th. Saw the First Floor and Tier of timber laid, the cellai being 

Set out the Lines for a Parapett, Ditch, and Glacis. Gave Mr. Bur 
beck, whom I had appointed Engineer and Overseer, particular direc- 
tions in what manner to compleat the Works in each Part, as the 
Ground lay and showed him it on the spot. 

About noon left Wasumkeag, and went in the sloop Massachusetts to 
Pentaget, with Capt. Cargill and 20 men. 

27th. Next day to Cape Ann. Next day, about Sunset, 28th to 
Castle William. 

The fort was completed July 6, 1759. The General 
Court, on the loth of June, voted to call the fortificatioa 
Fort Pownall, in honor of the Governor. A garrison was 
constantly maintained at this fort until the Revolutionary 
War. In 1775, Mowett, with a British man of war, dis- 
mantled the fort, by removing all the guns and ammuni- 
tion, and in July of the same year. Colonel CargiU, of 
New Castle, burned the block-house and all the wooden 
works to the ground, fearing that they would be occupied 
by the enemy to the prejudice of the neighboring inhab- 
itants. The ruins of Fort Pownall are now distinctly 
visible in front of the Fort Point Hotel, and the remains 
of the breastworks are quite prominent. /Ml traces of 
the buildings, e.xcept one excavation and a few stones, 
have disa])peared. 

The importance of this work to the future of Maine 
can hardly be overestimated. Judge Godfrey says in his 
Address at the Bangor Centennial: 

In consequence of this act of Governor Pownall, the territory between 
the Penobscot and the St. Croix rivers was embraced in the territory of 
the United States under the Treaty of Paris of 1783. Had it not been 
for this act of occupation, the country east of the Penobscot river would 
at this time ha\e been, probably, a part of the Province of New Bruns- 


was attended by few stirring incidents in the valley ot 
the Penobscot, whither comparatively few settlers had 
yet ventured. No doubt some of the brave men of " Ken- 
duskeag Plantation," of " New Worcester," and of Ham- 
den smelt British gunpowder during the patriotic 
struggles; but we have not been able to obtain their roll 
of honor. It is known that a company of twenty white 
men and ten Indians — the latter from the Tarratines, 
whose services were offered to the Massachusetts Govern- 
ment by Orono and other chiefs — served and that Andrew 
(iilman was their lieutenant commanding, and Joseph 
Mansell orderly sergeant. This, says Judge Godfrey, 
"was the first military organization, and a rude fort, at 
the angle of the roads just above Mount Hope, was their 
headquarters. They acted as rangers until the British 
occupied Bagaduce or Casline, in 1779. 

Nor was the right feeling altogether wanting in the 
valley of the Penobscot, although some of its people 
afterwards proved recreant to tho Revolutionary cause. 
Mr. F^^lihu Hewes, writing from " Wheelersborough " 
(Hampden) to the lamented Dr. Warren, president of the 
Provincial Congress, June 9, 1775, stoutly said: 

The people here, I am confident, will support it [tiie cause of the 
colonists] to the last moment of their lives, being willing in general to 
encounter any difficulty, [rather] than to yield to that Band of Tyranny 
whose plodding pates have long projected methods to enslave us. 

At least two of the patriots in this quarter suffered 
shar[)ly for his [Principles. Mr. Joseph Page, a native of 
Rhode Island, who lived during some part of the Revo- 
lution near Mount Hope, refused to take the oath of al- 

Residence of A, F. BRADBURY, Dexter, Maine. 



legiance to the English crown, and was driven off, his 
house burnt, and his stock stolen by the red-coated min- 
ions of King George. James Nichols, at Eddington 
Bend, also had his house burned for the same reason. 
A few others took the oath, and found employment at 
small wages among the British at Castine, where some of 
the patriots were also compelled to labor. 

The principal events affecting the Penobscot country 
occurred on the peninsula of Castine, whence the British 
dominated this entire region during the latter half of the 
war. Mr. Williamson thus narrates the Uiajor part of the 
story, in the second volume of his History, under date of 
the year 1779: 

General McLane and al^out nine hundred men, embarking at Halifax, 
and attended iiy a fleet of seven or eight sail, proceeded to the peninsula 
of major biguyduce. called "Biguyduce Neck," (now Castine), and 
landed, June 12, without opposition. They immediately cleared away 
the trees and underwood, and began to m.ike prej^arations for erecting 
a fortification upon the high ground in the central part of the penin- 
sula. Its form was rectangular or square with a bastion at each angle; 
and its outlines were so drawn as to embrace an area large enough to 
admit of a block-house in the centre, constructed with apartments for 
the officers and barracks for the soldiery. It was intended to environ 
the embankment with a deep moat and secure it by pickets. Three 
sloops-of-\var, under Captain H. Mowett, of detested memory, were as- 
signed to this station: and the rest of the fleet in a kw days left liie 

Partaking largely of the general alarm, Brigadier-General Cushing 
of Pownalborough, addressed a letter on the 24th to the Gen- 
eral Court, then in session, advising an immediate expedition to dis- 
lodge the invaders, before they had time to entrench themselves. The 
important subject had already been considered by that body, and 
directions were forthwith given the Board of W'ar to engage or employ 
such armed vessels. State or National, as could be procured and pre- 
pared to sail in six days; to cliarter, or, if necessary, to impress in the 
harbors of Boston, Salem, Beverly, and Newburyport, a number of 
private armed vessels, belonging to individuals, competent, wl'.en joined 
with the others, for the enterprise; to promise the owners a fair com- 
pensation for all losses and damages they might sustain ; to allow 
seamen the pay aiul rations of those in the Continental service; and to 
procure the necessary outfits and provisions with all possible despatch. 
Also the Executive Council ordered Cushing and Thompson, brigadiers 
of the militia in Lincoln and Cumberland, to detach severally six hun- 
dred men, and form them into two regiments for a campaign of two 
months, subserjuent to tlieir arrival in the Penobscot, and to avoid, 
in any event, the failure of having a sufficient force, Brigadier-General 
Frost was directed to detail three hundred men from the Vtjrk militia, 
for the purpose of a reinforcement. 

The supjilies and munitions of war provided were g tons of flour and 
bread, to of rice, and loof salt beef; 1,200 gallons of rum and molasses, 
in equal quantities: 500 stands of arms; 50,000 musket i^artridges with 
balls, 2 i8-pounders. with 200 rounds of cartridges: 39-pounders. with 
300 rounds; 4 field-pieces; 6 barrels of gunpowder, and a sufticiency of 
axes, spades, tents, and camp utensils. 

The fleet consisted of rg armed vessels and 24 transports. If it 
were in grade comparatively a flotilla, one more beautiful had never 
floated in the li.astern waters. It carried in all 344 guns. At the head 
of the armament was the Warren, a fine new Continental frigate of 32 
guns, 18 and 12-pounders. Of tlie others there were 9 ships, 6 brigs, 
and 3 sloops. 

The command was entrusted to Richard Saltonstall, of New Haven, 
in Connecticut — a man of good capacity and of some naval ex]K'ri- 
ence, but of an obstinate disposition. His officers were chiefly com- 
manders of privateers, severally bound on a cruise as soon as the expe- 
dition was at an end. There were, besides sailors, between three and 
four hundred marines and soldiers on board, when tlie fleet sailed from 
Massachusetts; and the transports were to take on board twelve hun- 
dred detailed militiamen and volunteers from Thompson's and Cush- 
ing's brigades. One hundred men had actually embarked at Boston, 
who belonged to Lieutenant-Colonel Revere's celebrated battalion of 
State troops, in that vicinity. The command of the land forces was 
given to Solomon Lovell. of Weymouth, at that time brigadier-general 
of the .Suffolk niiliti.i. He was by profession an agriculturist, and in 

the militia an officer of high repute. He was a man of courage and 
proper spirit, a true old Roman character, that would never flinch 
from danger; but he had not been accustomed to tlie command of an 
expedition in actual service. The second in command was Peleg 
Wadsworth, at that time the adjutant-general of the Massachusetts 
militia. He had been in actual service, an aid-de-camp to Major-Gen- 
eral Ward, .and commandant of a militia regiment from Essex to 
Rhode Island, in the expedition under General Sullivan at the time of 
his action there with the enemy. The ordnance was entrusted to the 
superintendence of Lieutenant-Colonel Revere. The expedition was 
put in motion by Massachusetts, though with the knowledge of Con- 
gress; and hence a draft was m.ade upon the State treasury for ^50,000 
to defray the expenses, exclusive of the provisions which the merchants 
in Newburyport and .Salem supplied for six of the fleet two months. 

With so much celerity had this expedition been prepared and put in 
motion that the whole force made its appearance July 25th, in Penob- 
scot. But a distinguished officer has said that, though the Govern- 
ment had ordered out at least 12,000 of the militia, we had less than 
1,000 men — about the number of the enemy. They were undis- 
ciplined troops, having been paraded together only once, and this was 
at Townshend, their place of rendezvous, while the vessels were 
detained in the harbor by a head-wind. They were, however, brave 
and spirited men, willing to encounter the enemy; and had circum- 
stances justified an attack, they would without doubt have done their 
duty manfully. 

General McLane, having heard of the .■American fleet four days be- 
foie its arrival, used every exertion to render his fortification defensible. 
Yet he was ill-prepared to receive a visit from an enemy. Two of the 
intended bastions were not begun; the other two were in no place above 
five feet high; many parts of the ditch did not exceed three feet in 
depth; there was no platform laid nor artillery mounted; and therefore, 
when he had the news of a meditated attack, he employed his troops 
day and night upon the works. Still he was fully aware of his weak 
condition; consequently, as soon as our fleet made its appearance, he 
despatched a messenger with the intelligence to Halifax. 

Nothing was attempted on tlie 2nd day after arrival, owing to the 
surf occasioned by a brisk wind from the South. But early in the morn- 
ing of the 3d day, July 28th, it being calm and foggy, our vessels were 
drawn up in a line beyond the reach of musket-shot from the enemy; and 
200 of the militia and 200 of the marines were ordered into theboatsfrom 
the ship[)ing, ready at the signal to push for the shore. Mowett had taken 
a judicious position, which enabled him to command the mouth of the 
harbor and prevent a landing on the southerly side of the peninsula. 
A trench had been transversely cut nearly across the isthmus at the 
northward, which severed the neck from the main and secured the 
liasses in that ciuarter. No landing could be affected, except on the 
western side, which was a precipice 200 feet high, steep, and extremely 
ditticult of access; also there was a line of the enemy posted upon the 
cliffs or heights, who opened a brisk fire upon us (as an .American offi- 
cers tales), just as our boats reached the shore. We,stepped out, and 
they were immediately sent back. From the enemy's shipping there 
now a stream of fire over our heads, and from the top of the cliffs a 
shower of musketry in our faces. We soon found the summit at this 
jilace inaccessible, and we divided into three parties; one defiloyed to 
the right and one to the left, in search of a practicable ascent, the cen- 
tre keeping up an unceasing fire to distract the attention of the enemy. 
Both parties succeeded in gaining the heights; yet, closing upon the en- 
emy in the rear rather too soon gave them a chance to escape, and 
they fled, leaving thirty killed, wounded, and taken. The conflict was 
short but sharp, for we lost one hundred out of four hundred men on ■ 
the shore and Imnk, the marines suffering most as they forced their 1 
way up the precipice. The engagement lasted only twenty minutes, an 
would have been highly ajiplauded, had success finally attended the 
expedition. There was not, in fact, a more brilli.ant exploit of itsel 
than this, during the war. We next threw up some slight fortifications 
within seven hundred yards of the enemy's main works. 

A council of war was called of the land and naval officers the same 
morning. The former were for summoning the garrison to surrender, 
offering them honorable terms; but the Commodore and most of his 
officers were ojiposed to the measure. It was next proposed to storm 
(he fort; but as the marines had suffered so severely in effecting a land- 
ing, the Commodore refused to disembark any more of them, and 
even threatened to recall those on shore. Our force was thought in- 
sufficient to drive the enemy from the fort; and the assistance wanted 
iwas communicated to Government by special messengers, sent in 
whale-boats to Boston. On application to General Gates, then com- 
nianding at Providence, he detached Colonel Jackson's regiment of 



Continental troops as a re-enforcement, who were stopped at Fal- 

In the meantime General Lovell reduced the enemy's outworks and 
batteries, took several field pieces, and by indefatigable labor every 
night upon zigzag intrenchnicnts, ai)proached within fair gunshot of 
the garrison; so that a man seldom in daylight showed his head above 
the enemy's works. It afterwards fully ascertained that General 
McLane prepared to capitulate, if a surrender had been demand- 
ed. But .Saltonstall was self-willed and unreasonable. He and the 
General disagreeing as to the plan of operations, added one more to 
thousands of fatalities incident to dissension. Wadsworth was the 
best officer on the ground. He urged upon General Lovell the cspe- 
diency of kcei)ing open a good retreat, as one of the first maxims Of 
war. For this purpose he chose a place on the west bank of the river, 
near the Narrows, below the of Orphan Island, and recommend- 
ed the establishment of some works there, whither "our men might 
retreat should there be necessity, or make a stand in case of pursuit." 
But Lovell opposed this, alleging that it would dishearten our troops, 
or rather evince to them "our own despair of success." 

A fortnight's time gave the British every advantage, tiencral Mc- 
Lane, by skilful industry and jjerseverance, filled the gorge of one bas- 
tion with logs, surrounded the other with fascines and earth ten 
feet thick, laid a platform and mounted .several cannon, environed the 
fort with a kind of chevuiix dii /rise, and enclosed the whole with an 
abatis. At intervals Commodore .Saltonstall mancj;uvred to enter the 
harbor, and day by day renewed a cannonade from tlie shipping. On 
the land, too, there were fre()uent and fruitless skirmishes, occasioned 
principally by reason of Lovell's exertions to cut ofif all communication 
between McLane and Mowett. In the midst of their solicitude, a de_ 
serter Informed McLane that his camp and Mowett's vessels were to 
be attacked the next day by the whole .American force. Had the 
attempt been essayed two days earlier, it might have met with brilliant 
success. But the fortunate day had passed; and little else remained to 
the .Americans than disaster. 

A s])y-vcssel brought Lovell news, .August 13th, that a British flecj 
of seven sail was in the outer waters of I'enobscot Bay, standing in 
towards the peninsula. A retreat was immediately ordered by General 
Lovell, and conducted during the night by General Wadsworth with 
so much silence and skill that the whole of the American troops were 
embarked undiscovered. As the British scjuadron entered the harbor 
the next morning, it was found to consist of a large man-of-war, a 
frigate, two ships, two brigs, and a sloop, commanded by .Sir George 
Collier, ten days from .Sandy Hook, near Halifax, and carrying 200 
guns and 1,500 men. 

Saltonstall drew up his fleet in the form of a crescent, with the 
apparent design of maintaining his position; though, in fact, for the 
purpose of checking the enemy's advance till the land forces on board 
the transports could be conveyed to some places of safety or retreat up 
the river or upon the western shores. Confident of his entire superior- 
ity. Sir (Jeorge advanced without delay and poured in upon his enemy 
a heavy broadside, which threw the American fleet into confusion and 
caused a disorderly (light. Most of the transports retreated up the 
river; several went ashore at the foot of the narrows, fioiii which the 
men took some ijrovisions; and after landing and setting the vessels 
on fire, four companies collected and were led off by General Wads- 
worth to Camden. Others, against a strong tide, were able to ascend 
the river. 

A general chase and indiscriminate destruction ensued. The Hunt- 
er and Defiance, endeavoring to get by the head of Long Island 
[Islcsborough] to sea, through the western passage, were intercepted, 
and the Hunter ran ashore with every sail standing; which, after a 
smart skirmish between her crew and Lieutenant Maekey with a party 
of fifty men from the Raisonable, fell into their hands. The Defiance 
hid herself in a small creek, where her crew, finding the Camilla was 
n search for her, blew her up about midnight. The Sky Rocket met 
the same fate from her crew, near Fort Point Ledge. The brig Active 
was burnt off Brigadier's Island. The residue of the fleet, by means 
of oars and studding sails all set. also the transports, made good their 
retreat into Marsh Bay, closely pursued by the British squadron. Here 
the Hampden, being overtaken, surrendered; and at the same time 
prizes were made of the Nancy and the Rover. The frigate Warren 
was committed to the flames by her crew at Oak Cove, half a league 
above Fiankfort village. The Gen. Putnam and the Vengeance, hav- 
ing ascended still higher, were Ixirnt ojiijosite Hampden. The others, 
being the Monmouth, Sally, Black I'rince, Hazard, Diligence, Tyran- 
nicide, Providence Sloop, Spring Bird. Hector, and several transports, 

ascended to places above and just below the mouth of the Kendus- 
keag, where they were all blown up or set on fire by their own crews, 
to prevent their falling into the possession of the enemy. 

A prodigious wreck of property, a dire eclipse of reputation, and 
universal chagrin, were the fruits of this expedition, in the promotion 
of which there had licen such an exalted display of public spirit, both 
by the Government and individuals. Our whole loss of men was prob- 
.ably not less than 150; that of the enemy 85. So great pecuniary 
damage at this critical period of the war, and of the .State finances 
was a severe misfortune. In short, the whole connected was suffi- 
ciently felt; for it filled the country with grief as well as murmurs. 

The officers and men, landing at different places on the western 
shores of the river, among inhabitants few, scattered, and indigent, 
immediately took up their match westward, through a wild and track- 
less country, thirty leagues or more, as they travelled it, to the first set- 
tlements upon the river Kennebec. Guided by Indians, they pro- 
ceeded in detached parties, suffering every privation. For, not being 
aware of the journey and fatigue which they had to encounter, they 
had taken with them provisions altogether insufficient: and some who 
were infirm or feeble actually jjcrished in the woods. A moose or 
other animal was occasionally killed, which, being roasted upon coals, 
was the most precious if not the only morsel many of them tasted 
during the latter half of their travels. 

A Court of Inquiry into the conduct of this most un- 
fortunate expedition was ordered by the Massachusetts 
Legislature, which found that "the princijial reason of 
the failure was the want of proper spirit and energy on 
the part of the Commodore." Saltonstall was accord- 
ingly cashiered, and rendered ever after incompetent to 
hold a commission in the service of the State. The 
conduct of Generals 1 .ovell and Wadsworth was ap- 
proved and they were honorably ac(piitted. The cost of 
the expedition added very seriously to the burdens of 
the State. 

Among the British officers at Castine during the affair 
was a young lieutenant who was afterwards the hero of 
Corunna, Sir John Moore, so celebrated in song and 

Ten of the vessels, says Judge Godfrey, or about half 
the whole number that entered the river, reached the site 
of Bangor, and were blown up by their crews near the 
mouth of the Kenduskeag. .\n attempt was made about 
thirty years afterwards, Ijy one Clifford, to secure pro|)- 
erty from the wrecks by means of a diving-bell. /\ccord- 
ing to "Remarks relative to the Settlement of Bangor," 
made many years ago by Jacob McGaw, esq., he ob- 
tained "less than thirty of the cannon and a few tons of 
balls from the bed of the river. When first exposed to 
the air, the iron of the guns was so soft that it could be 
about as easily cut with a knife as a common lead pencil, 
and then it entirely resembled black lead in appearance. 
On each succeeding day it became so much harder as to 
be entirely impervious to the knife in four or five days of 

A very neat manuscript copy, made in 1S46 by Mr. 
George VV. Snow, of a book published in London in 
1781, and of which but one copy was known to be in 
existence, is in the library of the Mci^hanics' Association 
in liangor. Its principal title is "The Siege of Penob- 
scot by the Rebels," and its author was John C'alef, esq., 
a volunteer in the British forces there engaged. A "post- 
script" gives a brief but interesting account of the Pen- 
obscot country, from which we make some extracts 
elsewhere. The same work has been published in Dr. 
Wheeler's History of Castine, as an appendix. 



The remains of the British earthworks, upon the 
heights of the peninsula of Castine, hack of the village, 
are still remarkably well preserved. 

THE \V.\R OF 1812-15. 

]',)• this time the valley of the Penobscot was able to 
turn out from its numerous settlements a considerable 
contingent o( hiave soldiery, to do battle for the rising 
Republic. This war, largely upon and near the sea, the 
people of Maine, whose habitations were mostly by the 
seaboard, or within easy reach of it, shared fully in the 
hazards and dangers of the conflict. Their services 
were consequently volunteered in numbers to the (lov- 
ernment, especially upon occasion of an inroad by the 
enemy. 'I'lie affairs on the river in early September, 
1 814, drew out most of the militia, who participated in 
the war. The following rolls of participants from this 
region are preserved in the office of the Adjutant-Cieneral 
at .-Vugusta : 

l;kli;.\l)K AMI srATF officers in service at and near IIAMl'DEN, 

Jijlin Blake,, First Brigade, Brewer. 

diaries Blal<e. (|uarlermaster, Brewer. 

Francis Carr, jr., aide-de-camp, liangor. 

Elijah B. Goodridge, aide-de-camp, Bangor. 

Charles Ulmer, aide-de-camp, Hampden. 

John Crosby, jr., quartermaster, Hampden. 

(The last two were not called into actual service). 


Roll of the field and staff of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Andrew Grant's Regiment of Militia, being the Third 
regiment. First brigade, and Tenth division in service at 
and near Hamjiden, from ist to 4th September, 1814. 

Andrew Grant, lieutenant-colonel, Hamptlen. 
Joshua Chamberlain, major, I-irewer. 
Rufus Gilmore, adjutant. 
Enoch Mudge, chaplain, Orrington. 
Edmund Abbott, surgeon's mate, Frankfort. 
Cyrus Brewer, quartermaster, Orrington, 
Andrew Tyler, jr., paymaster, Frankfort, 

Roll of Captain Peter Newcomb's company of militia 
in Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Crant's regiment, raised 
in Hampden, and in service there and vicinity from the 
I St to the 3d of September, 18 14: 


Captain Peter Newcomb, Hampden. 
Lieutenant Jonathan Knowles, Hampden. 
Ensign Stephen Dabbor, Hampden. 


Sergeant Allen Rogers. 

Sergeant Joshua .Sparrow. 

Sergeant J osiah Ware. 

Sergeant Jonathan Kendall. 

Musician Thomas Williams. 


Ebenezer Atwood, Jeremiah Baker, Sanborn Hlaisdell, Samuel H. 
Cobb, Dennis Doan, .Amos Doan, Edward Doan, James Dunton, 
Robert Dunning, Benjamin Emerson, Jonas Emery, William I-anery, 
N.athan Emerson, John Gould, Austin Harding, William Higgins, 
Benjamin Hopkins, James Hopkins, Josiah Hopkins, Misha Higgins, 
Abiather Knowles, Bryant Linning, John Murch, Joseph ^Layo, James 
Mayo, jr., Joseph Myrick, Nathaniel Mayo, jr., Simeon Mayo, Thomas 
Mayo, Israel Mayo, jr. , Reuben Myrick, David Piper, Benjamin Porter, 
Asa Porter, Samuel I'alton, John Perkins, Francis Rider, Richard 
Stublis, Eben Stubbs, Edward .Stubbs, Henry Smith, Freeman Snow, 
William Snow, Barker Turner, Andrew Tarr, Samuel Webber, Aaron 
Wiley, jr,, John Ward, Bartlelt West. 

Roll of Captain Warren Ware's company of militia 
in Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Grant's regiment, raised 
in Orrington and in service at Hampden and vicinity 
from the 2d to the 4th of Sej)tember, 18 14: 


Cai^t.iin Warren Ware, Orrington. 


Sergeant .Simon Fowler. 
Sergeant 'I'heophilus Nickerson. 
Sergeant John Brook. 
.Sergeant Warren Nickerson. 


Jesse .'\twood, jr., Benjamin Atwood, Nathaniel Baker, Richard 
Baker, David Baker, Doan Boddersliall, Frederick Boddershall, Amasa 
Bartlett, Joseph Doane, Nathaniel Dyer, Ephraim Doane, William 
Doane, Phinehas Downs, Elihu Dole, Seth Eldridge, Hezekiah Eld- 
ridge, jr., Thomas Freeman, James Freeman, jr., Nathaniel Gould, jr. 
Ephraim Hopkins, Jesse Harden, Kent, William Kent, 
Richard Kent, William Marston, John Nickerson, Eliphalet Nicker- 
son, Paul Nye, David Pierce, Nathaniel Pierce, Cyrus Rice, Stephen 
Rider, Joseph Rooks, .Samuel Rider, jr., .Atkins Rider, Henry Rogers, 
Smith Rogers, Richard Rider, Ephraim Snow, Joseph Snow, Daniel 
Snow, Harvey C. Snow. S.amuel Severance, Reuben Severance, John 
Severance, Zenas Smitli, William M. Vorrill, Edward Weeks, Ebenezer 
Wheddon, John Willard, John Wintwooth, Thomas Wiswell. 

Roll of Caj)tain Samuel IJutman's company of mili- 
tia in Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Grant's regiment, 
raised in Dixmont and in service at and near Hamjiden, 
31st August to 3d September, 1814. 


Captain Samuel Butman, Dixmont. 
Lieutenant Richard P. Clarkson, Dixmont. 
Ensign Frederick A. Butnam, Dixmont. 


Sergeant Edmund Wingate. 

Sergeant John Chadbourn. 

Sergeant Lemuel Drake. 

Sergeant Jonathan Ferguson. 

Sergeant Benjamin Porter. 

Corporal William Ferguson. 

Corporal Nathaniel Hanscomb. 

Corporal John Odell. 

Corporal Simeon Obron. 


Joseph Basford, Henry Baker, Jonathan Basford, John Barker, Ste- 
phen Barker, John Buckman, jr., Moses Chick, George Cook, George 
Craig, James Cook, Eliphalet Chase, Stephen Carl, Samuel Dodge, Jo- 
seph Emery, Timothy Freeman, Edmund Ferreld, Ira Goodhue, John 
Garland, Reuben Goospeed, Benjamin Godfrey, Samuel Higgins, Da- 
vid Johnson, David Johnson 2d, Jeremiah McKansiek, John Mitch- 
ell, Charles Mitchell, Milby Mitchell, Christopher Mitchell, George 
Morse, Nathaniel Mudgett, Edmund Mudgett, Abraham Mudgett, 
Barnet Morse, James W. Merrill, David Porter, Tyler Porter, Da- 
vid Pierce, Samuel Pierce, Richard .Staples, John .Smith, Elijah Smith, 
Rowland Taylor, Ebenezer Fasker, John Thurston, Cornelius Williams, 
Joseph York, Stephen York. 

Roll of Captain James Patton's company of militia 
in Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Grant's regiment, raised 
in Hampden and in service there and vicinity, from ist 
to 3d September, 1814. 


Captain James Patton, Hampden. 
Lieutenant Abel Ruggat, Hampden. 
Ensign John Miller, Hampden. 


Sergeant Robert Miller, jr. 
Sergeant William Potter, jr. 
Sergeant Nathaniel Gelvin. 
.Sergeant Richard Gelvin. 



John Ulagdon, Samuel Benson, Selh Cole, George Cowin, Jonallian 
Cowan, Jacob Cowan, John Dunham, George Dunham, Jesse Dun- 
ham, Stephen Emerson, Wilder Johnson, Daniel Emerson, Samuel 
Fanium, I'etcr Goolin, Asa Hunt, Ehsha Hewes, David Hewes, Ehene- 
zer C. Hinkley, Erancis Jennis, Timothy Miller, Benjamin Miller, 
Henry Miller, James Miller, Andrews Pomeroy, John I'alton, 2d, 
William I'omeroy, Daniel I'ickard, William V. Reed, John Kol.binson, 
Isaae Robliinson, Jeremiah Swan, James Taylor, Joseph Pomeroy, jr. 

Roll of ('ajitain John Emery's comjMny of militia in 
Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Grant's regiment, raised in 
llanijiden, service there ist to 3d September, 1814. 

COMMISSION!:!-) OI'l-!Cl-:!iS. 

Captain John ICmery, jr., llamixlen. 
Eieulenant William H. Reeil, Hampden. 
Ensign Daniel Einei'y. 


Sergeant Samuel Libby. 
Sergeant Jacob Jones. 
Sergeant Daniel Grant. 
Sergeant Bangs Young. 
Musician Simeon Stone. 
Musician Zenas Dexter. 
Musician Benjamin Higgins. 


Solomon Covell, William Cobb, Williain Cornish, Jesse S. Dean, 
James Dudley, Ereeiuan Dean, Isaiah Dean, Amos Dow, William 
Flagg, Allen Hopkins, Seth Higgins, Reed Harding, Benjamin Hardy, 
Cyrus Higgins, Lemuel Hamilton, Samuel K. Jones, Hawes Mayo, jr.^ 
Walter Murch, Solomon Myrick, Arad H. Pomeroy, John Perkins, 
John Rodgers, Daniel Smith, John Smith, Micajah Snow, Reuben 
Young, Zebulon Young, jr. 

MAJOR George's battalion. 
Field and staff roll of Major Thomas George's bat- 
talion of militia taken from Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Whiting's regiment, being the Fourth regiment, First 
brigade. Tenth division, and in service at and near 
Hampden, 2d to 4th September, 1814. 


Major Thomas George, Brewer. 
Adjutant Thomas Carr, jr., Bangor. 

Roll of Captain Solomon Blake's company of militia 

in KLijor Thomas (leorge's battalion, raised in Brewer 

and in service at and near Hampden 2d to 4th September, 



Ca]>tain Solomon Blake, Brewer. 
Lieutenant Emmons Kingsbury, Brewer. 
Ensign Charles Levins, Brewer. 


Sergeant William Copeland. 
Sergeant Joseph Copeland. 
Musician Davis Silby. 
Musician Benjamin Farrington. 
Musician F.zekiel Mcro. 


Billings Blake, Charles Blake, .Alanson Burr, Sanborn BlasdcU, Abi- 
jah C^impbell, Benjamin Coombs, Rossel Fish, Elias Field, Alexander 
A. Fisher, Daniel Farrington, Silas Farrington, Peter Field, Jacob 
Hart, jr., Russell Hart, Calvin Ilolbrook, F.lijah Jones, Nathan Kings- 
bury, Jacob Marr, Loring Pond, Jeremiah Truworthy, Levi Torrener, 
Augustine White, Benjamin Winchester, Charles Winchester. 

Roll of ('a|)tain Lot Rider's comi)any of militia in 
Major Thomas George's battalion, raised in ]'',ddington, 
and in service at and near Hampden 2d to 4th Septem- 
bei', 1 8 14. 

Captain Lot Rider, Eddington. 
Lieutenant John Holyoke, Eddington. 


Sergeant William Rider. 
Sergeant Joseph Severance. 
Musician Asa Howard. 


Mollis Bond, Williain Brown, Lemuel Cobb, Ephraim Johnson' 
Daniel Johnson, David Lovell, Benjamin Snow, Daniel .Stearns, Benja- 
min Severance, P.enjamin Tainter, Israel Snow, John Tibbets, Benjamin 
Weed, Jonathan W'ood. 

Roll of Captain Daniel \Vebster's company of militia 
in Major Thomas George's battalion, raised in Orono, 
and in service at and near Hampden 2d to 4th Sej)- 
tember, 1814. 


Captain Daniel Webster, Orono. 
Lieutenant Robert McPhihe, Orono. 


Sergeant Lynde Valentine. 
Serge.ant Robert Boyd. 
Sergeant Mark M. Burns. 
Sergeant Elijah Webster. 
Musician John Hock. 
Musician Sasson Weston. 


Samuel G. Adams, Joseph W. Boynton, Nathaniel Boynton, Robert 
Boynton, John Clark, Daniel Dresser, Gideon Dutton, .Samuel Free- 
man, Allen Freeman, Henry George, Silas Hartshorn, 2d, Joseph 
Hartshorn, Richard McGrath, David Hartshorn, 2d, Josiah Hartshorn 
David Hartshorn, Ashbel Hartshorn, John Howard, John Ham, Ed- 
ward S. Jarvis, Jolin Kenney, Daniel Lambert. Joseph Lambert, John 
Lancaster, Levi Lancaster, Thomas D. Liscom, Stephen Perkins, 
W'illiam Randall, Isaac Spencer, Warren Thompson, John Webster, 
.Andrew Cross. 

Roll of Captain Timothy Sibley's company of militia in 
Major Thomas George's battalion, raised in Eddington 
and in service at and near Hampden 2d to 4th Septem- 
ber, 1814. 


Captain Timothy Sibley, Eddington. 
Lieutenant Samuel Call, Eddington. 


Sergeant Billings Clap. 
Sergeant Eleazer Eddy. 
Sergeant Jesse Cousins. 


James Anderson, Joel Burton, Joshua Butler, Benjamin Barnes, David 
Burton, Bradley Blackman, .Abraliani Chick, jr., Allen Crane, Moses 
Collins, Daniel Collins, Charles Comins, Joseph Davis, Randal Doug- 
lass, Stephen Grant, jr., Judin Grant, Lemuel Gulliver, Thomas Gulli- 
ver, Nehemiah Goodwin, Cyrus Jones, Moses Knapp, Joseph Little, 
William Lancaster, James Nichols, Ephraim Oliver, Elijah Oreutt, 
John Oreutt, Benjamin Penney, Elisha Rowe, Ebenezer Raviel, Benja- 
min Spencer, Moses Spencer, Isaac Spencer, Andrews Spencer, Caleb 
Stockwell, Benjamin F. Sibley. 

Roll of a detached company of militia of Capt. Joshua 
Chamberlain, taken from the Third regiment. First brig- 
ade, Tenth division, stationed at Eastjiort, nth to 31st 
of August, 1 8 1 2, under command of Lt. Col. Oliver Shead. 


Captain Joshua Chamberlain, Brewer, 
Lieutenant Peter Newcomb, Brewer. 
I'^nsign Samuel l'>eeman. Brewer. 


Sergeant Robert Thompson. 
Sergeant Daniel Nickerson. 
Sergeant Joshua Sparrow. 
.Sergeant Samuel Hamilton. 



Corporal Emery Bradbury. 
Corporal John Rooks. 
Corporal William Keiulail. 
Corporal John Salioiirns. 
Musician Zeros Dexter. 
Musician Jeremiah liaker. 


William Bowden, William Bolard, Solomon Bolton, Daniel Buzzel, 
Abner Chase, David Colson, Daniel G, Chadborn, George Cragie, John 
Chadborn, James Clark, James Curtis, John Corillord, Richard Cave, 
Seth Cole, William Cobb, David Dyer, Isaac Dunbar, Jacob Dearborn, 
Obed Dean, Robert Dean, William Dean, Gordon Fisher, Samuel 
Frost, Thomas Freeman, Richard Garland, lilihu Hewes, Josiah Hig- 
gins. John'IIarris, Nathaniel Henderson, David Jackson, William Jack- 
son, Al)itlia Knowles, David Kenneston, Levi Kenney, Edward Ken- 
ney, Benjamin Lowell, Ephraim Lowde, Davis Merrill, lienjamin 
Melvin, Elisha Furbush, George Mansa, Joseph Mayo, Levi Mudget, 
Matthew McDonald, Nathaniel Mudget, Thiimas Milliken, Isaac Milli- 
ken. Waller Murch, William Michaels, B.enjamin Marry. James Nutter, 
John Odell, William I'umroy, Seth Pratt, Silas Putnam. David Rice, 
Samuel Rhines, Benjamin Spooner, David Smith, Eldad Stubbs, Joseph 
Smith, Lemuel Smith, Henry C. Snow, Ebenezer Stubbs, John B. 
Turner, William West. 

The following new names appear upon the roll of this 
company for service at Eastport, Sept. i to Dec 31, 181 2, 
"in Maj. Jacob Ulmer's Battalion": 

Musician Mark Fernald. 
William Jepson. 

Roll of a detached company of militia, of ('apt. Thos. 
H. George, taken from the Fourth regiment. First brig- 
ade, Tenth division, stationed at Eastport from loth to 
31st August, ]8i2, under command Lt. Col. Oliver Shead. 


Captain Thomas George, Brewer. 
Lieutenant Lot Rider, Brewer. 
Ensign Joseph P.ridgerhorni. 


Sergeant James W'ebster. 
Sergeant James Jackman. 
Sergeant Daniel Kimball. 
Sergeant Daniel Burt. 
Corporal James Dunning. 
Corporal James .Anderson. 
Corporal .Abraham Chick. 
Corporal Levi Torrence. 
Musician John Allen. 
Musician Clark Pease. 


William Butler, Edw.ard Black, Moses Bridges, Josiah Clark, Bick- 
more Chamberlain, David R. Carter, Samuel Coggins, Isaac Carter, 
Benjamin Clay, George Clay, Randal Douglass, John Davis, Joseph 
Dunham, Hezekiah Dodge, William Dodge, William Eddy, .Stephen 
Ellis, James Couhard, James Freethy, Elijah Grant, James Gross, .Albert 
W. Godfrey, John Gray, .Aaron Gray, John G.age, Thomas Gillpatrick, 
Jonathan Hutchins, Amos Herrick, John G. Heath, Jonathan Heath, 
William Holt, Ebenezer Johnson, John Jackman, Thomas Low, Reu- 
ben McCaslin. .Adam Coffin, William McPhetors, Eli Oakes, Joseph 
Page, Joel Preston, Isa.ic Pishon, James Phillips, .Allen Quinon, Isaac 
Smith, Joseph Severance, John Tibbets, William Tozer, Morey Fumon, 
Ichabod Tibbetts, John Wilson, William White. 

The following new names appear upon the roll of 
this company for service at Eastport and vicinity Sept. i 
to Dec. 31, 1812, in "Maj. Jacob Ulmer's Battalion": 

Privates William Ames, Buckman Chandler, Thomas More, .Adam 
McCaslin, Seth Thompson, Willian McPherson, 2d. 

These two companies of militia, under command of 
Maj. Philip Ulmer, were detached from the brigade of 
General Blake, upon the Penobscot, and were relieved 
by regular troops after a few months' service. July ir, 
1814, the fort and garrison at Eastport were surrendered 
to a superior force of British,Vhich appeared with a fleet 

from Halifax. .\ few weeks later, further hostile move- 
ments along the coast awakening alarm, Col. Foote, of 
Camden, ordered into the field the greater part of his 
regiment of militia, and a detachment was drawn from 
the militia of liangor and vicinity, to strengthen the gar- 
rison of regular troops at Castine. The British descent 
upon the Penobscot came all too soon. Mr. Williamson, 
near the close of his History of Maine, relates the stirring 
events of this period at length in the following terms: 

To supply the troops at Halifax with provisions, for which they were 
suffering. Captain Barrie, in the Dragon, of seventy-four guns, was 
dispatched to that station from the Chesapeake, witli eight hundred 
b.irrels of flour and other articles, attended by their captured vessels, 
which had on board some freights. On his arrival there, an expedition 
was speedily planned against Penobscot and Machias. The fleet con- 
sisted of three 74's, the Dragon, Spenser, and Bulwark; two frigates, 
late from the Mediterranean, the Burhaute and Tenedos ; two sloops- 
of-war, the Sylph and Peruvian ; an armed schooner called the Pictu ; 
a large tender and ten transports. The number of troops embarked 
was about three thousand. Lieutenant-General Sir John C. Sherbrooke 
had the paramount, .and Major-General Gosselin the immediate com- 
mand of the land forces, and Edward Griffith, esq., rear-admiral of the 
white, conmianded the naval squadron. 

The fleet left Halifax August 26th, and on Thursday, .September ist, 
rode in the Harbor of Castine, sounded, and came to anchor. So 
formidable was their appearance that the troops at the garrison and 
their cominander, supposing all resistance would be worse than futile, 
did not so much as wait for a summons to surrender, but instantly 
discharged the cannon, blew up the fort, and fled for safety up the 
bay. In the course of the day a large body of troops was set on shore, 
possession was taken of the fortification; the court-house and other 
buildings were entered and occupied as barracks for the soldiers, and 
parts of the best dwelling-houses were taken for the accommodation 
of the officers. A flag was soon dispatched across the bay to Belfast 
with a message to the people that, if they made no resistance, they 
should not be injured. .Still it was followed by General Gosselin with 
six hundred, men in two armed vessels, who took possession of the 
town. To parties of the soldiery, longing for fresh provisions, and 
eager for the enjoyment of a rural range, permission was given to visit 
the neighboring plantations ; and after reveling upon the rarities, the 
best and most palatable they could find, the whole party in a few days 
returned to Castine. 

A part of the fleet, consisting of the Dragon, the Sylph, and Peru- 
vian, the Harmony, a transport, and a prize-tender, all under Captam 
Barrie, carrying aliout five hundred infantry, riflemen or "sharpshoot- 
ers," and a small train of light artillery, under Colonel Henry John 
and M.ajor Riddle, proceeded without delay up the waters of the Pen- 
obscot, and came to anchor in Marsh Bay, where the shipping lay, 
about four or five leagues below Bangor Harbor, during the night. 

A few weeks previously, the United States corvette .Adams, a sloop- 
of-war, rated at 18 guns .and mounting 24, had been with extreme 
difficulty taken up the river by her commander. Captain Charles 
Morris, and then lying at the mouth of the Sowadabscook 
stream, in Hampden, for repairs. It seems she had met with the sin- 
gular success of capturing, within the short space of three months, a 
ship, two brigs, and a schooner, and was afterwards, on the seventeenth 
of .August, cast upon the shores of the Isle of Holt in stress of weather, 
and was hardly preserved from total wreck. Captain Morris was now 
engaged in refitting her for another cruise; and as soon .as tidings by a 
herald from Castine were communicated to him and Brigadier-General 
Blake, of Brewer, and the news spread that the fleet was ascending the 
river, all had the best reason to suspect the object of the enemy was 
the destruction of the .Adams and the capture of two valuable merchant- 
vessels, the Decatur and the Victory, at anchor oft" Hampden village. 
Morris, without loss of lime, hoisted out the cannon upon Crosby's 
wharf, and formed two batteries, one of fourteen guns upon that place 
and the other of nine guns upon a commanding eminence, fifty rods 
below, and not far from the water, from which he was able to rake 
destructively any approaching ship. To the militia, who by the gener- 
al's orders were coming in by companies during the day, mixed with 
volunteers, Morris offered a supply of muskets .and ammunition, if they 
were destitute ; and determining to make all possible resistance, he 
assigned lo Lieutenant Wadsworth the command of the hill battery, 
and that on Ihe wharf to Lieutenant Lewis. 



In the .ifternoon he met General Blake, his officers, and some of the 
most influentiai citizens, in a council of war, where he was much cha- 
grined to find indecision and disunion, which, with the discouraging 
remarks ni.ade, directly tended to niise doubts as to the expediency 
of resistance or our ability to repel the enemy. He and others assured 
their opposers that no one ought to repose confidence of safety in 
British magnanimity. ".N'o," said he, "our arms must be our defence. 
Keep the enemy from outllanking me, and I will prevent his ascending 
the river by the battery. 'I'hese are our respective duties, and we must 
discharge them." But the whole day was spent in query, without 
any specific, well-digested plan of o|)enitic>ns, and without the energy 
indispensable to military control. No entrenchment, nor yet the 
slightest breastwork, was prepared ; nay, if there were in all the delib- 
eralicms any real result, it was lliat a line of battle be formed, resting 
the right wing on the meeting-house, and tlie left on the high ground 
towards the hill battery. By the adjutant's returns at night, the whole 
number in arms was about five liundied militiamen from the vicin- 
ity, iirincipally belonging to Colonel (Jranfs regiment, a i)art of C;v|)- 
tain Trufton's troop of horse, and Captain Hammond's company of 
artillery, with two brass 4-pounders. They had also taken from the 
Adams an 18-pound carronadc, mounted, which was planted in the 
highway, near the meeting-house and well manned. 

The winds being light and adverse, the Dr.tgon did not weigh 
anchor during the day ; but the residue of the squadron, with great 
exertion, ascended a couple of leagues into Bald Hill Cove, and landed 
at sunset on the west bank, two miles below Morris' batteries, about 
five hundriKl light troops, including a small train of artillery. The 
iniliti.'i continued unrier arms, and Morris' men stood by their guns all 
night, for it was reported by our videttes that the enemy was unques- 
tionably jireparing to move both by land and water as early as day- 
liglil, and before, if favored by the wind and weather. But the night 
was rainy and dark, and the morning foggy ; so that the enemy did 
not appear upon the land in view of our lines till about eight of the 
clock. As he advanced with a quick step, our soldiery were com- 
manded to reserve their fire till he was near, and then take aim. They 
dischargetl a few rounds, when it was perceived that the line was 
broken near the centre, and the men had begun to retieat witliout 
orders. The example was contagious ; and all the exertions of the 
officers to rally them anew were without effect. Major Chamberlain, 
Captain 1'rafton, Adjutant Gilniore, and David J. Bent, a non- 
commissioned officer of the artillery, who command of the great 
gun in the highway, ^ all discovered activity and valor. Bent was the 
last to leave the ground ; and most of the officers and many of the sol- 
diers were filled with pain and regret to witness a retreat in the midst 
of confusion, which could not bo without dishonor. 

The moment the armed vessels, which were preceded by barges full 
of soldiers, were discovered by Captain Morris, he opened a raking fire 
of grape and canister shot upon them from the baltery, which he con- 
tinued with spirit and effect, for about twenty or twenty-five minutes, 
when he perceived that the militia were retreating and the British 
would, if he remained there, soon outflank him in the position taken. 
He therefore spiked his guns, set fire to the Adams, and the store- 
house, and retreated with his brave companions to Bangor, and tlience, 
through a back, woody road, to Kennebec. 

Within one hour after the firing was begun, the vessels and the village 
of Hanipden w'cre in full possession of the enemy. Hence succeeded 
a scene of abuse, pillage, and destruction, which was a disgrace to the 
British name. Sixty or seventy of the princijxil inhabitants were seized 
and put under hatches, and at sunset were removed to the cabin of 
the Uecatur, where they were restrained during the night, without fresh 
air, fresh water, or any quiet sleep. Next day, it is true, all except ten 
or twelve of the principal men were admitted to theirparole, while those 
still kept in custody were put on board a prison-ship, where they were 
detained till another day, before they were set at liberty. The people 
were treated with abusivo language, their houses and stores were rifled, 
their cattle killed, some of their vessels were burnt, and a bond was 
exacted from the town in the penal sum of twelve thousand dollars, 
conditioned to deliver certain others at Castine in October. SuflTiee it 
to say that the losses and damages sustained by the people of Ham])- 
den, as subsequently ascertained, amounted to forty-four thousand 
dollars. In the midst of the rapine a committee waited on Captain 
Barrie, and told him they expected at his hand the common safeguard 
of humanity, if nothing more. He replied, "1 have none for you. 
My business is to burn, sink, and destroy. Your town is taken by 
storm, and by the niles of war we ought to lay your village in ashes, 
and put its inhabitants to the sword. But I will spare your lives, 
Ihuugli 1 mean to liuni \our houses." ,\ messenger was then de- 

spatched to General Sherbrooke. at Castine, upon the subject, who re- 
turned an order not to burn without dire necessity. 

The enemy's vessels proceeded without delay up the river, and at the 
same time about two-thirds of the troops took up their march by land 
low.ards Bangor. From this place flags of truce were sent by land 
and water to the advancing commanders; but the best terms which 
could be obtained, were "uncondititjnal submission." When the Peru- 
vian, .Syli>h, Harmony, and transports entered the harbor, a few Con- 
greve rockets were thrown from them over the village, two cheers were 
given, and all the shipping anchored at the mouth of the Kenduskeag. 
Fiarrie rode up on horseback, in company with Colonel John and 
Major kiddle, at the head of the detachment. -Arriving about noon, 
he first demanded of the inhabitants provisions and barracks for troops, 
and threatened to give them leave to plunder the village, if there was 
not a compliance with his re(inirements inst.antly. The court-house, 
two school-houses, a dwelling-house, and one other building were 
opened to receive them; cattle and sheep were butchered, and several 
barri'ls of pork were turned out to them from the stores; all the bread 
in the bake-house was taken; the best of liquors and garden vege- 
tables were furnished, and two of the better dwelling-houses were en- 
tered and occujiied as the resort of the commissioned officers. Also 
the enemy took the town's stock of powder, the field-pieces which were 
at Hampden, a quantity of merchandise, previously seized by a cus- 
tom-house officer for breach of the revenue laws; upwaids of fifty dollars 
post-office money were exacted and taken, and also the military arms 
and other like articles owned by the inhabitants; also one hundred 
and ninety-one men were compelled to report themselves, by their own 
signatures, prisoners of war. They were then admitted to their parol, 
and the safety of their families promised them, upon a stipulation not 
to serve against His Britannic Majesty or his allies during the war, un- 
less regularly exchanged. 

No resistance had been made by the inhabitants of this town, except 
by those in the military companies at Hampden, and therefore it was 
expected that private rights and property would be respected. But 
owners were sadly disappointed, for, the soldiery and the marines com- 
ing ashore, entered ten or twelve stores on the southerly side of the 
Kenduskeag, and by Barrie's permission, plundered them of their 
contents. They also rifled such dwelling-houses as the inhabitants 
had deserted; books and valuable papers were pillaged from lawyers' 
offices ami other places, and four vessels on the stocks in the village 
and its precincts were threatened with flames. At this menace there 
was great perturbation; as the flames of the vessels, enraged by afresh 
breeze then blowing, would probably lay the whole village in ashes. 
To prevent the fatal catastrophe the selectmen of the town, by the ad- 
vice of tlieir neighbors, promised to give the enemy a bond, professing 
to bind the corporation in the penal sum of thirty thousand dollars, to 
deliver the four vessels at Castine before the close of the ensuing 
October. When this bond was delivered the next morning, which was 
the Sabbath, Captain Barrie and Colonel John gave a written assur- 
ance that all private property, both in Bangor and Orono, including 
every unfinished vessel, should be preserved, such only as were in the 
river being excepted. 

The troops were kept under arms through the night, and it was 
tally a fearful one to all the families who knew nothing of the ar- 
rangement. In the morning preparations were manifestly on foot to 
take away or destroy all the shipping in the harbor and to leave the 
place. The movement commenced soon after noon. There were in 
the harbor at this time seventeen vessels, also three more on the Brewer 
side of the river not launched. These and ten others were burnt, and 
the rest taken down the river. .Several were partly loaded; some, 
being moved only a short distance, got ashore, and were seen in 
flames at twilight and the dusk of the evening.* The losses and dam- 
ages sustained by the people of Bangor, and the owners of vessels there, 
were found on a subsequent investigation to exceed forty-five thousand 

The enemy returnetl to Hampden in the afternoon, carrying Nvith him, 
besides other booty, eighteen or twenty horses; and the land-forces en- 
camped during the night on the acclivity toward the hill-batlery. His 
stay in Bangor was about thirty hours. The next day, September sth 

* Mr. Williamson's foot-note: "Burnt, the brig Caravan, schooners, Nep- 
tune's Barge, Thinks-I-to-Myself, Kunice and Polly, the (lladiator, the three 
Brothers, the sloop Ranger; three unlaunched vessels in Brewer, and one in 
Bangor, notwithstanding the stipulation. There were also three others in the 
harbor that were destroyed. Names not recollected — fourteen in all. They car- 
ried away the Bangor packet; schooner Oliver Spear; the Hancock, which was 
retaken ; the Lucy, which was lost ; the Polly, which was ransomed, and the 
beautiful Ijoat Calo, which coiilii not be recovered — six. 


\^JCzrU /fr^^^^y,^. 



the Decatur and the Kutusoff, at HaEiipden, were burnt, and the 
soldiery and sailors committed upon tlie inhabitants various acts of 
wanton misciiicf, such as the destruction of household furniture, books 
and papers. They also broke off the pivots and breeehings of the 
cannon on the hill, and threw those on the wharf into the river. 

On Tuesday, the 6th, the enemy proceeded to Frankfort, where the 
vessels came to anchor and the commodore demanded of the inhabit- 
ants forty o.\en, one hundred sheep, and an unknown number of 
geese. He also retjuired them to surrender their arms and ammuni- 
tion, a part of which only was delivered, and in general the sturdy rc- 
liublicans of this town were slow to obey any of his commands. 
Denouncing venegance against them for their delays, he re-embarked 
the troops on the 7th, and returned to Castine. 

.So much public indignation and chagrin were occasioned by the 
feeble efforts which the militia at Hamjjden made to resist the enemy's 
jirogress, tliat tlie Government of the .State instituted an examination 
into the conduct of General Blake by a military court of einjuiry. But 
they acquitted him of censure and suspicion. Immediately the general 
put Colonel tirant and Major Chamberlain under arrest, who were 
subsequently tried by a court-martial at the same place; and the com- 
mand of the former was suspended two years, hut tlie latter was honor- 
.ibly discharged. 

The court of enquiry before wliich General lUake ap- 
jioared, was fom|)osed of Major-General Sewall, of 
.\ugusta, and l!rigadier-(;encral Irish, of Gorham, and 
I'ayson, of Wiscasset. It occupied the court-house at 
Bangor about a week. In the .spring of 1S16 the other 
court was held, sitting several days. It consisted of 
twelve members, ])resided over by Major-General Rich- 
ardson, of New Yarmouth, with Mr. John Wilson, of 
Belfast, as judge-advocate. 'l"he militia were jiaid an 
aggregate of twelve hundred dollars for their brief term 
of service. 


This war, or rather " rumor of war," broke out in 
1839, following a year or two of e.xcited public agitation. 
Great Britain after the War of 18 12, claimed the whole 
of the St. Johns River, about one-half of which had 
been occupied by Maine, and demanded all territory 
above the 46th degree of north latitude. The King of 
the Netherlands, to whom the dispute was referred, made 
a very singular and unjust decision, that the boundary 
should run midway between the lines claimed, respec- 
tively, by the United States and the liritish Government. 
His decision was not satisfactory to the peo|)le of Maine ; 
the disjiuted tract was overrun by timber-thieves and 
other plunderers : and in 1838 there were signs of a 
serious outbreak. ( lovernor Edward Kent of Bangor, 
then in the executive chair, took steps to strengthen the 
militia force, and General \\'ool was sent by the Federal 
Government to inspect the fortifications on the Maine 
rivers and coast. Duiing the winter the Legislature 
met in secret session and authorized SherilTStrickland, of 
I'enobscot county, to call out two hundred volunteers, 
uKirch to the northward, and drive off the trespassers. 
The first company raised, under the command of Cap- 
tain Sto.\er Rines, left Bangor February 5, 1839, and 
three clajs afterwards reached the scene of action in 
Township No. 10, now Masardis, in Aroostook county, 
and, after some show of resistance on the part of the lum- 
bermen and squatters, their mission was accom|)lislied. 
Mr. Abbott says, in his History of Maine : 

Captain Kines ad\aneeil to the mouth uf tile Little Madawaska. 
lleie he met with a reverse, c.qitured with a company uf his men. 

and they w ere Imrried off in a sleigh to Frederickton jail, in New Bmns. 
wick. The sheriff and his forces retreated. The trespassers, much 
elated, arnied themselves, about three hundred in number, and bade de. 
fiance to the .■\metican authorities. The sheriflf, learning of the cap- 
ture, retired to Xumlier Ten and fortified his party while he repaired as 
rapidly as possible to .Augusta, to report the posture of affairs. 

The Governor of New Brunswick called out one thou- 
sand of his militia ; the Legislature of Maine appropri. 
ated eight hundred thousand dollars for the protection 
of its territory, and a draft of 10,343 men from the- State 
forces, most of whom, within a week, were on the dis- 
puted ground or marching thither. Congress took action, 
authorizing the President to support the claims of Maine 
with fifty thousand troops and the expenditure often mil- 
lions ot dollars ; General Scott, commander of the army, 
with his staff, came to Augusta, to maintain " the [jeace 
and safety of the entire Northern and Eastern frontiers.'' 
Things looked fiir a time very much like war; but, tlirough 
the efforts of (ieneral .Scott, both sides withdrew their 
forces ; prisoners taken by either' party were released ; 
tile Aroostook region, previously in Penobscot and \\'ash- 
ington counties, was erected into a separate county by the 
Maine Legislature ; and matters remained com])aratively 
quiet until 1842, when a convention, since famous as the 
"Ashburton Treaty," was concluded between Lord Ash- 
burton, British Minister to the United States, and Dan- 
iel Webster, then Secretary of State, by which the State 
lost a portion of the tract, in dispute, but of little value, 
for which it received one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars from the General Government, besides two hun- 
dred thousand dollars for expenses incurred mainly in 
the fiurry of 1839. By way of exchange for the lost 
territory. Great Britain ceded to the United States much 
more valuable tracts on the shores of Lakes Superior 
and Champlain - so that the victory rested decidedly, 
after all, with the American side. Mr. Abbott says in 
concluding his account of the transaction: "Im|)artial 
judgment must ])ronounce the conduct of Maine, in this 
whole afTair, to have been patriotic and wise." 

Penobscot county, from its situation with regard to 
the scene of possible war, had the greatest share in tlie 
active movements of the time. .Ml the expeditions to 
the .'Vroostook country were fitted out at Bangor, and 
marched to the tented field therefrom. At one time a 
line of mounted videttes, furnishing ready communication 
when needed, stretched from Bangor all the way to Mas- 
ardis. Governor Washburn, in his Orono Centennial 
address, has furnished the following amusing reminisen- 
ces, concerning the incidents of the war in that place. 

Rumors uf battles, the approach of Mohawk Indians, and the bloody 
Bluenoses were rife upon your streets, but yet were unable tu slide the 
sense of the ridiculous and quench the love of fun that ruled tlie hour, 
breaking out now in disrespectful remarks at the expense of thegloncjus 
company uf videttes— and martyrs; now in Otis Banks's offering adolla 
for the head of Thomas Hill, a carpenter and, who w:a^ loya 
to his native land; and again, in sending a crowd of anxious patriots 
and wonder-mongers from Whitney's bar-room to my office, to see 
General Wool, and where they were soberly introduced, by the grace- 
less wag who had sold them, tu Artegus Lyon, the colored man. But 
the war ended, and a brace of your own poetasters celebrated the sctre 
and fight in which it begun, in a parody "on Hohenlinden, which, as it 
may serve to renew the events and hajis of that stirring (l)ut somewhat 
ridieuluus) time, 1 w ill venture tu present to you : 




On Rcstook, when the sun was low, 
AH bloodless lay the untrodden snow, 
iMufTling the current in its flow, 
O Rcstook, rolling rapidly. 

lint Restook saw another siuht, 

The Rakercbost on their flight, 

And following fast, with main and niiglit, 

'I'he PosseJ frightcn'd dreadfully. 

Then Jamcson§ to old AshbelU said, 
'* Come pile your carcass on my sled, 
Far better so than be abed 
With Cushman,1[ in sweet reverie." 

Then shook the ice, so hard and even; 
'j'hen rushed the teams by number 'Leven ;' 
Anil ere the clock had pointed seven, 
They left Masardisf speedily. 

Itni faster yet that band shall fly 
From Mohawkt furies drawing nigh, 
Bluenose braves, with fire in the eye, 
And Restook, rolling rapidly. 

'Tis morn, but scarce a weary man 
Will stop to drink from jug or can ; 
With tuckered legs and faces wan, 
They push for the Cumbcrlassi.§ 

Now, Fosse, all your blankets wave; 
You rush'd from glory and the grave ; 
Your heels did well your bacon save, 
Your flint-locks and your toggery ! 

Few, few shall meet where many part ! 
^f all th?t force no trembling heart 
Felt British shot or savage dari. 
Or found a soldier's sepulchre. 

It may naUirally he supposed that a largo share of the 
Maine mihtia who actually saw service in the Aroostook 
difticulty were from the Penobscot Valley. The resi- 
dences of many of the officers who served are given 
with their names; so that part of them can be readily 
identified as from this county. In the case of enlisted 
men no such guide is furnished; and it is not probable 
that a full roster of the Penobscot contingent in this war 
can now be made. The best that was practicable has 
been done, however; and by the courteous and intelli- 
gent aid of the Adjutant-General's office, at Augusta, it 
is believed that a tolerably complete roll is herewith pre- 

(oMMissioNiiu oh-k.i:ks. 

Major-(Jencr;il Isaac Hodsdon, Banfior. 

John L. Hodsdon, Aid to Major-General, Exeter. 

Oliver I'Yost, Aid to Major-Geiieral, Bangor. 

William \\. McCrillis, Aid to Major-General, Bangor. 

Division Inspector )oseph C. Stevens, Bangor. 

Division Quartermaster Joseph Oilman, Dixmont. 

Assistant Divibion (Quartermaster Henry Warren, Bangur. 

Assistant Division Quartermaster Ebenezcr G. Rawson, Bangor. 

Assistant Division C^)uartermaster Paul Varney, Bangor. 

Assistant Division Quartermaster D.inrel Wood, Bangor. 

Captain Henry E. Prentiss, Bangor. 

Superintendent of Videttes lOlijah L. Hamlin, Bangor. 

Assistant Superintendent of Videttes Samuel Smith, Bangor. 

• The Aroostook river is usually called " Restook " by the Provincials. 

t A company of Oldiuwn lumbermen, connnandetl Ijy Captain Stover Rines. 

I Posse comitatus, from Penobscot county. 
§ John (I. Jameson, of Oldtown. 

II Ashbel Hathorn, of Uangor. 

^1 Jtidgc G. G. Cushman, legal adviser, wlui, while asleep with Thomas Hart- 
lett, at Fitzherberts's, near the New lirunswick line, was take prisoner by the 
Bluenoses and sent to Fredericton. 

' This is now the town of Dalton. 

t The present town of Masardi;*; eleven miles from l)alt»>n. , 

t 'I'he report was thai tlie fugitives were pursued by five hundred Moliawk In- 
dians and New lirunswickers. 

§ A small river at Lincoln Centre. 

Forage Master John Sargent, Bangor. 

Joshua Carpenter, Aid to Brigade-Major, Lincoln or Bangor. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Cummings, Bangor. 

Ijeulenant-Colonel Moses H. Young. Bangor. 

Quartermaster Daniel T. Jewett, Bangor. 

Chaplain Joseph C. Lovcjoy, Orono. 

Surgeon Paul Ruggles, Carrr.el. 

Surgeon's Mate Lewis Watson, Bangor. 

Sergeant-Major Charles Barnard, 

Sergeant-Major (Jeorge Xoyes. 

Principal Musician Lemuel Ellis. 

Drum-Major John M. Shaw. 

Major of Artillery James Smitli. 

Lieutenant and Adjutant of Artillery Amos Packard. Hampden. 

Quartermaster of Artillery .Samuel P. Ix*ighton, Bangor. 

Captain Eliphalet Miller. 

Captain David Dow. 

Captain Truxton Dougherty. 

Lieutenant Jabez Bradbury. 

Lieutenant James B. Clcaveland. 

Ensign Jacob Saunders. 

Ensign Jeremiah Lord. 

Ensign Haskell W.Johnson. 

Ensign Jeremiah Burnham, Orono. 

Ensign James Dunning, Bangor. 

Captain James Clark, Hermon. 

Lieutenant William E. Alwood, Levant. 

Ensign Nathaniel D. Eaton, Hermon. 

Lieutenant Amasa K. W'alker, Hampden. 

Captain Stephen Leighton, jr. , De.xter. 

Lieutenant Isaiah Beals, Dexter. 

Ensign Alvin B. Clark, Corinth. 

Captain William H. Mills, Bangor. 

Ensign Henry L. Stewart, Bangor. 

Captain I'^liphalet L Maxfield, Argyle. 

Lieutenant Horatio Burnett, Springfield. 

Ensign Goodridge Cummings, Passadumkeag. 

Ensign Simon P. Atkins, Bangor. 

Roll of Captain Nathaniel Sawyer's company of ritleinen 
in the detachment of drafted militia of Maine, called 
into actual service by the State, for the protection of its 
northeastern frontier, the 20th day of February, 1839. 


Captain Nathaniel Sawyer. 
Lieutenant Andrew D. Bean. 
Ensign Charles Jones. 


Sergeant John .\. ^'ork. 
Sergeant Hiram ^'ork. 
Sergeant Joseph York. 
Sergeant Sewall Chase. 
Corporal Lewis Goodw in. 
Corporal Daniel Patlee. 
Corporal John Goodwin. 
Corporal Simon E. Ricker. 
Musician James Pattee. 
Musician Wesley Grindle. 
Musician George Damon. 

PK1\ A ll'.S. 

Jeremiah Avery, Charles Bickford, Thomas W. Bartlett, Josiah 
Brown, Richard H. liedcc. Obadiah Banks, Moses Copp. William 
Clark, WiUiam Corthell, Henry Craig, Alvin H. Carley, Salmon P. 
Drake, John Emery. Jaeob W. Eastman, Ivory Frost, Joshua B. Floyd, 
Jeremiah Flagg, Carrell Garland, Stephen (irant, jr., Isaac Harden, 
Luther Hawse. William S. Hogan, Jeremiah Higgins. William Jame- 
son, George Hilley, Lewis Kimball, Royal Lancaster, Newell Long- 
fellow, Broadstreet Mason, jr., True Merrill, J. A. C. Mason, David 
Porter, jr., Alfred Packard, George Richardson, Samuel Ricker, Au- 
gustus W. Smith, Alexander Smith, Gustavus W. Smith, Nathan 
Stevens, Norres M. Staples, Samuel Sidlinger, Otis Smith, WiUiam 
Shirley, Asa C. Twitchell, Rufus York. Joseph D. Young, Oliver Luce, 
Josh D. Hemenwav, John Bryant, William Meader. Joseph A. Mitch- 
ell, Joseph Bartlett. Daniel G. Sawyer, John Staples (servant to Cap- 
tain), Ambrose Fogg (servant to Lieutenant), Samuel Stevenson (ser- 
vant to Ensign). 




(Pay began February 20th or March 11, 1839, and 
ended, in most cases, April 22 and 26, 1839). 


Captain Eliphalet I. Maxfield. 
Lieutenant Horatio Barrett. 
Ensign Goodridge Cummings. 


Sergeant Horace Banks. 
Sergeant Carlisle Dennis. 
Sergeant Joseph Nelson. 
Sergeant John .Abott. 
Corporal Alvin Merryfield. 
Corporal Thomas J. Fowle. 
Corporal Charles Davis. 
Corporal Walker Darling. 
Musician Nalh.aniel Fellows. 


Bradley B. Avers, John W. Buck, Philip Bailey. Enoch W, Bickford, 
Daniel Bailey, William Brown, James Cooper, Sherburn W. Clark, 
Solomon Comstock. Albert Coombs, Joel F. Dam, Leader N. Dam, 
.Asahel Davis, David B. Davis, Xahalie Doe, James Dealing, William 
Devo, John Elkins, jr., John B. Emery, Charles Emerson, Joseph 
Emerson, William Emerson, Benjamin E^istman, Daniel W. Edgerly, 
Wilmoth Haywood, Stephen R. Hajiies, Moses Hodgdon, Moses In- 
galls, jr., Joseph Jordan, Benjamin Judkins, William Johnson, David 
Kneeland. .Alfred L. Lovett, Solomon P. Lankester, Horace Lord, 
William H. Mcintosh, Carleton P. Moody, John Morgan, James G. 
Mcintosh, Samuel McPheters, Calvino S. Xoyes, Samuel Norton, jr., 
Storer Perkins, Charles L. Smart, Thomas Smith, John Scott. James 
.Sanborn, William A. Tosh, Israel Tracy. Joshua Watton, Mark G. 
Wevmouth. David Young, Chandler Dammon, Josiah Miles, John 
Pratt, John Lawton, William F. Buzzell, George W. Merrill, Mathias 
Lane, Joseph Hodgdon, Josiah Richards, John W. Lane, William 
G. Rogers. Rufus Moody. Frederic Morrill, John Ayer (servant), Alger- 
non L. Barrett (servant), Lewis Bunker (servant), Eliphalet Leavitt. 


(Rendezvoused February 20, 1839; discharged Ajiril 
24, 1839.) 


Captain George W. Maxim. 
Lieutenant Jonathan Louder. 
Ensign William H. Gibbs. 


Orderly Sergeant William .AveriUe. 
Sergeant David Gelchell. 
Sergeant Daniel Moulton. 
Sergeant Joel \'ickery. 
Corporal Dudley D. Bean. 
Corporal Jeremy Baker. 
Corporal Jacob Holbrook. 
Corporal William W. Smith. 
Corporal Greenlief M. Fogg. 
Corporal James G. Patterson. 
Corporal George S. Herrick. 
Corporal Francis C. Keisor. 


John .Ames. Levi Bagley. Charles Buffum. Enoch .\I. Blunt, Rufus 
G. Curtis, SelhF. Cook, John Cowan, jr., Charles E. Chaplin. Reuben 
Cookson, .Asa Davis, 2d, Joseph B. Damon, Benjamin Dillingham, 
Joseph Francis, John M. Fogg, Thomas Gould, Thomas Gullifer, 
Ephraim Gliddcn, Sumner Hamilton, Bradford Higgins, Samuel Hous- 
ton, Manasseh S. Hovey, Manoah Hurd, James S. Homans, William 
P. Hatch, David G. Ireland, Thomas Jenkins, Ephraim Johnson, 
Robert Littlefield, Moses Majnor, Ephraim B. W. Condray, Isaiah 
McKinney, Shuter Nickerson, jr., Simeon Orff, James O. Rooke, John 
Parsons, Benjamin Pratt, George Pratt, Samuel Patterson, Norman 
Page, Enoch Peasley. .Allen Rines, William H. Ramsdell, Jesse Russ, 
Wilmot Riggs, Christopher Smith, .Asa L. Stiles, William Sherburn, 
jr., Asa Sawyer, David Shorey, Abram Libbey. I^vi S, Torrance, 
Samuel S.Torrance, Daniel Willey, John Weymouth, Stephen White, 
Shuber N. Williams, John Witham, Francis Young, James B. Cleve- 


(Pay began February 20th, and at various times in 
March, 1839; discharged, in part, April nth.) 


Captain William H. Mills. 
Lieutenant James Henry Carleton. 
Ensign Henry L, Stewart. 


Sergeant Elijah Low. 
Sergeant George .A. Longfellow. 
Sergeant Jesse Snow. 
Sergeant Hiram Fogg. 
Corporal Jason L. Bourne. 
Corporal Abraham Colomy. 
Corporal Amos S, Myrick. 
Corporal Isaac Lunt. 
Musician .Arthur Heald. 
Musician Dennis J. Bither. 


William .Adams, .Samuel Barrows, Erastus B. Byram, Nehemiah 
Bartlett, William Cousins, Sandford Comeiy, Noah Clough, Lorraine 
I. Drew, Jason Dunton, Benjamin Emerson, Ebenezer Farrington, 
Lewis R. French, .Asa Fowles, James Gorton, John Gorton, Benjamin 
Guptail, Joseph Gordon. Thomas Hodgkins, Stephen S. Hewes, David 

B. House, Isaac Hills, 2d, Jason Hills, James A. Lombard, Hiram Le- 
broke. David Miller, James Miller, jr., Sewall Miller, John Moore. 
Thomas McCausland, Levi B. Patten, John Paine, James Rogers, Jo- 
seph T. Sylvester, Sumner Smith. George .A. Stevens. Francis J. Stur- 
devant. Jeremiah Thompson, Eli Towne, Samuel F. Walker, Charles 
Wiley. Asa Woodman, James Young, Watson R. Goss, James P. Davis, 
James M. Davis, Elisha Davis. Samuel W. Costelon, Peter B. Newcombi 
John King, David Shepley, Daniel Batcheder, Hiram Stevens, Stephen 

C. Springer, James Adams, Joseph Grindle, Clark Perry, John A. Plum- 
nier, Joseph K. Cross, .Almon Richards. Stephen B. Pattee. John W. 
B.ibcock. Ziba BurriU. Simeon B. Grindle. Robert H. Weymouth. Sam. 
uel Abbott, Daniel C. Shepley. 


(Pay began February 20 and March 11, 1839 ; gener- 
ally ended April i and 24, 1839). 


Captain Samuel L. Fish. 
Lieutenant Francis J. Cummings. 
Ensign Gilbert Emerson. 


Sergeant D.avid C. Jellison. 
Sergeant John P. Davis. 
Sergeant Moses S. Page. 
Sergeant Joseph Budson. 
Sergeant James S. Eldrige. 
Sergeant Jesse Hutchings. Josiah McPheters. 
Corporal Charles H, Forbes. 
Corporal Joseph Bray. 
Corporal George Lincoln. 
Corpoial John B. Bond. 
Corporal Kenney Snow. 
Musician Robert P. Chase. 
Musician Solomon P. Rowe. 


Thomas Abbott, Almarin Ames, John Boyd. Timothy Burton, Wil- 
liam Batchelder, Isaac Russell, William Ballard, jr., George Burns, 
David L, Billings, Justus L. Carr. Thomas Cunningham. AVilliam J. 
Chapman, Garey Chapman, Ephraim Dorr. William Dwelley, jr., 
Samuel Deering, James Dickhison, John Dunham, jr., Joseph Duran, 
Elisha M. Eveleth, Amasan S. Emerton. Chester Ferrin, Daniel Fow- 
ler, James H. Gilmore, William P. Guppy, Shadrach Gray, John Grin- 
del, Abial Harmon, Seth Hoh, Abel S. Jordan, Joseph James, 
Levi K. Kilburn, Rowland Lawrence, William Lassell, David Lancas- 
ter, John N, Lawrence, Thomas Mann, Henry Montgomery, John 
E. Miller. Charles Newcomb, Alvah , Osgood, Roderick R. Park, 
Charles Patten, Samuel Peirce, Joseph Priest, Thomas Raymond, 
Joseph C. Stinson, Jacob P. Sweat, William C. Snow, .Samuel Spen- 



cer, Samuel Sheets, John Southard, jr., Horatio N. Stinson, James 
Stubhs, George Simpson, Samuel S. Irivit, Timothy C. Tai)ley, Levi 
Tower. Benson D. Wood, William R. Moody, Gilbert Knownton, Al- 
bion M. iMsh (servant), Joseph W. Curtis (servant). Ebin B. Weston 


(Rendezvoused February 20 and March 11, 1839; 
discharged April 22, 1839.) 


Captain Stcplien I.eighton. jr. 
Lieutenant Isaiah Heals. 
Ensign Alvin B. Clark. 


Sergeant Reuben Inlanders. 
Sergeant Hiram Safl'ord. 
Sergeant Asa Spooner. 
Sergeant Seth Drew. 
Corporal Stephen D. Jennings. 
Corporal Charles Jumper. 
Corporal Cyrus Jumper. 
Corporal Calvin Sa/Tord. 
Musician John M. Shaw. 


Lemuel Arnold, Willard Abbott, David Berry, Levi Bridge, jr., 
James I'. Burleigh, William McK. Brown, David G. Brown, Isaac 
Bcdee, Keuben Brown, William Bosworth, jr., Othniel Harden, Ben- 
jamin Brown, jr., James Crowell, Gardner Copeland, John Cole, Ellis, 
Cushman, Andrew .\. D.iy, Thompson Dyer, David Densmore, Levi 
Emerson, Stephen Fish, Joseph Gould, David R. W. Grindell, Daniel 
H. Howard, Albert G. Hunt, Charles M. Hodsdon, Samuel Hillman, 
}Villiam Jumper, Benjamin Ireland, William L.Johnson. Robert John,' 
son, John Kimball, Charles Jennings, James Lane, Sebah F. Leighton! 
.Silas Lcavitt, Edward I'. Longley, John Leavitt, Charles R. Logan,' 
George P. Logan, George Oakes, Horatio Pratt, Isaac W. Pickering,' 
Daniel Palmer, Jonathan Pitcher, jr., John Ricker, Curtis Sturtevant! 
Darius .Sampson, John .Safford, Henry A. Sprague, Luther H. Shaw, 
Simeon .Safford, jr., Henry K. .Sawyer, Henry Snow, Isaac Tucker! 
Milton Twitchell, Benjamin F. Tosier, John Fowie, Charles D. Tren- 
orgy, Harrison G. O, Thomas, Andrew C. Winslow, Eli Winslow, 
Charles Wynian, Peleg Washburn, Burnham Wardwell, Ira Wardwell! 
William B. Walker, George Whittemore, Rufus Williard. 

(Keiulezvoused and p,ay began February 20, 1839.) 

( '.iptain )amc.s Clark. 
Lieutenant William I'",. .Atvvood. 
I*'nsign Nathaniel 1). Eaton. 


Sergeant Jo.seph Leslie. 
.Sergeant .Solomon York. 
Sergeant John N. I'aiierson. 
Sergeant Timothy ,M. (.'00k. 
Corporal William M. Johnson. 
Corporal I'".zekiel C. Jackson. 
Corporal Laomi S. Herrick. 
Corporal Hazen Messenger. 
Musician John .Swan. 
Musician Jacob Swan. 
Musician .Ann.inias Dodge. 


Samuel Allen, Aaron Harden, Samuel Blagdon, Samuel Baker, Ira 
Bither, Levi Blake, Edward D. Baker, Carlos Bean, John N. Budge' 
Silas Bunker, jr., William Corliss, William Cross, [ohn O. Chadinan! 
Joseph Cushman, Valentine Dunning, Benjamin Dyer, George W. Ed- 
dy, John E. Foss, David French, Abraham Grover, Arthur L. Grant 
Francis Goodwin, Hiram Glidden, Daniel Hewes, William Harris 
Reuben Hale, Thomas C. Herrick, Charles A. Howard, Bowman 
Herrin, Lorenzo Hinkley, John Jenness, Freeman Luce, Charles Low 
Nelson Mitchell, Enoch R. Mayo, William H. Mayo, Philip Mclntire' 
Reuben Myriek, Jason Miller, Ira Mansel, Israel B. Norcross, Nathan- 
iel Perkins, Benjamin Patterson, |ames Prescott, Joseph Rose, Geor»e 
B. Reed. Ilarvcy Reed, Hiram Swan, Nathaniel Swan, l.;iijah' Sylves- 
ter, (Jorham Sniitl., John Shaw, 1 i.nvard Stevens, .Samuel V. ,\lillct 

Daniel Sargent, Dudley D. Spratt, Nathan S. Shaw, Daniel L. Stinch- 
field, Augustine Triggs, Azariah Wadleigh, William Willey, George B. 
Webber, Vincent Williard. Aaron H. Walker, Charles Whitlier, Peter 


(Pay commenced February 20, 1839; ended Ajml 26 


Captain Ch.arles R. Hamblet. 
Lieutenant .Amasa K. Walker. 
Ensign John Nelson. 


Sergeant Elbridge H. Br.agdon. 
Sergeant Benjamin M. Page. 
Sergeant Attillius A. Ladd. 
Sergeant Samuel F. Eells. 
.Sergeant Thomas Webb. 
Corporal Elias Harriman. 
Corporal Barzillai Huckins. 
Corporal Benjamin C. Sanders. 
Corporal William W. Burnham. 
Corporal .Sabin H. Kimball. 

Amariah W. Ames, Jotham S. Ames, Willi.ini Appletoii, .Samue 
Beal, Thomas A. Burgess, William Barney, Ira B. Buck, Thomas 
Bradley, Daniel Bean, Daniel Bailey, Freeman Ciocker, Henry Crocker, 
Moses Crocker. James Carver, Jonathan Carter, Chase, Jo- 
seph C. Chase, Thornton Card, Nathaniel Capers. Isaac De.ttcr, 
Steiihen Dow, Nathaniel B. Fish, Levi O. Farnham, Ebenezer O. Ger- 
ry, John Gorden, Isaac Gould, Daniel Howard, Christopher H.irvest, 
Ezra Holmes, .Nathaniel Hanscomb, Daniel Brooks, John Kno.v, Hiram 
Larrabee, James Lee, Orman F. Lothrop, Walter D. Maddock, Wil 
liam McKenncy, Lyman Miner, Isaac Rider, George W. Rogers, Silas 
Royal, Peter P. Rich, George R. Sampson. Henry Sibley, Seth Sever- 
ance, Williams C. Stevens, W. Simpson, William Trask, Joseph Tilton, 
AIe.\ander D. Walton, Levi M. Wilkins, Nelson Whittemore, Simon 
Whittemore, John Woodard, James West, Stillman Newcomb, Joseph 
Rose, Nathaniel E. Roberts, Ira Washburn, Albert R. Young, William 
Shepherd, .Samuel Mitchell, Richardson B. Hamblet (servant). Lorenzo 
Knowles (servant), John B. Stevens (servant). Tutlle D. Leathers. 

rill-: .ME.MCAN WAR. 
It is uniKccssary to embrace in this recoid even a cur- 
sory account of tiie origin, [progress, and result of this 
ejjisode of our National affoirs, whose events so little 
affected the current of hisiory in Eastern Maine, and 
drew so lightly upon its jxitriotic citizens for recruits to 
the army in the field. 'J'he following brief extract, from 
the rejiort ot the .XdjiitniU-Cencral of the State for 1847, 
sufficiently states the action taken by Maine, in answer 
to the requisitions of the Government, ujion the out- 
break of the war : — 

It having been declariTl by the Congress of the United States, on 
the 13th of May, 1846, " that, by an act of the Republic of Mexico, a 
state of war e.\isted between that Government and the United States," 
the Governor of Maine, under authority from the Secretary of War, 
called upon the citizens of Maine for a volunteer corps of one regiment 
of infantry. Immediately after the publication of the proclamation 
and general order, efficient persons in different parts of the State were 
commissioned to raise companies of volunteers. In some sections it 
was found impossible to obtain volunteers, while in others full compan- 
ies were raised with the greatest promptitude. 

The following officers from Penobscot county were elected to the 
command of companies A and F : — 

Company A.— John H. Morrill, Bangor, captain; John H. Bryant, 
Bangor, first lieutenant; John B. Williams, Bangor, second lieutenant! 

Company F.— CJeorge W. Cummings, Bangor, eapt,ain; James W. 
Thompson. Pass.adumkeag, first lieutenant; James H. Burgess, Old- 
town, secoiul lieutenant. 



No further rolls of these companies have been fur- 
nished by the Adjutant-General's office — if, indeed, they 

L-xisf there. 


At kist tliL' lime came wlien the patriotism and the 
patience, the courage and constancy of the Penobscot 
valley, as of all other portions of the United North were 
to be fully tested by the war between the Nation and the 
rebellious States. The struggle is too recent and the lit- 
erature of its history too copious and readily accessible, 
to make any summary of its beginnings and events here 
necessary. We have only to do with the brilliant record 
which Penobscot county made from the first to the last 
of the gigantic conflict. Happily, the materials for this 
have been provided, with e.xtraordinary fullness of detail, 
and, no doubt, with all practicable accuracy, in the volu- 
minous reports issued annually for some years by General 
John L. Hodsdon, now of Bangor, who was Adjutant- 
( leneral of the State during the entire war-period, and 
who served with great efficiency and the most conscien- 
tious fidelity. He and the attaches of his office "builded 
better than they knew" in the carefully labored prepara- 
tion of these reports. We have found nothing else so 
valuable for the preparation of local military history dur- 
ing the rebellion, in the .Xdjutant-General's Reports of a 
number of the loyal States. Whatever of interest or per- 
manent value occurs in the remainder of this chapter, is 
due solely to General Hodsdon's Reports. This work is 
indebted to them, not only for the rosters of Union sol- 
diers and sailors, but for the several histories of the regi- 
ments and batteries,- -which are given, in general, in tlie 
very words of the original text, — and, indeed, for all 
other matter, in almost every point and particular. 

Besides General Hodsdon, who served the country so 
ably in the State Bureau of War, Penobscot county had 
many eminent names in the field. Major-General Joshua 
I,. Chamberlain, afterwards Governor of tlie State, and 
now President of Bowdoin College, was a native and 
resident of Brewer. Brevet Major-General Cyrus Ham- 
lin was from Bangor. Of Brigadiers the county fur- 
nished George F. Shepley and Charles D. Jameson* of 
iJangor, James H. Carleton of Orono, and Lysander 
Cutler of Dexter; of Brevet-Brigadiers, Henry M. 
Plaisted of Bangor, now Governor of Maine, Charles 
Hamlin and Charles I). Gilmore also of Bangor, Jonathan 
A. Hill of Stetson, and Llewellyn G. Egtes of Oldtown; 
of Colonels, Charles W. Roberts, Daniel Chappin,* 
Daniel White, and George \'arney of Bangor, and Simon 
(;. Jerrard of Levant; of Lieutenant-Colonels, Daniel 
F. Sargent of Bangor, and George Fuller of Corinth; 
and Majors Joel W. Cloudman of Stetson, Stephen D. 
Car[)enter and William L. Pitcher of Bangor; witli many 
others of similar or less rank, who also distinguished 
themselves in service. Charles A. Watcher, of Bangor, 
killed while commander of the United States war-steamer 
Gazelle, is another of the slain heroes. Among promi- 
nent regimental surgeons, several of them reaching the 

•Among the honored dead of the war. 

grade of Brigade-Surgeon, were Drs. Daniel McRuer, 
Eugene F. Sanger, .\ugustus C. Hamlin, and Samuel B. 
Morison, of Bangor; Alden P. Palmer, of Orono; and 
J. B. Wilson of Exeter. Dr. John Mason, of Bangor, 
also rendered great service in the army hospitals. Luther 
H. Pierce, of Bangor, became a Brigade Quartermaster. 
.\mong the Paymasters appointed on the General Staff 
of the army were the Hon. Jabez True of Bangor, and 
Jeremiah Fenno and Elias Merrill, of the same. Gen- 
eral Charles Howard, a member of the staff of his 
brother, Major-Cleneral Oliver O. Howard, and now of 
Chicago, was a student in the Bangor Theological Sem- 
inary at the outset of the struggle. Many of these offi- 
cers will receive due biographical notice in connection 
with the histories of their several towns. 

Colonel Gideon Mayo, of Orono, was commandant 
of Camp John Pope, at Bangor, in 1862. Elijah Low, 
of the latter place, was Provost Marshal for the counties 
of Penobscot, Piscataquis, and Aroostook, during the 
drafts of 1863. Henry H. Worcester, of Bangor, was 
the Military Agent of the State at Washington City, and 
H. A. Holden, of the former city, was one of his assist- 
ants. .\mong the gentlemen appointed early in the war, 
under the system of allotment of soldiers' pay, as trus- 
tees to receive and disburse moneys upou the allotment 
rolls, were the Hon. Isaiah Stetson, Mayor of Bangor, 
and E. B. Pierce, Cashier of the Lumberman's Bank of 
Oldtown. Aaron A. Wing of Bangor, and J. S. Emery 
of Hampden, were afterwards Allotment Commissioners. 


The importance of this city, as the chief place in the 
county, and its convenience of accessibility by rail and 
river, naturally made it a prominent point during the 
whole of the Rebellion. The arsenal located here be- 
came at once the centre of military operations, and 
proved extremely useful through all the bloody years. 
General Hodsdon says, in his Report for 1861: 

The use and occupation of the .State .\rsenal and lot at Bangor, 
almost throughout the entire season, for rendezvousing and quartering 
the Second Regiment and numerous squads of recruits and detach- 
ments and companies of volunteers, from the northern and eastern 
portions of the State, for regiments organizing at .Augusta and Port- 
land, has obviated the necessity of hiring, at great expense, extensive 
buildings and grounds at Bangor for that purpose. Much of the ord- 
nance, tlie gun-carriages, and other munitions of war, stored at the 
arsenal, have, from time to time, been removed and necessarily left un- 
sheltered to afford lodgings for the troops. For this reason, and 
through the careless but natural intermeddling of the soldiers with the 
small arms and appendages deposited there, the .Slate has experienced 
severe loss and dam.age to its property, aside from the injury to the 
arsenal buildings and grounds inseparable from the tumultuous charac- 
ter of the occuj^ation. 

Later in the war, a most beneficent institution, called 
the Soldiers's Rest Hospital was established by the patri- 
otic citizens of Bangor. The Adjutant-General gives 
the following account of it: 

Early in .Vlay, 1864, immediately after the battle of the Wilderness, 
so large a number of sick and disabled soldiers were returned to Bangor 
that the liberal citizens estjiblished a "Rest" for their accommodation, 
supporting it at first entirely by voluntary contributions. The institu- 
tion was subseciuently assumed by the State, and on the 7th of Octoljer, 
1864, by the General Goverimient. Dr. S. B. Morison, of Bangor, 
gratuitously devoted the largest portion of his time from April to Oc- 
tober to the care of the sick and wounded within its walls. In October, 



however, he was .-ippointcd by the Medical Director of the Department 
of the East to take charge of Soldier's Rest Hospital, which continued 
in opeialion for one year. During this latter period, more than 3,000 
soldiers were admitted, which should be added to the number of about 
2,500 who were accommodated previous to the last change. 

The Second Regiment of the Maine Infantry and the 
First Regiment of Heavy Artillery were rendezvoused and 
organized here. In the late summer of 1862 the drafted 
troops for the nine months' service, under the President's 
call of August 4th, of that year, from the counties of 
Aroostook, Piscataquis, Penobscot, Hancock, Washing- 
ton, and Waldo, and three towns in Kno.x county, were 
ordered to rendezvous at ("amp John Pope, the first 
named in Bangor. Colonel Mayo, ,as already noted, was 
made commandant, with, a little later, Benjamin A. 
Foster designated as post-adjutant, and IJewellyn T- 
Morse as quartermaster. I)rs. Mason and Weston, of 
Bangor, had charge of the Medical Department. 

Valuable aid was rendered early in the war by the 
firm of Messrs. Hinckley & Egery, foundrymen, who re- 
modeled and rifled at their establishment eighteen old- 
fashioned smooth-bore cannon, which made them greatly 
more efficient. Five of them were sent to Portland Har- 
bor, two to Wiscasset, and two to Rockland, for coast 

Among other patriotic local industries, Messrs. Wheel- 
wright, Clark & Co., in 1862, manufactured very rapidly, 
under the stress of the period, the clothing for eight of 
the nine months' regiments recruited that year. 

In April, 1861, at once upon the call for men to go to 
the country's aid, $12,000 were subscribed in Bangor 
for the support of the families of volunteers. The city 
authorities, however, allowed only a |wrt of this to be 
collected and disbursed, as the council presently assumed 
the expense of such jjatriotic benefactions. The ladies of 
the city began to organize for provision for the sick and 
wounded of the army as soon as their services were 
needed. Military drill, on the recommendation of the 
Mayor and by formal order of the city council, was in- 
troduced as an e.xercise in the Boys' High School; and 
one or more of the boys' select schools of the city also 
adopted it, while the citizens organized in voluntary com- 
panies for drill. 

Space would fail to tell of all the good words and 
deeds of Bangor, as well as the rest of Penobscot county, 
during the terrible contest. One-fifth of the entire male 
population of the city, between the ages or eighteen and 
forty, entered the service of the country during the first 
year of the war. Nine hundred and fifty-eight volun- 
teered in the year reported — 1861-62. In the official 
year, 1864-65, when it had become so difficult to procure 
men for the service, 524 were enlisted at Bangor. In 
all, about 2,700 from this one city aided in the field or 
on the seas to save the Nation from destruction. The 
bounties for enlistments ])aid from the city treasury 
amounted to $21,300; by the citizens, $17,655. 

Meanwhile the city was suffering severely in all its 
financial interests, except those relating to the supply and 
subsistence of troops. Its coastwise commerce fell off 
from 3,275 clearataces in 1S60 to 1,652 the year follow- 
ing, and did not recover until after the war. At least 

four vessels owned at Bangor were captured by the rebel 
privateers — the ship Golden Rocket, the brigs Elsinore 
and Wm. McGilvery, and the schooner Arcade. 

Nevertheless the sentiment of the city was steadfastly 
true to the Union. The Peace Party commanded but 
31 out of 1,992 votes at the election of September, 1861. 

'I'he names of officers and soldiers from Bangor will 
be found in the rolls printed on subsequent pages. Bi- 
ographical notices of many of them will appear in con- 
nection with the History of Bangor. We desire to 
subjoin here, however, the list of its warrior dead, which 
was made up at the close of the war by the intelligent 
industry of some of the officers of the city, and is pub- 
lished in the city reports for 1865: 


Robert L. .-Atkins, Co. K, Second Maine regiment. Killed at HanovCr 
('. H., May 27, 1862. 

John Ayer, Captain Co. H, Si.vteenth M.iinc regiment. Died in 
rebel hospital, Richmond, February 22, 1863. 

Eben E. Andrews, Co. I, Fourteenth Maine regimi-nt. l^ied at .Au- 
.i^usla, Maine, April 2, i86s. 

.Amaziah Billings, Co. D, First regiment Maine heavy artillery. Died 
in Bangor, Maine. April 17, 1865. 

William Bartlett, Co. D, First regiment Maine heavy artillery. Died 
in hospital at Philadelphia, July 6, 1864. 

Charles E. Bicknell, on board United States steamer Cambridge, 
drowned December 15, 1862. 

ScoUay D. Baker. Captain Co. I, Ninth Miiine regiment. Killed at 
Fort Gregg, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, September 8, 1863. 

George F. Browne, Lieutenant Co. H, Fourth Maine regiment 
Killed at the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

Warren Boynton, C'o. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Killed in battle December 15, 1864. 

Benjamin C. Benson, Co. G, Second Maine regiment. Drowned in 
the Potomac river, August 30, 1862. 

(jeorge H. Benson. Ensign United States bark Horace Beals. Died 
at Pensacola Bay, October 9, 1863. 

Isaac Berry, Co. F, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the battle of 
Harrison C. H., May 27, 1862. 

John BilUngs, Co. F, Second Maine regiment. Died at F'ortress 
Monroe, November 28, 1861. 

Stephen D. Carpenter, Major Nineteenth regiment United .States in- 
fantry. .Shot at the battle of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, December 3r, 

Jeremiah Corcoran, Co. I, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the 
battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. 

Rufus H. Cole, Nineteenth Massachusetts regiment. Died in hospi- 
tal at Smoketown. Maryland. October 5, 1862. 

Peter Cannon, Co. I, .Second Maine regiment. Died at Hall's Hill, 
January 28, 1862. 

Edward R. Chamberlain, Co. A, Second Maine regiment. Died at 
.\le.\andria, 'Virginia, July 26, 1861. 

William C. Chamberlain, Co. D, First regiment Maine heavy artillery. 
Died in Washington, D. C, July 12, 1864. 

Hiram G. Claridge, Co. 1, Twelfth Maine regiment. Died in hospi- 
tal at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, January j, 1863. 

Charles B. Cobb, Sergeant Co. F, Thirty-first Maine regiment. 
Killed near Petersburg, 'Virginia, June 17, 1864. 

Charles H. Cleaves, Co. D, Fourteenth Maine regiment. Killed at 
the battle of Fort Hudson, June 10, 1862. 

Robert Carlisle, Sergeant Co. A, Thirty-first Maine regiment. Killed 
at Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 10, 1864. 

Benjamin Chase, Corporal Co. A, Thirty-first Maine regiment. Died 
in hospital at Augusta, Maine, July 22, 1864. 

William A. Cates, Co. B, First Maine heavy artillery. Died in hos- 
pital at City Point, Virginia, June 19, 1864. 

Daniel Chaplin, Colonel First Maine heavy artillery. Died in hospi- 
tal at Philadelphia, .August 20, 1864. 

John F. Drew, Co. F, First regiment Maine heavy artillery. Died in 
hospital at W.rshington, District of Columbia, July 8, 1864. 

Thomas Drummond, Lieutenant Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy 
artillery. Killed near Petersburg, June, 1864. 


Samuel W. Daggett, Captain Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy ar- 
tillery. Died in hospital at New York, July i, 1864. 

Adrian R. Drew, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. Died 
in Washington. District of Columbia, July 28, 1864. 

Henry O. Dunbar, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Killed in battle at Petersburg, Virginia, June 18, 1864. 

Charles H. Daggett, Corporal Co. B, First Maine regiment heavy ar- 
tillery. Died in Campbell Hospital, Washington. D. C. , June 30, 1864. 

Willard G. Delano. Co. K. First Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Killed in battle June r8, 1864. 

Lysander B. Dunbar. Co. H, First Maine regiment henvy artillery. 
Died in hospital at City Point, Virginia. 

WilliamJ. Deane, Sergeant Co. A, Second Maine regiment. Killed 
at the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. 

Charles V. Dudley, Co. E, Si.xth Maine regiment. Killed at the sec- 
ond battle of Fredericksburg, May 2, 1863. 

Ozra W. Davis, Co. A. Sixth Maine regiment. Killed ;U Rappahan- 
nock, Virginia, November 7, 1863. 

John A.Deahng. Co. B, Second Maine regiment, killed at the battle 
of Bull Run, July 21. i86r. 

Seth E. Drinkwater, Co. A. Thirty-first Maine regiment. Killed in 
the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 

Samuel M. Emerson, First Maine regiment, heavy artillery. Died at 
Fort Sumner, Maryland, September 25. 1863. 

Solomon G. Emery, Co. A, Sixteenth Maine regiment. Died in 
hospital at Washington, District of Columbia, December 3, 1863. 

Fred W. Five, Co. I, Thirty-first Maine regiment. Died in hospital 
at Philadelphia, April 13. 1865. 

Luther C. Fairfield, Lieutenant Co. H, Seventh regiment Maine 
volunteers. Died in hospital at Portland, February, 1863. 

John A. Farnham, Co. K, Eighth Maine regiment. Died at Beau- 
fort, July I, 1863. 

Edward R. Flowers, Master's Mate, United States navy. Killed on 
board the United States gun-boat Maiatanza, off Wilmington, North 
Carolina, October, 1862. 

Albert W. Forbes, Co. I, Fourteenth Maine regiment. Died at 
Boston, Massachusetts, April 8. 1865. 

Edward A. Goodale, Co. E, Sixth Maine regiment. Died in Bangor, 
July 13. 1863. 

Walter S. Goodale, Lieutenant Co. H, Fourth Maine regiment. 
Killed at the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

Nathan D. Hanson, Co. F, First Maine regiment. Killed near 
Petersburg, June 18, 1864. 

Edward W. Hanson, Co. B, Twenty-second Maine regiment. Died 
at Opelousas, Louisiana, May 10, 1863. 

Nathan A. Hopkms, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Killed .at Spottsylvania May 9. 1864. 

Willii'm H. H. Hasey, Sergeant Co. E, Twentieth Maine regiment. 
Died in hospital at David's Island, New York, September 28, 1864. 

Joseph E. Hatton, Co. F, Thirty-first Maine regiment. Died in 
hospital at Washmgton, June g, 1864. 

William P. Holdeu, Sergeant Co. G, Second Maine regiment. Died 
at United States General Hospital, at Annapolis, Maryland, May =;, 

John W. Hurd, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. Died 
at Fort Alexander, near Washington, District of Columbia, December 
16, 1862. 

Albert M. Jackson, Co. H, District of Columbia cavalry. Died at 
Sahsbury, North Carolina, January. 1865. 

Charles D. Jameson, Brigadier-General. Died at his residence. 
Upper Stillwater, from disease contracted in the service, November 6, 

William Jordan. Second Maine regiment, and transferred to the 
Twentieth Maine regiment. Killed at the battle of Gettysburg, July 
3. 1863. 

Stephen H. Leighton, Co. H, Second Maine regiment. Killed at 
the battle of Bu'l Run, July 21. 1861. 

Sewell B. Lombard, Co. D, Fourteenth Maine regiment. Killed at 
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, August 5, 1862. 

Otis E. Lufkin, Co. A, First Maine cavalry. Killed in battle March 
31, 1865. 

John J. Marstan, Co. H, Sixteenth Maine regnnent. Died in hos- 
pital at Richmond, Virginia, February 24, 1864. 

Andrew McP'adden, Co. I, Fourteenth Maine regiment. Died at 
Savannah, April 12, 1865. 

Lewis L. Marsh, Co. G, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the 
second battle of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

George C. Martin, Co. H, Second Maine regiment. Died at For- 
tress Monroe June 10, 1862. 

tjustavus Nason. Corporal Co. D, Thirtieth Maine regiment. Died 
in rebel prison at Tyler, Texas, July 30, 1864. 

Edward F. Orff, Co. F, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the bat- 
tle of Bull Run, July 21, i86r. 

Bryden S. Osborn, Co. I, Twelfth Maine regiment. Died at Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana, February 23, 1863. 

Frank Powers. First Maine regiment, heavy artillery. Died in hos- 
pital at David's Island, New York, August 8, 1864. 

Charles Parkhurst, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. Died 
in hospital at Alexandria, Virginia, July 18, 1864. 

W'illiam T. Pierce, Co. A, Thirty-first regiment Maine volunteers. 
Killed in the Wilderness fight, May 15, 1864. 

George L. Palmer, engineer. Killed on board the United States 
monitor Patapsco, in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, January 15, 

Charles W. Pierce, Corporal Co. F, Seventh Maine regiment. Died 
in United Stales hospital, New York Harbor, November 9, 1862. 

Isaiah B. Scribner, Co. B, Sixth Maine regiment. Died in hospital at 
Washington, D. C, January 21, 1864. 

James Stone, Co. 1, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the battle of 
Hanover C. H,, May 27, 1865. 

Frank W. Sabine, Captain Co. C, Eleventh Maine regiment. Died 
at Chesapeake hospital, Fortress Monroe, September 15, 1864. 

John M. Sherwood, Lieutenant Co. E, Twentieth Maine regiment. 
Killed in the Wilderness May 8. 1864. 

Alfred M. Sprague, Co. K, First Maine regiment heavy arlillery. 
Died at Washington, D. C. , January 28, 1864. 

Charles W. Smith, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Died in hospital at Fredericksburg, May 22, 1864. 

Henry A. Smiley, Co. E, First Mame regiment heavy artillei-y. 
Died at Washington. D. C, May 25, 1864. 

Amos N. Smiley, Co. C, Twenty-fourth Maine regiment. Died in 
Bangor, August 16, 1863. 

Shepherd S. Thomas, Sergeant Co. I, Ninth Maine regiment. Killed 
near Petersburg, Virginia, July 4, 1864. 

Charles A. Thatcher, in command United States steamer Gazelle, 
Killed by guerillas at Morganza, Louisiana, November 25, 1864. 

William L. Pitcher, Major Fourth Maine regiment. Killed at the 
liattle of Fredericksburg, December 13. 1662. 

Henry A. Pollard, Co. G, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the 
battle of Hanover C. H., May 27, 1862. 

James (Juimby, Co. B, Fourth Maine regiment. Killed at the battle 
of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 

James L. Rowe, Sergeant Co. F, Second Maine regiment. Killed 
at Hanover C. H., May 27, 1862. 

Frederic H. Rogers, Company K, Fourth Maine regiment. Killed at 
the battle of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 

Amos H. Richardson, Co. B, Twenty-second Maine regiment. Died 
in Bangor, August 15, 1863. 

James Robinson, Co. I, Second Maine regiment. Died in prison at 

Harvey H. Reed, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. Died 
at City Point hospital, Virginia, June 26, 1864. 

Frank S. Robinson, Co. D, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Killed near Petersburg, June, 1864. 

Benjamin F. Scribner, Co. B, Twentieth Maine regiment. Killed 
at the battle of Rappahannock Station, November 7, 1863. 

Sumner Tibbetts, Corporal Company D, First Maine regiment heavy 
artillery. Died in hospital at David's Island, New York, July 30, 1864. 

Samuel F. Thompson, Captain Co. D, Twelfth Maine regiment 
heavy artillery. Killed in battle near Winchester, September 19, 1864. 

George A. Tibbetts, Co. L, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Died in hospital at Philadelphia, July i, 1864. 

Ransom Wharton, Second Maine regiment. Killed at second battle 
of Bull Run, August 30, 1862. 

Henry O. Wilson, Co. B, Twenty-second Maine regiment. Killed 
at Port Hudson, June ri, 1863. 

Oscar Woer, Second Maine regiment, and transferred to the Twen- 
tieth Maine regiment. Killed in the battle of (ieltysburg. July 31, 

Patrick Welch, Co. G, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the battle 
of Fredericksburg December, 13, 1862. 

Asa Wilson, Co. F, Second Maine regiment. Killed at the second 
battle of Bull Run. August 30, 1862. 


Kichard H. Websler, Co. I, Second Maine regiment. Died at Hull's 
Hill. January 19, 1862. 

Daniel \, ("o. K. Eleventli Maine rcginienl. Died at Yorklown, 
Virginia, June 5, 1862. 

Albert M. Wheeler, Co. H, Seventh Maine regiment. Died in hcs- 
pital at Newport News, Virginia, April 27, 1862. 

Frederick E. Webster, Co. B. Twenty-second Maine regiment. Died 
in hospital at Baton Rouge, March 5, 1863. 

Henry Warren, Captain Co. G, Seventh Maine regiment. Killed 
near Spoltsylvania. May 18, 1864. 

Charles H. Whittier, Co. A, Thirty-first Maine regiment. l>i<'d in 
hospital at Washington, July 11, 1864. 

Keginalfl B. Wiggin, Captain Co. A. Second Maine regiment, trans- 
ferred to Invalid Corps. Died in Washington, August i, 1864. 

Thomas D. Wilherly, Sergeant Co. H, Si.\teentli Maine regiment. 
Died in liangor, March 26, 1865. 

Franklin W. Whittier, Co. D, l-'irst Maine regiment heavy artillery. 
Killed near Petersburg, June 18, 1864. 

Daniel O. Pollard, First Maine regiment heavy aitillery. I)ii-<lJune, 

John S. Libby, First Maine regiment heavy artillery. Killed June 
I, 1864. 

Patrick Carlton, dii-d in Port koyal. July 9, 1862. 

Herman K. Day, Second Maine regiment. Died in hos|>it;il, Fel;- 
ruary 6, 1862. 

Michael Melian, died in Bangor. .August, 1864. 

So early as 1862, a large subscription was made, by 
tiie people of Batigor, to a fund for the building of a 
monument in honor of the deceased soldiers of the war. 
A sufficient sum was raised in due time, a Soldiers' Mon- 
ument Association was organized, and on the 17th of 
June, 1864, the monument was dedicated in Mt. Hope 
Cemetery, with fitting ceremonies and addresses, in the 
[jresence of a large assembly. The Mayor of the city 
for the time being is President of the Association, by its 


A considerable number of somewhat informal and not 
fully organized military comi)anies were formed in the 
State during the first year of the war, and familiarly 
known as "Home (kiards." The Penobscot valley had 
its lull share of these; and musters of the companies in 
battalions or regiments, for drill or discipline, and for re- 
view by the superior officers of the State militia, were 
held during 1861 as follow: At South Nevvburg, 
August 29th; Monroe, Septeiwber 25th; Hampden, Oc- 
tober 9th; North Newburg, October 15th; and at Ban- 
gor the same (all. At the last-named, Colonel William H. 
Mills was in command; at North and South Newburg, 
and at Hampden, Colonel Amasa Walker commanded, 
and Mr. F. G. Flagg, of that place, served as Adjutant. 
Major James H. Butler, commanding the First Division 
of State militia, and staff, reviewed the (iuards at Ban- 
gor and Hampden. 


In 1863, March 25th, the Legislature passed an act 
for the formation of State Cuards, with an organization 
similar to that of the older militia, in companies, regi- 
ments, brigades and divisions. Under this act David 
Bugbee, of Bangor, became Colonel of the First Regi- 
ment, in the First Division; Lebbens Oak, of Garland, 
Major; Frank H. Garnsey, Adjutant; Charles H. Den- 
nett, Quartermaster; and Dr. Ralph K. Jones, Surgeon. 
Llewellyn J. Morse, of the same. Captain of Company 
A: Josiali S. Ricker, also of Bangor, Captain of Com- 

pany B; John B. Maxfield, of Dexter, Captain of Com- 
])any 1'"; and George S. Clark, of Garland, Captain of 
Company H;— all in Colonel Bugbee's regiinent. Roby 
Ireland, of Bangor, was Second Lieutenant of Company 
A, which had ninety-two men, besides a full complement 
of sergeants and corjjorais; Theodore C. Johnson was 
First Lieutenant, and George W. Stevens, Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company 1!~ ninety-three men; David H. Ad- 
dison, of De.xter, Set:ond Lieutenant of Company F — 
ninety-one men ; Elisha Skinner, of Portland, First, and 
L. Oak, of the same, Second Lieutenant — seventy-six 
men. When the garrison at Fort McClary, protecting 
the navy-yard at Kittery, was ordered to the front in 
1864, Company A was mustered into the United States 
service, and served at the fort from July 7th to Septem- 
ber 8, 1864. Company B was afterwards ordered to the 
same point, and served similarly the United States from 
September 3d, to November 7, 1864. An interesting duty 
was performed by Company A the year before, which is 
thus noticed in the succeeding rejiort of Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Hodsden: 

Captain I.. J. Morse, Company A. of Bangor, in the First Division, 
promptly obeyed an order of May 8th to attend upon the funeral cere- 
monies of the late lamented Major-General Hiram G. Berry, at Rock- 
land on the nth of that month. The full ranks and soldiery bearing 
of this splendid company, on that as well as other occasions, afforded 
an indication of the immense military power in this and other free States 
yet slumbering, which might be called into action should legislators 
ever awaken to a just realization of the necessity of coming to the aid 
of the Government with such a reasonable proportion of existing physi- 
cal force, if under a proper militia organization, as may render it some 
substantial service in the present struggle for its re-establishment. 

The following-named were the officers of the First Divi- 
sion of the State militia, at the close of 1863: James H. 
Butler, Major-General, Bangor; Charles E. Dole, Aide-de- 
Camp, Bangor; Joseph L. Smith, Aide-de-Camp, Old- 
town; James Dunning, Division Inspector, Bangor; 
Thomas Hersey, Division Quartermaster, Bangor; Ed- 
mund \\'. Flagg, Division Advocate, Bangor. This is 
the same list as at the close of 1861, except for a change 
in the Judge Advocate. At that time Charles D. Jame- 
son, of Orono, was Colonel of the h'irst Regiment, First 
Division; Charles W. Rogers, of Bangor, Lieutenant 
Colonel; George Varney, Major; and Dr. A. C. Hamlin, 
Surgeon — although all these officers were then in the 
United States service. Marion B. Patton, of Brewer, 
was Major of the First Battery of Artillery, and Francis 
A. Conner, of Brewer, Adjutant of the First Division. 

Company A, cavalry, of Bangor; Company A, artil- 
lery, of Brewer; Companies B and C, light infantry, of 
Bangor; Company 1), light infantry, of Lagrange; Com- 
])any A, riflemen, Veazie; and Company C, riflemen, of 
Patten, entered the Federal service the first year of the 


Promptly upon the outbreak of the war, the Legisla- 
ture was convened in extra session, and made provision 
for the raising of ten regiments, fully armed and equip- 
ped by the State, for two years' service. A bounty of 
two months' pay was given to each enlisted man who 
was a resident of the State. General orders were ssued 



to the Major-Generals of the Maine miHtia, April 22, 
1861, for the raising at once of the ten thousand volun- 
teers,- for "the active militia service of the State." The 
l'"irst and Second Maine regiments were thus enlisted; 
hut the former, with the assent of the officers and men, 
was mustered into the United States service for three 
u'onths, to fill the quota of Maine under the first call of 
the President, and the latter was subsequently mustered 
into the Federal army for the i)eriod of three years. Four 
other regiments were raised under the act of Legislature, 
but when the order of the \^'ar Department was received, 
requiring all enlistments to be for three years, the volun- 
teers already in the State service were invited to sign a 
contract for an additional year, and those who declined 
were mustered out. The regiments were filled up 
|)romptly, and by the 17th of May it became evident 
that the patriotic response of the people would supply 
recruits much faster than the quartermaster and commis- 
sary departments of the .State could provide for them. 
.\n order was therefore promulgated that day, diiecting 
tliat all companies in excess of those already designated 
and necessary for the six regiments in service should 
elect to be disbanded, or be placed on such a footing as 
to drill and pay as would measurably relieve them, and 
yet make their services available when desired. Under 
these orders eighteen companies were nmstered and 
paid from the date of their several organizations to the 
day of payment. Among them were the commands of 
Captains Cass and Carlisle, at Bangor, Captain Crowell, 
at \\'interport. Captain Sawyer, at Di.xmont, Captain 
Roberts, at Dexter, and Captain Boynton, at Newport. 
One-third of the eighteen surplus companies, it seems, 
had been raised in the Penobscot \'alley. .\11 these 
decided to take leave of absence, without pay or rations, 
until again summoned into service. Twelve of the Ca])- 
tains, with most of their original companies, did after- 
wards enter the Federal service. 

In the Report of the Adjutant-General of the State 
for 1S62, honorable mention is made of a large number 
of cities and towns which had furnished their quotas, not 
only fully and promptly, but in such numbers as gave a 
surplus beyond their quotas. Among tlieni were the 

I'enobscot county. — Bradley, Chester, Dixmont, Etna, 
Lagrange, Lincoln, jNLattawamkeag, Oldtown, Orono, 
Springfield, and Winn. 

From beginning to end of the war, most of the 
towns of Penobscot county were kept "out of the draft," 
though a great many substitutes were furnished, as will 
appear elsewhere in this chapter. In 1863, in Penobscot 
county, as in many other places in the Slate, a disloyal 
spirit of resistance to the draft became manifest, and 
preparations for war at home were made in some locali- 
ties. Dexter, with some towns in other counties, was 
supplied by the State with light field guns, for the use of 
the State Guards in case of local rebellion, while careful 
preparation was made for possible trouble at Bangor. 
The Adjutant-General's Report the next year said: "At 
Bangor, His Honor, Mayor Dale, deemed it prudent to 
have such jiublir jiroperty stored at the State .\rsenal as 

might be made available to an enemy or a mob, removed 
to localities in the city more easily and securely guarded. 
Joseph N. Downe, Esq., an experienced artillerist, 
(though not in commission,) was placed in charge of the 
city defences and the drilling of gunners." The temporary 
danger, however, we are pleased to record, was passed 
without bloodshed. 

The following is the Adjutant-General's exhibit of en- 
listments and credits otherwise obtained in Penobscot 
county : 



Fangor . . . . 
Bradford . . , 
Bradley . . , . 


Carmei . . . . 


Chester . . . . 


Corinna.. . . 
Corinth . . . . 


Dixmont '. . . . 













How land 











Mount Chase.-. 

New liurg 

New port 






Plymouth . . 






Drew plantation 

Maltamiscontis plantation.. 

Medwav plantation 

.\'o. ■ 


No. of Milford 

K. I 


R. I 

R. 6, (Monterey). . . 

K. 6, (O.vbow). .'.... 
Pattagumpus plantation. . . 

Webster plantation 

Whitney Ridge plantation. 
Woodville plantation 

•a o z, 

3 o tri 

c " 5 

K - 3 

Total of County. 

3 o f^ 

re a) I . 

3 2." 




































































421 1 





























































The returns of enrolled militia for 1861, complete for 
Penobscot county, showed 9,124 men (only 818 less 
than Cumberland, and greater than any other county in 
the State). 

It is thus seen how large a projiortion -97.5 |)er cent. 
— of the militiamen of Penobscot enlisted in the ser- 
vice of their country. 


We now come to the immense roll of honor that 
records the magnificent contingent Penobscot county put 
in the lield during the late war. Happily, the care of 
the company clerks and all others concerned with the 
preparation of the rolls and their publication, enables us 
to locate with reasonable certainty in his own town 
almost every man in the regimental or battery organiza- 
tions. It is hoped that few blunders occur in this — 
either of omission or of misplacing a soldier. So far as 
was practicable we have followed the soldiers in their 
|)rou)olions, if any ; but it is hardly probable that all have 
been observed. We repeat that most of the sketches of 
history are taken almost verbatim from .Adjutant General 
Hod.sdon's reports: 


was organized Ajiril 28, 1861, and mustered into the 
United States service at Portland, May 3d, to serve three 
months. On the ist day of June it left for Washington, 
where it encamped on Meridian Hill, and there remained 
in the performance of necessary guard duty at exposed 
points till ;\ugust I St, when it left for Portland, where it 
was mustered out of the United States service, August 
5th, by Captain Thomas Hight, Second United States 

The only member of this regiment from the Penobscot 
valley seems to have been William H. Moore, of Corinna, 
Private of ( 'o. K. 


'i'his regiment, being a consolidation of the veterans 
and recruits of the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh regiments 
of infantry, was organized at Charlestown, Virginia, Au- 
gust 21, 1864, in accordance with orders from War De- 
partment, and was engaged at the battle of Charlestown 
during the first day of its organization. The regiment 
was also engaged at Winchester on September 19th, at 
Fisher's Hill on the 2 ist, and at Cedar Creek on October 
19th, taking its part in all the marches of the Shenandoah 
Valley canii)aign, losing in the several engagements 1 
officer, 1 1 enlisted men killed, 2 officers, 97 en- 
listed men wounded, and 15 missing. On the 12th 
of December the regiment arrived at City Point, Vir- 
ginia, and remained in front of Petersburg doing 
camp and picket duty, besides being occasionally en- 
gaged in skirmishing, until the 25th of March, 1865, 
when it formed a part of the column of the Sixth Corps, 
in their successful assault of the enemy's lines near Fort 
Fisher. On the 2d of April it jjarticipated in the en- 
gagement at Hatcher's Run, and afterwards took a prom- 
inent ])art in the storming of the battery at Lee's head- 
quaiters; then skirmished across the .'\ppomatox until 
nightfall. It .tIso partiri|).Ued in the pursuit of's 

retreating army, as also its surrender; and on the 26th 

of April it arrived at Danville, Virginia, where the regi- 
ment was stationed doing provost duty during the follow- 
ing month. Afterwards the regiment returned to \\'ash- 
ington, participated in the grand review at that place on 
the 23d of May, when, on the 28th of June, they were 
mustered out of the United States service by Brevet- 
Major George H. Amidon, A. C. M., and immediately 
proceeded to Maine, and were paid and finally discharged 
on the 3d of July. 

1 n:M) AND .STAl'l--. 

.Adjutant William H. Coan, Eexter. 
Quartermaster-.Sergeant Moses I'almer, jr.. I'atten. 


First Ijieulenant George R. Cony, Oldtown. 

First Lieutenant Walter B. Jenness, Oldtown. 


C-'orporal l-'.dn.ird H. Feeney, Bangor. 


Peter .Olivine, deorfje W. Bonney, Jotin Bradley, William H. Carver, 
George Casey, I'Yank I*. Davis, Fabian Dube, Edward Fortier, William 
R. Grant, Nathaniel K. Johnson, John Loney, Joseph Vanna, Bangor; 
Robert Honell, George R. Cony, Joseph Fiancis, Oldtown; John 
Gerow, Veazie; Walter B. Jenness, Harmon. 



.Second Lieutenant .\l\in .A. Messer, Enfield. 


'Thomas -Malony, Bangor; George .\. Cook, Charles 1>. I'eltman, 
•IsolahS. Pealsah, Oldtown; Moses Giles, Glenburn; Henry C. Hold, 
Kddington; P'reenian Haur, Hudson; John Lisbon, Thomas F. 
Crocker, Oruno; iMvin A. .Messer, Enfield. 



Second Lieuttnant Charles Lowell, Enfield. 


Sergeant Walter B. Jenness, Hermon. 
.Sergeant John J. Fogg. Orono. 
Sergeant Isaac Pratt, Oldtown. 
Corporal J oseph W. Eslabrook, Bangor. 
C'orporal fienjamin V. Goodwin, Stetson. 


;\lonzo Celley, -Alvin B. Hudson, I-"rank B. Holden, Arthur Ingra-, John S. McC'lure, William J. White, Bangor; Phineas T. Bean, 
George H. Doherly, I-'olsom Dulton, Edward Felix, Parmenter Shep- 
ard, Jeremiah Pbtnscomb, (Jeorge ICinsell, Octave I^izotte, Charles E. 
Miles, Joseph W. Riggs, (Jlreen C. Spencer, Charles E. Atwood, Ken- 
duskeag; .Mien W. Bailey, Milford; Samuel Emery, jr., Veazie; 
Charles W. Johnston, StilKvatei ; Mark C. Jenness, Hermon; Edwin 
Jordan, Bradley; S. Libby, Lincoln; Edward Reynolds, 
Winn; Stephen .Sewall, Milford; Colby Smith, Bradley; Ira F. Stinch- 
field, David C. Whitnev, Lincoln; I*' rank W. Titcomb, Garland; Ira 
H. Tibbetts, Carmel; Asa G. Wiggin, George W. Fogg, Stetson; 
Ileniy C. WTiite, LoW'cU; .Augustus Whitman, Orono. 



Sergeant James W. .Sutlierland, Bangor. 


Aionzo Halchelder, .Mien V. Greene, William .\. Jellison, Henry (J. 
Lane, .Andrew Mann, l'"rancis McCarty, John iMcGeary. Peter .Xewell, 
John M. Rice, ("harles Roberts, Charles B. Vickery, W^illiam S. Carr, 
Bangor; Judson W'. Currier, Garland; Charles Dyer, Oliver J. Fuller, 
George S. Gould, Jonas P. Lovejoy, Asa B. Lowell, William H. 
Quimby, John Roncon, Edward J. Sturtevant, Dexter; Martin V. 
Eldridge. Newbury; W. Frost, James C. Lander, Joseph Wormwood, 
('urinna: Lorenzo H. Roberts, Corinth; Benjamin F. Pratt, Oldtown. 



C.i[5tain William Crosby, Bangor. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Fogg, Stetson. 


.Sergeant .Albert L. Jones, Holden. 
Corporal Hosea Q. Morton, Etna. 
Corporal Thomas W. Cluck, Clifton. 


Moses B.abcock. Micli.ael Gallagher, James H. McKeen, William 
Parker, Stephen Willetts, William Crosby, .-\nthony I'erry, Bangor; 
Hannibal H. Coombs, John Glover, John S. Yates, .Matlawamkeag; 
Harry F. Mills, Daniel E. Mills, Levant; William D. Mills. Corinth; 
Thomas L. Pillsbury, Garland; Josiiua Withani, Dexter; Kphr.iiin 
Perkins, Brewer. 



Captain George H. Buker, Bangor. 


Wagoner Isaiah .Allen, Lincoln. 


Henry Cowan, Warren H. Farrer, De\\'itt C. Morrill, Bangor; George 
L. Buswell. De.xter; George Cole, Oldtown; .Vlvah H. Dol)ie, Etna; 
I)a\id S. Richardson, Greenbush; Stephen A. Goodwin, Lincoln. 



Sergeant George X. Fogg, Stetson. 
Corporal Michael H. Smith, Lincoln. 


Peter .Ames, James Kenney, Bangor; Joseph R. Brown, Dexter; 
Henry M. Curtis, Charles Glassion, .Alexander H. Hunt, Calvin Lea- 
vitt, Sebattis Mohawk, Frank Susup. (Jeorge W. Wilson, Oldtown; 
John Mcgaw, Carroll; Silas R. Rowell, Eddington; John Thompson, 
llermon; Hiram Lowell, P.Uten. 



Captain Walter B. Jenners, Oldtown. 

Second Lieutenant Warren T. Ring, Oldtown. 

Second Lieutenant Walter B. Jenners, Oldtown. 


Sergeant William H. Pitcher, Bangor. 

Sergeant Alvin .A. Messer, Enfield. 

Sergeant Nyron B. Roberts, Lincoln. 

Corporal Francis Laing, Passadumkeag. 

Coiporal Charles M. Farnham, F.dinburg. 

Corporal John B. Fleming, Lincoln. 

Corporal Willis S. Lancaster, Maxfield. 

Corporal Oliver Hull, Oldtown. 

Musician Benjamin Gates, Bangor. 


Felix F'.ettei's, James Carney, William W. H.arris, Charles Jimmo, 
M.ayland F. Jacobs, John Nedds, Samuel Newell, Benjamin Oakes, 
Madison C. Rowe, Charles C. Smith, .Alexander N. Hunt, Warren I. 
Ring, Oldtown; William E. Chalman. James Shean, George .A. Stet- 
son, William Gilison, Bangor; Horace Dexter, Corinth; Daniel Floyd, 
Llewellyn Pollard, Hampden; John .\L Garey, Garland; Luther 
Haynes, Franklin Haynes, Passadumke.ig; M. V. B. Hutchins, 
Brewer; Marshal Jimmo, Patten; Joseph C. Kelley, Orono; Orlando 
J. Rowe, Eddington; Frankhn Young, E.xeter; Walter B. Jenners, 



First Lieutenant Benjamin F. Bicknell, Bangor. 
First Lieutenant Warren T. Ring, Oldtown. 


Sergeant Lewis E. Hardy, Hampden. 
Sergeant -Andrew J. Kimball, Patten. 
Corporal .Albion P. Hardy, Hampden. 
Corporal J osiah Smith, Garland. 

Corporal James Norton, Bangor. 
Musician Reuel D. Worcester, Hermon. 
Musician Sumner H. Condon, Bangor. 
Wagoner John Isham, Bangor. 


Benjamin Bicknell, William P. Burgess, Richard Davis, James John- 
son, Patrick Early, Bangor: Elisha C. Debeck, Clifton; .Abraham 
Grover, Sidney -A. Milton, Oldtown; George W. Hodgkins, Stetson; 
Hibbard S. Leeman, Dexter; George Lesser, Orono; Greenleaf B. 
Staples, Glenburn; Charles T. Snow, Hani]xlen; Rufus K. Stevens, 
Hudson; Joseph Stanislaus, Lincoln. 



C.iptain Warren T. King, Oldtown. 


Wagoner Charles S. Worcester, Glenburn. 


George Bunker, Charleston; Joseph H. Burton, William C. Mann, 
Eddington; Sylvanus Davis, William H. Evans, Otis W. Ellis, William 
H. Gullifer, James Garrity, Joseph Gillespie, Peter Grant, Gilman 
Knights, John O. Lee, Michael McLaughlin, James McGunuicle, 
Jesse H. Snow, George A. Tweedie, Thomas C. Barker, Bangor; 
Henry Jones, Hampden; James S. Russell, Glenburn; Hosea Sawyer, 
Orono; John Swassen, P. Smith, Warren T. Ring, Oldtown; 
George W. Fogg, Stetson; Francis Laing, Passadumkeag. 


This regiment was organized at Bangor, leaving there 
May 14, 1861, and was mustered into the United States 
service at Willett's Point, Long Island, N. Y., May 28, 
1861, to serve two years. Arrived at Washington on the 
31st, and encamped on Meridian Hill till July ist, 
and at Falls Church, Virginia, until the i6th. It 
took a prominent part in the battle of Bull Run, July 
2ist, losing in the engagement 47 killed and wounded, 
and over 100 missing. Arriving in Washington on the 
23d, they garrisoned Fort Corcoran until the middle of 
October, when they were assigned to the First brigade. 
Porter's division, and left the fort for Hall's Hill, remain- 
ing there until the ist of Maich, 1862, at which time they 
advanced vi'ith the Army of the Potomac on Manassas; 
afterwards participated in the siege of Yorktown. On the 
27th of May, the regiment was engaged at the battle of 
Hanover Court House. During this engagement their loss 
in killed wass light, though the number of wounded was 
large. The regiment took a prominent part in the battle of 
Gaines Hill, and during the seven days' retreat was repeat- 
edly under fire, and at the battle of Malvern Hill success- 
fully held a dangerous and conspicuous position during the 
day, losing but few men. They remained several weeks 
at Harrison's Landing, when on its evacuation they were 
ordered to join General Pope's army, and on the 30th 
of August participated in the battle of Manassas. They 
retreated with the army to Washington and encamped on 
Arlington Heights, where after remaining three days they 
marched into Maryland. 

At the battle of Antietam, on the 17th of Sep- 
tember, the regiment was under fire in the reserve, and 
after the battle was among the first to enter Sharpsburg 
after the enemy had left. Shortly after this the regiment 
in an effort to ford the river at Shepherdstown, was con- 
fronted by a largely superior force of the enemy, and, 
under a galling fire, was obliged to re-ford the river. On 
the 13th of December the regiment took a prom- 
inent part in the battle of F'redericksburg. Their loss in 





killed and wounded in that engagement was very heavy. 
During General Hooker's operations at Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville, the regiment formed a part of the 
right wing of his army, and at the last named battle, in 
May, 1863, was mostly behind breastworks. When the 
regiment's time expired in May, 125 of the number who 
were sworn in for three years, were transferred to the 
Twentieth Maine volunteers, and the remainder, 275, in- 
cluding officers and men, returned to Maine, where they 
were mustered out of the United States service at Ban- 
gor, June 4 and 9, 1863, by Captain Thomas C. J. Bai- 
ley, Seventeenth United States infantry. 


Colonel Charles D. Jameson, Bangor. 
Colonel Charles W. Roberts, Bangor. 
Colonel George Vamey, Rangor. 
Lieutenant Colonel Charles W. Roberts, Bangor. 
Lieutenant Colonel George Varney, Bangor. 
Lieutenant Colonel Daniel F. Sargent, Bangor. 
Major George Varney, Bangor. 
Major Daniel Chaplin, Bangor. 
Major Daniel F. Sargent, Bangor. 
Adjutant John E. Reynolds, Bangor. 
Quartermaster Charles V. Lord, Bangor. 
Quartermaster Samuel W. Hoskins, Oldtown. 
Surgeon William H. Allen, Orono. 
Surgeon Daniel McRuer, Bangor. 
Surgeon Samuel B. Morrison, Bangor. 
Assistant Surgeon Augustus C. Hamlin. Bangor. 
Assistant Surgeon .^Iden D. Palmer, Orono. 
Assistant Surgeon John T. Main, Unity. 
Assistant Surgeon William R. Benson, Newport. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Luther A. Pierce, Bangor. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Samuel Nash, Bangor. 
Sergeant Major Edward L. Appleton, Bangor. 
Sergeant Major Charles J . Ellis, Oldtown. 
Sergeant Major James A. Banks, Bangor. 
Hospital Steward .Alden L. Palmer, Orono. 
Hospital Steward Daniel W. Edgerly. Bangor. 
?Iospital .Steward Grenlief C. Brook, Bangor. 
Commissary Sergeant Rodney W. Warren, Bangor. 


Captain Herman Barllett, Bangor, Co. A. 
Captain Rinaldo B. Wiggin, Bangor, Co. A. 
Cajitain Elisha N. |ones, Orringlon, Co. C. 
('aptain Kliph.alct S. Morrill, Brewer, Co. C. 
Captain William R. C'urrier, Brewer, Co. C. 
CajJtain Levi Emerson, Bangor, Co. E. 
Captain Thomas Foster, Hampden, Co. E. 
Captain Daniel Chaplin, Bangor, Co. F. 
Captain Albion P. Wilson, Bangor, Co. F. 
Captain Frederick Meinecke, Bangor, Co. G. 
Captain Augustus B. Farnham, Bangor, Co. G. 
Captain Frank H. Garnsey, Bangor, Co. G. 
Ca|)tain Daniel F. Sargent, Bangor, Co. H. 
Captain Edward L. Getcliell, Bangor, Co. H. 
Captain John Carroll, Bangor, Co. I. 
Captain Daniel White, Bangor, Co. L 
Captain Fernando C^ Foss, Oldtown, Co. K. 
Captain John C. Quimby, Oldtown, Co. K. 
First Lieutenant Rinaldo B. Wiggin, Bangor, Co. A. 
First Lieutenant James Deane, Bangor, Co. A. 
First Lieutenant George J. Brown, Castine, Co. B. 
F'irst Lieutenant John R. Skinner, Brewer, Co. C. 
First Lieutenant William R. Currier, Brewer, Co. C. 
First Lieutenant John W. Adams, Bangor, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Thomas Foster, Hampden, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Collin L. Downs, Brewer, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Albion P. Wilson, Bangor, Co. F. 
First Lieutenant George W. Brown, Bangor, Co. F. 
Fiist Lieutenant Warren H. Boynton, Bangor, Co. F. 
First Lieutenant .Xugustus B. Farnham, Bangor, Co. G. 
First Lieutenant h'rank H. Garnsey, Bangor, Co. G. 

First Lieutenant Horatio Staples, Bangor, Co. G. 
First Lieutenant Edward L. (Jetchell, Bangor, Co. H. 
First Lieutenant Ralph W. Morse, Bangor, Co. H. 
First Lieutenant Henry Casey, Bangor, Co. L ' 
First Lieutenant Samuel B. Field, Bangor, Co. I. 
First Lieutenant .Mbert G. Fellows, Oldtown, Co. K. 
First Lieutenant .Albert L. Cowan, Oldtown, Co. K. 
Second Lieutenant James Dean, Bangor, Co. A. 
Second Lieutenant Horace Brown, Hampden, Co. A. 
Second Lieutenant Samuel B. Hinkley, Bangor, Co. A. 
Second Lieutenant Francis S. Trickcy, Bangor, Co. A. 
.Second Lieuten.ant Eliphalet S. Morrill, Brewer, Co. C. 
Second Lieutenant Francis P. Hall, Brewer, Co. C. 
Second Lieutenant Lyman E. Richardson, Bangor, Co. E. 
Second Lieutenant Thomas Foster, Hampden, Co. E. 
Second Lieutenant Collin L. Downs, Brewer, Co. E. 
Second Lieutenant Edwin L. Sterling, Bangor, Co. E. 
Second Lieutenant Warren H. Boynton, Bangor, Co. F. 
Second Lieutenant Arthur C. Whilcomb, Hampden, Co. F. 
Second Lieutenant Sewall H. Downes, Brewer, Co. F. 
Second Lieutenant Frank H. Garnsey, Bangor, Co. G. 
Second Lieutenant Horatio Staples, Bangor, Co. G. 
Second Lieutenant Joseph B. Forbes, Bangor, Co. G. 
Second Lieutenant George Vinal, Orono, Co. G. 
Second Lieutenant Ralph W. Morse, Bangor; Co. H. 
Second Lieutenant Daniel Quinby, jr., Bangor, Co. IL 
Second Lieutenant Miles Sweeney, Bangor, Co. I. 
Second Lieutenant F.J. Moore. Bangor, Co. I. 
Second Lieutenant Albert L. Cowan, Oldtown, Co. K. 
Second Lieutenant John C. Quimby, Oldtown, Co. K. 


Americus D. Harlow, Leader; Ezekiel .Andrews, James F. Bab- 
cock, .\mericus Chapman, George D. Dowing, Charles A. Frost, 
John 1'". Foster, William N. Gilles, Edwin W. Goodale, George Holt. 
Rufus Merrill, Williard B. Peaeks, William L. Leavey, Elisha M. 
Smith, .\masa White, Bmgor; Moses -A. Colburn. 


First Sergeant Joseph B. Forbes, Bangor. 
First Sergeant William P. Holden, Bangor. 
First Sergeant Edwin L. Sterling, Bangor. 
First Sergeant John M. Sherwood, Bangor. 
First Sergeant Sewal H. Downs, Brewer. 
P'irst .Sergeant James M. Simpson, Brewer. 
First .Sergeant George A. MeClellan. Oldtown. 
.Sergeant Charles Able, Bangor. 
Sergeant William J. Dean, Bangor. 
Sergeant Christojjher S. Gorham, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles F. Hall, Bangor. 
Sergeant George E. Holt, Bangor. 
Sergeant W. H. H. Hasey, Bangor. 
Sergeant Marcellus D.Joy, Bangor. 
Sergeant .Albert M. Jackson, Bangor. 
Sergeant Richard Kelleher, Bangor. 
Sergeant John Q. A. Laneey, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles F. Lovejoy, Bangor. 
.Sergeant William H. S. LawTcnce, Bangor. 
Sergeant Leonard P. Martin, Bangor. 
.Sergeant Charles W. B. Miller, Bangor. 
.Sergeant Daniel (Juiniby, jr. , Bangor. 
Sergeant J oseph L. Rowe, Bangor. 
Sergeant Reavicl David, Bangor. 
Sergeant Francis Vancon, jr., Bangor. 
Sergeant Nelson h". Libbie, Bangor. 
.Sergeant .Mbert Wiggin, Bangor. 
-Sergeant George !•'. Whitney, Bangor. 
.Sergeant Byron C. Gilmore, Bangor. 
Sergeant William R. Currier, Brewer. 
Sergeant Colin L. Downs, Brewer. 
Sergeant Francis P. Hall, Brewer. 
Sergeant James Nicholson, Brewer. 
Sergeant .Augustus Nickerson, Brewer. 
Sergeant James M. Simpson, Brewer. 
Sergeant .Albert J . Snow, Brewer. 
Sergeant Willard H. Burton, Eddinglon. 
Sergeant Joseph Card, Glenburn. 
Sergeant John .Sawyer, Herinon. 



Sergeant Himin B. i'rencli. Holden. 
Sergeant Henry H. Gilmore, Holden. 
Sergeant -Abiather J. Knowles. Lagrange. 
Sergeant Justin S. Nevans, Levant. 
Sergeant John Sawyer, N'ewbu.g. 
Sergeant James A. Burlingame, Oldtown. 
Sergeant Charles C. Morse. Oldtown. 
Sergeant John K. Quimby. Oldtown. 
Sergeant .Albert S. Ross, Oldtown. 
Sergeant Daniel -Staples, Oldtown. 
Sergeant John J. Randall, Orono. 
Sergeant George Vinal, Urono. 
Sergeant George A. .McLellan, Stillwater. 
Corporal Charles .-^ble, Bangor. 
Corporal Josiah A. Bailey, Bangor. 
Corporal Stephen D. Benson, Bangor. 
Corporal William H. Boyce, Bangor. 
Corporal Joseph \V. Chamberlain, Bangor. 
Corporal Reuel S. Clark, Bangor. 
Corporal Hartshorn P. Crowell, Bangor. 
Corporal Charles B. Cobb, Bangor. 
Coiporal Lewis Green, Bangor. 
Corporal John Hawthorn, Bangor. 
Corporal Elbridge F. Haskill, Bangor. 
Corporal Tristram VV. Haskill, Bangoi. 
Corporal William H. Johnson, Bangor. 
Corporal William S. Jordan, Bangor. 
Corporal t'eter Morgan, Bangor. 
Corporal Dennis Mahoney, Bangor. 
Corporal Leonard P. Martin, Bangor. 
Corporal Henry McLaughlin, Bangor. 

Corporal David Reaviel, Bangor. 

Corporal Ldwin L. Sterling. Bangor. 

Corporal .\lonzo Stevens, Bangor. 

Corporal Henry Schnell, Bangor. 

Corporal .•\lbert L. Spencer, Bangor. 

Corporal John E. Trafton, Bangor. 

Corporal William Twomey. Bangor. 

Corporal FYancis V'ancon, jr., Bangor. 

Corporal Peter Welch, Bangor. 

Corporal George K. Whitney, Bangor. 

Corporal J. B. York. Bangor. 

Corporal Edwin Currier, Brewer. 

Corporal Henry M. Cushman, Brewer. 

Corporal Charles W. Morrill, Brewer. 

Corporal J ames M. Simpson, Brewer. 

Corporal Moses Small, Brewer. 

Corporal Cyrus Sweet, Brewer. 

Corporal W. H. H. Wilson, Brewer. 

Corporal John S. Small, Carmel. 

Corporal James McKeen, Eddington. 

Corporal Harrison J. Kolsom, Xewburg. 

Corporal Cyrus Bray, Oldtown. 

Corporal Carpenter Burlingham, Oldtown. 

Corporal Americus V. Moore, Oldtown. 

Corporal Henry McLaughlm, Oldtown. 

Corporal John P. Wentworth, Lagrange. 

Corporal William Berry, Orrington, 

Corporal James H. Adams, Lincoln. 

Corporal .\ndrew J. Fozier. Plymouth. 

Corporal Daniel R. Kenney, Stetson. 

Corporal Joseph A. Burlingham, Stillwater. 

Corporal Cyrus F. Barrett, Hermon. 

Corporal Thomas H, Worcester, Hermon. 

Corporal Charles J. Ellis, Hermon. 

Corporal Jeremiah B. .Atkins, Exeter. 

Musician Michael Quimbey, Bangor. 

Musician Robert Quimby, Bangor. 

Musician .Alden D. Page, Brewer. 
Musician Howard Savage, Lagrange. 
Musician .Ariel H. Ward, Levant. 
Musician John T. Burnham, Oldtown. 
Musician Eben R. Dinsmore, Oldtown. 
Musician Frank N. Morrs, Veazie. 
Wagoner Charles D. Lander, Bangor. 
Wagoner Amos B. Steanes, Bradford. 
Wagoner Crosby N. Crocker, Kenduskeag. 


(ieorge B. Crawford, John H. McMuUen, William Patterson, Sam- 
uel Whitcomb, Henry S. Wiley, .Alton ; William Jellerson, 
-Alexander McKee, -Argyle ; William G. Abbot, John -Adley, Eze- 
kiel Andrews, Ananias Ash, Robert L. Atkins, James A. Banks, 
Patrick Barry, Daniel W. Bagley, David Bartlett, Thomas B. Barker. 
Edward Baker, .Ansel F. Barden, John Berkit, Thomas Belcher, Na- 
than Benson, Thomas R. Blaine, John Billings, Isaac Berry, Hiram 
A. Billington, Warren W. Bradford, Ezekiel C. Bickford, David 
Brock, Greenlief C. Brock, John D. Boynton, Edwin R. Blodgett, Ben- 
jamin C. Burton, Peter Bohn, Benjamin Chase, Alex-ander H. Chase, 
Lewis Capin, Edward R. Chamberlain, .Archibald .A. Campbell, W. 
H. Chamberlain, Patrick Casey, John Caroll 2d., Peter Cannon, 
Benjamin F. Call, George W. Carlisle, Peter Carney, George Cole. 
Alison G. Cleaves, Horton B. Crowell, Charles Crowell, Edward Con- 
way, John Conway, Hugh Conway, Lafayette M. Crosby, John R. 
Clements, Michael Crowley, Dennis Connell, Jeremiah Corcoran, Sim- 
eon Crawford, Michael Connell, Daniel J. Colson, Thomas B. Chal- 
mer, Cornelius Cronan, John L. Dearling. James W. Davis, John 
Doherty, Samuel Dearborn, John B. Drummond, Herman J. Day, 
Abraham G. Dow, William Duckworth, James Driscoll, Timothy 
Donovan, Charles F. Dougherty, John Davis, Charles W. Doble, 
Henry O. Dunbar, Lysander A. Dunbar, Garret B. Dinsmore, Daniel 
W. Edgerly, George A. Emerson, Charles H. Ellison, Levi Estes, 
William O. Farris, Abram Fenton, Patrick J. Furrell, James Flinn, 
John Fitzpatrick, William Field, Luther Furgeson, James A. Foote, 
Hairison F. Gould, Ormond F. Graves, Reuben K. Glover, Harrison 
H. Coding, Leander L. Graffam, Joseph W. Greene, George T. 
Graves, Don Gilmore, Henry Granville, John Geoghen, Hugh Gillog- 
ly, Patric Golden, jr., Seth H. H.1II, Zebedee T. Hawes, Phillips Har- 
bach, William Hatch, David D. Hanson, Cyrus Hanson, Patrick 
Hawesburg, John Harmon, Charles H. Hodgkins, Willis P. Harvey, 
George E. Holt, Otis F. Hooper, Lyman Hersey, Henry A. Holden, 
Peter Haggerty, Michael Hogan, John Higgins, Charles G. Heenan, 
Virgil N. Higgins, Sam D. Hunt, John Harniond, William Inhoff, 
Sabin Jordan, .Alvin F. Jameson, John V. Jordan, Frank .A. Johnson, 
Elden A. Keen, .Albion K. P. Knowles, Edward J. Kelleher, Michael 
Kelley, Mich-ael Kelley 2d., Thomas Kelley, James Kinney, James 
Kelly, Thomas W. Kelley, John Kelley, .Ale.xander E. Lester, Charles 
L, Lovejoy, Levi J. Lovejoy, Sam W. Leathers, William H. Love- 
joy, William E. Laflin, Stephen A. Leighton, John Lynes, Elsbury 
Macoy, Thomas McDonough, James McMahon, Michael J. McPhee. 
Samuel Mansill, George A. Miller, George A. McClure, William H. 
McKmny.Tienry W. Martin, Geoige S. Maxwell, John Y. McKenny, 
Lewis Marsh, jr., Henry H. Morse, James Mc.Anulty, Cornelius Ma- 
honey, David T. Moody, Charles Moore, William McLellan. Edward 
McKenny, Isaac McKenney, M.artin McLaughlin, Elrose McLaugh- 
lin, Albert Marsh, Frank B. Miller, Edward McTaggart, George C. 
Martin, -Samuel Marrow, John Morse, John McCann, Henry H.' May- 
ville, Robert McKenney, Timothy Mahoney, Michael McLaughlin, 
John H. Neal, William .A. Neal, James Newman, William H. Nor- 
wood, JohnOMara, Henry O'.N'iel, Hiram B. Odlin, Waldo P. Od- 
lin, John O'Brien, Edward F. Orff, jr., Francis Philbrook, Horatio 
Pitcher, David O. Pollard, George W. Pratt, Henry L. Perkins, 
Charles H. Pond, John H. Peters. Charles E. Perry, Patiick Peters, 
Richard Powers, Thomas Plumatoe, Charles R. Quint, Cyrus Rogers, 
Nathaniel R. Robbins, Enoch L. Robinson, Josiah Ray, Gershom C. 
Robbins, Charles Rollins, George H. Rich, Moses G. Rice, James 
Robinson, David H. Royal, John Riley, Philip Riley, Isaac Roberts, 
Charles F. Roberts, Henry Reaviel, Melville H. Robbins, Richard 
Soule, Horace F. Shorey, George Schwitzer, Hunnewell Shepherd. 
James R. Skillins, John F, Spaulding, Charles H. Sinclair, William 
L. .Stevens, Michael Shea, John A. Savage, Hiram Swan, Reuben 
Snow, Jeremiah Sullivan, Samuel .A. Stevens, W. H. Stevens, William 
.A. Severance, William H. Sanger, Miles J. Sweeney, Charles Stuart, 
Samuel C. Stewart, William Sheehan, Larkey Sharkey, James Stone, 
Joseph Speed, Napoleon B. Shepleo, Edward K. Spaulding, Francis 
Trickey, Charles L. Torrey, Charles Thoms, Edgar B. Taylor, Thomas 
Twomey, DennisTracey, Stephen Timmons, ThomasTimmons, William 
H. Thompson, Samuel W. Veazie, Charles B. Veazie, Sewell L. Veazie, 
Stillman W, V'erplast, Rodney M. Warren, William D. Waterhouse, 
R. H. Webster, Henry W. Wheeler, Pat Welch. Albion Whitcomb, 
George Whitney, Nathan B. Wiggin, jr. , Ezekiel F. Wentworth, H. 
N. Washburn, Bethuel Washburn, Galen Worcester, Ransom Whar- 
ton, Charles H. Whitney, Charles .A, Whitney. Asa Wilson, Willi-am 
H. Wentworth, James F. Wentworth, Oscar Wyer, Robert Wyer, 
James Wilson, John Wright, Benjamin F. York, Bangor; Augustus 


C. Bailey, Daniel Bailey, John J. Cunningham, Dan C. Dyer. John 
W. Dyer, Ezra M. Malhew, .Stephen H. Mathew, KIrose McLaughlin, 
Albert Pierce, John I-'. Reeves, .Andiew Stroul, Alvin D. N. Slrout 
Bradford; George M. Clewly, Thomas Cunningham, George Locke, 
John Locke, John Leonard, Luther M. Pollard, Alfred Sawyer, Brad- 
ley; Thomas W. .Arthur, -Mexander F. Bacon, Henry L. Barker, Ab- 
ner O. Boden, Charles Brown, William B. Brown, Frank Burr, Edwin 
Bradley, Masellus Blake, Charles B. Carter, Noah H. Cook, George J. 
C:ushing, Franklin Cushing, Charles E. Currier, Charles A. Currier, 
Charles J. Doble, -Andrew Dcering, Ambrose W. Kicketl, Charles 
l-'ilzgerald, George W. Foster, Charles E. Foster, Joseph W. Folger, W. Fickel, Lincoln Given, John T. Given, William S. (iood- 
win, Albert A. Gregg, John L. Grindlc, Leonidas Hall, Henry A. 
Harlow, W.ashiugton Harlow, Jeremi.ih Hobbs, Atherton Howes, 
John W. Kellan, Henry J. Leach, Orin Mayo, Charles W. Merrill, 
Charles F. Nickerson, Melville Xickerson, Elijah Xickerson, Asa Nick- 
olson, Joel C. I'ierce, Judson A. Kankins, William C. Sargent, La- 
forest H. Sawtelle, .Samuel Sinclair, John H. Simpson, Frank S. 
Smith, James H. Smith, Samuel H. Winchester, William W. Wad- 
leigh, Charles Washburn, Silas Washburn, LeandcrVickery, Brewer; Le- 
roy W. Atkins, John Hurd, Cyrus T. Jones, Delon Newcomb, Henry S. 
I'rescott, John Beiijamine, Jeremiah Blaisdell, John Fitzpatrick, Henry 
Hurd, William Stowcr, Daniel D. 'larr, Carmel; Atwood P. Jones, 
Carroll; Henry A. Carpenter, Charleston; Robert F. Atheron, Frederic 
A. Blood, William F. Chase, John Garnet, Warren H. Orcutt, Horace 
Wyman, Chester; Eben D. Crosby, Stephen R.' Crosby, John Colby, 
William Debeck, Charles Giles, Clifton; Ezra B. Ricker, Corinna; I'M- 
win C. Copeland, Jidward W. Copeland, Dexter; George Bean, Nor- 
ris D. Condon, Moses Cook, Winslow Cushnian, Elbridge Doble, .An- 
drew J. Getchell, William Hussey, Hollis.Sidelinker, Di.xmont; John 
W. B. Austin, Joseph C. Davis, James H. Krskine, Levi E. Lancaster, 
Llewellyn S. Maddock, George B, Martin, Phinson R. McKeen, 
Drummond Richardson, Snell W. Smith, Eddington; Valentine Spen- 
cer, Edinburg; Washington Cole, Isaac W. Deane, Isaac H. Fair- 
brother, Charles Friend, Charles Glidden, Gustine Jordan, William A. 
Souel, John A. Turner, Horace Whitcomb, Otis W. Whitcomb, Etna; 
George Edgerly, Joseph W. Kelley, Charles A. Tarbo.'i, Henry Whee- 
ler. Lander Shaw, E.\eter; Adelbert H. Sawtelle, Edward Osgood, 
Garland; James Card, Samuel O. Curtis, Washington I. Martin, Glen- 
burn; (ieorge Jejihard, Henry L. Wheeler, Andrew F. White, Nathan 
S. White, William W. Witham, CJreenfield; Edward C. Bctts, Sewell 
M. Cowan, Stephen B. Fowler, William B. Fowler, Albert G. Furbish, 
George W. Grant, Sylvanus Humphrey, iMartin Joss, Henry F. Ken- 
nard, David H. Royal, Arthur C. Whitcomb, Trustin Whitcomb, Fer- 
dinand N. Wing, William B. Welch, Hampden; Harrison L. Barrett, 
Hannibal H. Crocker, John F. Clifford, Stephen W. Dawson, Michael 
CJallagher, Alvin W. Grant, Charles T. Greene, Haskell P. Kimball, 
Lyman Moses, iimery Morrill, John F. Reed, George A. Tash, Ben- 
jamin "Webber, Thomas Wyman, Amos R. Witham, Hermon;' John 
Greenya, Albert C. Hart, Benjamin N. West, Holden, Walter P. 
Hammett, Samuel T. Haynes, Howland; Adoniram J. Bank, Charles 
Haley, James McKenny, D.ivid F. Page, John Warner, John C. 
Warner, Summer L. Warner, Kenduskcag; James Brown, Leonard D. 
Carver, Alvin H. House, John S. Knowles, Alonzo Wentworth, La- 
grange; William Crandlemire, George E. Field, Samuel Mollett, Oscar 
Thomas, Lee; John W. Curtis, George G, Mills, William J.' Mills, 
Henry McPherson, Edward F. Sealand, Levant; James M. Cl.ay, De- 
catur Gates, Charles F. Hall, John Sample, Lincoln; John C. Harvey, 
Maxheld; Peter Murtaugh, Medway; Hiram Brown. Freeman H. But- 
terfield, Albert H. Hammon, Joseph Hutchings, William J. Richard- 
son, Henry Smith, Ira W. Spencer, Daniel Whelan, Milford; Alfred 
Kneeland, Henry W. Sweetsir, Gordon Tibbelts, .Newburgh'; Henry 
H. BlaekwcU, Hollis G. Libbey, Judson A. Ross, Hollis B.' Marsh 
Newport; Charles C. Brown, Paul Burton, Benedict Buines, Elijah 
Carr, Benjamin J. Coombs, Parker Carson, Isaiah Clark, Adol'phus S 
Crawford, George E. Donham, John B. E. Donham, Nehcmiah Dow 
Henry W. Drinkwater, Edwin Dillingham, Oscar L. Dillingham' 
George A, Doe, William H. Eaton, Joseph Egagnon, George h"" Fir- 
rar. William Farrar, Stephen Frye, Isaac Gould, William H Gibbons 
Thomas Griffis, William H, Hanson, Nicholas Harris, Augustus 
Hines, George Hines, Frederic Holman, Hiram B. Ingalls, Jesse B 
Johnson, George W. Leach, Augustus McLaughlin? William E 
Morsy, William F. Mills, Daniel W. Morton, George R. Qrcutt Fred 
erick Parady, Henry W. Pollard, Wilmot J, Robinson, Ripley R 
Rogers, Clwrles H. Roberts, George A. Sawtelle, William B .Salmon 
Henry H. Scribncr, David L. Simpson, John L. Spaulding, Edward 
R. Spaulding, Leonard Trafton, Casper Wagouski, liben O Weed 

Charles W. Willie, Joseph Winslow, Oldtown; James H. Bacon, Wil- 
liam F. Bacon, Xehemiah P. Doe, -Albert L. Douglass, Zebulon Doe, 
Samuel W. Davis, Fields W. Emerson, Edwin H. Estes, Simeon C. 
Fancy, William Foss, Edward Frederic, Edwin Frederic, David Le- 
grieon, James F. Lunt, James H. Mann, Philip Marr, Edwin P. Mayo, 
Samuel Mersey, James Newman, Zebulon Robbinson, Isaac Sanborn, 
jr., Joseph W. Sanborn, Andrew J. Thombs, William H. Ward, Oliver 
M. Wilson, Orono; Ellhanan W. Barnes, Francis A. Bierce, Alvah H. 
Godfrey, George K. Ingalls, Charles E. Jones, Jabez W. King, Edward 
D. Kent, .Augustus X. Lufkin, Joshua S. Marshall, Vincent W. Pin- 
horn, Joseph S. Robinson, Henry J. Reynolds, James H. Rogers, 
Joseph S. Rogers, Lewis H. Snow, Watson H. Smith, Ornngton; 
Samuel .X.ash, Passadumkeag; Stillman Bu.xton, Patten; Dudley H. 
Leavitt, Thomas D. Rice, Jefferson Pickard, James Pickard, Ply- 
mouth; William Feeling, Albert K. Lewis, George M. Lowell, Miles 
L. .Scribner, Springfield; I-"rank A. Dinsmore, Samuel G. Kenney, 
Reuben M. Seavey, Columbus Shaw, Omer Sli.iw. Henry C. Van Bus- 
kirk, Stet-son; Ephraim Brown, Carpenter Burlingham, J.ames H. Fall, 
Fred A. Michael, Stillwater; William Babcock, Warren Day, Andrew 
J. Dowe, John T. Durgin, Harvey Emery, jr., Lewis F. Morse, Harty 
Mitchell, John O'Brien, George H. Phillips, Daniel Starkie, John H. 
Wentworth, Veazie. 


Organized at -Augusta, June 4, i86r, for the three 
years' service. In the two battles of IJull Run and many 
other engagements. -Mustered out at -Vugusta, June 28, 


Capt.iin Franks. Hesseltine, Bangor. 


Corporal .Albert .A. Davis, Bangor. 


Charles O. Perry, Charles B. Rundlett, George W. Hines, Charles 

B. Cooley, James H. Thompson, George H. Wilson, Moses Brown. 
William Collins, John Dougherty, Rufus Haur, Bangor; Edward S. 
Steames, Lowell; Albert R. Millett, Charleston; Walter H. Randolph, 
Marshall A. Grant, Dixmont; Laban P. Frost, Glenburn; Benjamin 
Eddy, Corinth; Martin L. Hodgdon, Bangor; Asbury F. H.aynes, 
Passadumkeag, Henry Hind, Plymouth; Thomas D. Jordan, Oldtown; 
John F. Johnson, Charles E. Lord, Thomas Lowe, Bangor; Charles 
H. Lewis, Bradford; John T. Clark, Corrina; Llewellyn Cleveland, 
Ornngton; John, Bradley; .Arthur Duffy, John Robinson, 
William Ritchie, -Albert G. Frubush, Edward L. Hunt, Bangor; Rich- 
anl E. Myrieh, Francis Hopdela, Mt. Chase; Horace J. Morton, Mil- 
ford; Jeremiah B. Atkins, Levant; John A. Curtis, Dexter; Howard 

C. Hall, Charleston; Frank W. Harding, Bangor; Benjamin F. Welsh, 
Passadumkeag; Albert Whitcomb, Alton; Franklin W. Emery, Glen- 
burn; Charles Morrison, Elisha Mcintosh, Maxfield; Hollis B. Spauld- 
ing, Oldtown; Cornelius Chapman, Bradford; Augustus D. Hoyt. 
Passadumkeag; Edward -A. Leavitt, Oldtown; Otis R. Pachard. Rufus 
G. Curtis, Richard C. Davis, William L. Hodsdon, Daniel B. Plum- 
mer, Patrick Russell, Warren Sturtivant, Bangor. 


This regiment was organized at Rockland, June 15, 

1861, to serve three years, and on the 17th left for 
Washington, where they arrived on the 20th and en- 
canijied on Meridian Hill. On the i6th of July they 
proceeded to Centreville, and on the 21st engaged in the 
battle of Bull Run, being among the last to leave the 
field, and retreating in good order under command of 
their officers. Their casualties in that engagement were 
as follows: Officers wounded i, taken prisoners 4; en- 
listed men killed 17, wounded 4, missing 38, nearly all 
of whom were wounded. The regiment, forming a por- 
tion of Sedgwick's Brigade of Heintzleman's Division, 
remained near Washington until the 17th of March, 

1862, when they started with the army towards York- 
town, participating in the siege of that place. On the 
evacuation of Yorktown by tlie rebels, the regiment 


marched towards Williamsburg, but did not arrive in 
time to take part in the engagement at that place. From 
Williamsburg the regiment marched and camped within 
twelve miles of Richmond. They were present at the 
battle of Seven Pines on the 31st of May, but at no 
time directly engaged, though part of the time e.xposcd 
to the fire of the enemy. On the next day, however, 
the enemy having attacked the picket line, the regiment 
was engaged and retained the position they occupied the 
night before, their casualties being 2 killed, 7 wounded, 
and I missing. On the 25th of June, the regiment was 
engaged with the enemy in front of Seven Pines, and 
held a most difficult position in face of the Rebel force 
through the night. On the ist of July they were pres- 
ent at the battle of .Malvern Hill, and the next day re- 
treated to Harrison's Landing, remaining there until the 
15th of August, when in conjunction with Heintzleman's 
entire corps, went to the support of General Pope's 
army, and on the 29th of August took a prominent part 
in the battle of Bull Run, losing during the day 7 killed, 
33 wounded, and 7 missing. The following day the 
regiment was kept in reserve \vhile the battle went on, 
and retreated at night towards Centreville, thence 
towards Fairfax Court-House, participating in the engage- 
ment at Chantilly on the ist of September, in which 
their casualties were 8 killed, 54 wounded, and 2 miss- 
ing, out of 240 men who were engaged. The next day 
they continued their retreat and arrived near Washing- 
ton on the 3CI. There they remained until the 15th, 
when they crossed into Maryland and guarded the fords 
of the Upper Potomac. On the 1 2th of October they 
assisted in the attempt to intercept Stuart's cavalry at 
Conrad's Ferry. They arrived at Falmouth on the 2 2d 
of November, and participated in the battle of Freder- 
icksburg on the 13th of December. They re-crossed 
the river on the 15th, returned to their old camp near 
Falmouth, and there remained eng.aged in drill and or- 
dinary camp and picket duty until the 28th of April, 

1863, when they crossed the Rappahannock River at 
United States Ford, taking a prominent part in the battle 
of Chancellorsville on the 2d and 3d of May, their cas- 
ualties in that engagement being as follow: Killed, i; 
wounded, 21; iriissing, 10. From this time the regi- 
ment remained encamped until the nth of June, then 
joined in the campaign resulting in the battle of Gettys- 
burg, where on the 2d of July they participated in the 
engagement at that place, losing during the day 14 
killed, 53 wounded, and 72 missing. They also engaged 
the enemy at Wappmg Heights and encamped at White 
Sulphur Springs on the ist of August. On the 7th of 
November they assisted in the attack on the enemy at 
Kelley's Ford, and the next day charged upon and soon 
drove a large force of the enemy from a position near 
Brandy Station, where the regiment encamped on the 
loth, remaining there until the 26th, when they marched to 
the Rapidan, engaged the enemy, losing 6 men wounded 
and 5 taken prisoners, and returned to Brandy Station, 
where they remained encamped until the 14th of March, 

1864. At that date, on account of the reorganization 
of the army under General Grant, the regiment was as- 

signed to the Second Army Corps. On the 4th of May 
the regiment crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, and on 
the nevt day were heavily engaged at Torbett's Tavern, 
where they supported a brigade of the Sixth corps. That 
night they rejoined their division, and at daybreak on 
the 6th they advanced on the enemy's position. They 
were engaged all that day and during the next. This 
was the battle of the Wilderness, during which their cas- 
ualties were : Officers killed 2, wounded 11; enlisted 
men killed 32, wounded 136, and missing 3. On the 
23d the regiment, having been engaged in reconnoi- 
tring, Duilding fortifications, etc., since the 8th, moved 
towards the North Anna river, where they took part in a 
charge upon the enemy, driving them across the bridge. 
On the 14th of June the regiment crossed the James 
River, moved two miles to the front and took position 
in line of battle. The following day the regiment was 
relieved from duty in the army and ordered to proceed 
to Rockland, Maine, where they arrived on the morning 
of the 25th. The men were furloughed until the 19th 
of July, on which day 241 officers and enlisted men 
were mustered out and discharged from the United 
States service by Captain Thomas C. J. Baily, Seven- 
teenth United States infantry, the re-enlisted men and 
recruits whose term of service had not expired, having 
been transferred to the Nmeteenth Maine regiment 
volunteers before the departure of the regiment from the 


Major William M. Pitcher, Bangor. 


Captain William L. Pitcher, Co. H. Bangor. 
Captain .Mbert L. Spencer, Co. H, Bangor. 
First Lieutenant, .Albert L. Spencer, Co, H, Bangor. 
First Lieutenant George F. Bourne, Co. H, Bangor. 
Second Lieutenant George F. Bourne, Co. H, Bangor. 
Second Lieutenant Walter S. Goodale, Co. H, Bangor. 


Sergeant John \l. Doe, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles S. Doe, Bangor. 
Sergeant Walter S. Goodale, Bangor. 
Sergeant John A, Phillips. Bangor. 
Sergeant Hiram G. York, Dixmont. 
Sergeant Francis O. J. S. Hill, Newburg. 
Sergeant .Almond E. Osgood, Xewburgh. 
Corporal Charles W. Hopkins, B.ingor. 
Corporal Rufus G. Bickford, Bangor. 
Corporal Michael Dorsey, Bangor. 
Corporal Robert Grant, Bangor. 
Corporal ,-\lbert A. Haynes, Bangor. 
Corporal John B. Longy, Bangor. 
Corporal Jerry Darning, Bangor. 
Corporal Edward E. Kent, Brewer. 
Corporal Winthrop Chick, Dixmont. 
Corporal John F. Stone. Dixmont. 
Corpor.d Hiram G. York, Dixmont. 
Corporal Solomon L. Stewart, Exeter. 
Corpor.d .-\bner C. Goodell. Hampden. 
Corporal Daniel W. Barker, Levant. 
Corporal Francis O. J. S. Hill, Newburg. 
Corporal Charles B. Parsons, Xewburg. 
Corporal Isaiah B. Merrick, Newport. 
Corporal Moses H. Wilham, Plymouth. 
Musician John Knowles, jr., Hampden. 
Wagoner N. B. Fuller, Newburg. 


Ira P. -Mien, Richard .\llum, George H. Baker, Joseph Boardway, 
Arthur L. Boynton, Benjamin F. Call, George Coe, John Cameron, 


Eben C.'ushing. Jerry Demming, John Donahoe, Lyman 1^. Fowles, 
I£rastus Furbish, James C. Garnet, nenjamin Gray, Thomas Hardan, 
Moses H. Hubbard, Alfred Howard, John H. Ham, David Hughey, 
William Kendricli, George Lessor, Hall J. I ibby, Joshua Lovejoy, 
Alfred P. Merriek, Thomas Mortal, James Mulherin, John Murray, 
Emery A. McCallister, H. G. O. McDonald, James M. MuUin, Mel- 
ville Xicholjr James Quimby, I'rederic H. Rogers, Charles Rose. James 
Redikcr, Simon L. Norton, ICdward B. Nickerson, Solomon Parent, 
Samuel L. Smith, Adolphus Whitney, Bangor; William Babcock, 
Bradley; John lilden, IClisha Simpson, John Simpson, Bradford; Edgar 
A Stanley, Benjamin Burr, Robert 1-". Greene, Thomas 1'. (Jreene, 
Howard A. Thayer, Horace B. Washburn, Horatio U. Washburn, 
Brewer; Abijah N. Clay, Enfield; I'rancis M. Dearborn, Robert G. 
Elanders, George Wellington, Garland; Edward C. Megguier, John H. 
Thomas. Glenburn; Jeremiah Avery, Greenfield; Albert F. Folsome, 
William D. Lowell, Joshua B. Whitney, jr.. Greenbush; Edward H. 
Beiin, David Higgins, .Augustus Hodgman, Hampden; Edward York, 
Josiah IL Pomroy, Hermon; Albert C. Scribner, Hudson; Amos Page, 
Kenduskeag; William P. Chase, Andrew J. Gardiner, Sylvanus Hatch, 
Sylvanus B. Hatch, William E. Heath, Lincoln; Samuel Lamb, 
Lowell; Rufus G. Bickford, K. J. Hill, Elisha S. Piper, Enoch F. 
Piper, Newburg; George S. Daniels, William H. Stickney, Hazen E. 
McCauseland, Newport; John Boyle, Edward N. I-eavitt, Edwin ..M. 
Stinson, James Smith, Oldtown; Charles A. Mudgett, Josiah C. Read, 
David Estis, Samuel S. Cain, Orono; Benjamin F. Shaw, John G. 
Kendall. Orrington; Orner Moga, Passadumkea^; David Blanchard. 
(ieorge H. Downes, Juan Millano, Albert Murray, .Allen D. Wood, 
Plymouth; George Drake, Springfield; ThomasJ. Cunningham, Adon- 
iram J. Moore, Veazie; Amos C. Trott, Solomon S. Trott, Winn; 
Moses A. Debeck, John R. York, Clifton; Jacob A. Launder, Corinna; 
.Nathan Chamberlain, J udson W. Dexter, George J'. Hind, Corinth; 
Thomas Mithie, Dexter; J. H. Bickford, John 'H. Jewell, George Jew- 
ell, .Albert J . Condam, George J. Craig. .Albert D. Crocker, Prentiss 
M. IJetchell, Samuel B. Stone, Ephraim D. Tasker, William H. Work 
l':ben D. Work. 


This regiment was organized at I'ortland, June 24, 
1 86 1, to .serve three years. Its first action was at Bull 
Run, and its subsecjuent service, wholly with the Army 
of the Potomac, was e.xtremely arduous. Only 193 offi- 
cers anil men to be mustered out July 27, 1864. 


F'irst Lieutenant .Andrew S. Lyon, Bangor. 


Sergeant Junius W. Littlefield, De.tter. 
Corporal Junius W. Littlefield, De.\ter. W. H. Huntoon, Orrington. 
Corporal William H. Sav.ige, Plymouth. 


Edward IL I-'eeney, Samuel W. Davis, David Vail. Albion; William 
Grant, Wyatt (irant. P. Wilmot. Bangor; Hezekiah Richardson, 
Brewer; George Cook, Oldtovvn; Lorenzo W. Starbird. Eddington; 
George I". Trae, Exeter; John Harper. Boswell C. Florton, Dexter; 
John r. .Abbott, Newburg; John McLaughlin, Springfield. 


This regiment was organized at Portland, Maine, 
July 15, 1 86 1, to serve three years, and reached Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, on the 19th. They were 
stationed at (^hain Bridge on the Potomac until the 3d 
of Sejitember, when they crossed into Virginia and 
through the fall and winter occupied Fort Criffin. On 
the 4th of .'Vpril, 1862, the regiment joined in the move- 
ment against Yorktown, where on the 5th, 6tli, and 7th, 
they were engaged in reconnoitring and had several skir- 
mishes with the enemy. At the battle of ]_,ee's Mills on 
the i6lh, they supjwrted the artillery and were exposed 
to a heavy fire from the enemy's batteries. On the 5th 
of May they took a jjrominent j^art in the battle of Wil- 
liamsburg. l''rom the 9th of May to the 24th, the regi- 

ment was on the march up the Peninsula in the direc- 
tion of Richmond, encamping on that day near the 
Chickahominy, which they crossed on the 5th of June, 
and ])articii)ated on the 27th in the engagement at (Gar- 
net's Farm, in which their casualties were i man killed 
and 23 wounded. The next day they commenced the 
retrograde movement to the James River, taking a posi- 
tion on the heights beyond White Oak Bridge on the 
30th, and engaged the enemy on the following day, losing 
2 men wounded. They arrived at Harrison's Land- 
ing on the 2d of July, and there encamped until the i6th 
of .'\ugust, when they were transported to Alexandria 
and arrived at Centreville just as the army had com- 
menced falling back from the battle-field of Groveton or 
Second Bull Run, where (General Pope's forces had been 
defeated. On the ist of September they commenced 
the retreat towards Washington, and on the i ith had a 
skirmish with the enemy at the foot of Sugar Loaf Moun- 
tain. At the battle of Antietam on the 17th, the regi- 
ment took a prominent part, and also particijaated in the 
battle of Fredericksburg on the 12th of December. 
Three days after they re-crossed the Rappahannock and 
encamjjed near Belle Plains, where they remained until 
February 2, 1863, when the regiment was assigned to 
the "Light Division" and moved to Potomac Creek, 
where it encamped and remained until April 28th. On 
the 1st of May they crossed the Rappahannock River 
and bore an honorable jjart in the battle of Chancellors- 
ville on May 2d and 3d, their loss being 128 officers and 
men in killed and wounded. On the nth of May, the 
"Light Division" being broken up, the regiment was 
assigned to the Third brigade, First division, Sixth corjjs. 
On the 9th of June, they had a skirmish with the enemy 
at Kelley's F'ord, after which they participated in the 
long and fatiguing marches of the Pennsylvania cam- 
paign, and were present at the battle of Gettysburg on 
July 2d and 3d, though not actively engaged with the 
enemy. On the 19th of October they participated in 
the charge and capture of the enemy's works at Rapjja- 
hannock Station, losing in that engagement 16 officers 
and 123 enlisted men killed and wounded. On the 27th 
the regiment went to the sujiport of the Third corps 
then engaged at Locust Grove, after which they returned 
to their former camp near Wilbur Ford, and there re- 
mained until May 4, 1864. Two days afterward they 
were engaged in the battle of the Wilderness, and on 
the 8th, in that of Spottsylvania, where they lost a few 
men. They also participated in the attack on the 
enemy's works on the right, losing 125 men in killed, 
wounded and missing. On the 12th, the regiment, num- 
bering only 70 men, was under fire eight hours, sujiport- 
ing General Hancock's forces, and losing 16 officers and 
men killed and wounded. On the 14th of June the 
regiment started up the James River, arriving in front of 
Petersburg on the 20th. There they remained until the 
loth of July, when, their term of service having ex- 
pired, they were ordered to Maine for muster-out and 
discharge. Arriving at \\ashington. District |of Colum- 
bia, on the 1 2th, they volunteered their services for thirty 
days in defence of the city, then threatened by the 




enemy, and marched to Fort Stevens. However, on the 
13th they were relieved, and on the 17th left for Port- 
land, where they arrivfd on the 22d, and were mustered 
out and discharged from the United States service on 
the isth of August by Lieutenant I. H. Walker, Four- 
teenth United States Infantry. Previous to the depar- 
ture of the regiment from the field, about 238 re-enlisted 
men and recruits, whose term of service had not expired, 
were temporarily organized into a battalion, afterwards 
assigned to the First Regiment Infantry, Maine Veteran 


Colonel .Miner Knowlcs, Bangor. 
Adjutant William H. Coan, De.xler, 
Quartermaster Isaac Strickland, Bangor. 
Surgeon Eugene F. .Sanger. Bangor. 
.■\ssistant Surgeon Samuel B. Straw, Bangor. 
Sergeant-Major Percy Knowles. Bangor. 
Hospital Steward Charles .A. McKister, Bangor. 
Drum Major Joseph Gatchell, Bangor. 
Band Leader Henry S. Morey, Bangor. 


Captain George Fuller, Co. H, Corinth. 
Captain Joseph G. Roberts, Co. H, Corinth. 
Captain .\lbert G. Burton, Co. i, Oldtown. 
First Lieutenant Sewall C. Gray, Co. .-\, Exeter. 
First Lieutenant Henry R. Soper, Co. I, Oldtown. 
First Lieutenant Lycurgus Smith, Co. I, Oldtown. 
First Lieutenant James M. Norris, Co. I, Milford. 
First Lieutenant Percival Knowles, Co. K, Bangor. 
Second Lieutenant George Fuller, Co. H, Corinth. 
Second Lieutenant George Roberts, Co. H, Corinth. 
.Second Lieutenant William H. Coan, Co. H, De.xter. 
Second Lieutenant Daniel W. Freeze, Co. I, Orono. 
Second Lieutenant George H. Norton, Co. I, Oldtown. 
Second Lieutenant James M. Norris, Co. I, Milford. 
Second Lieutenant Percival Knowles, Co. K, Bangor. 


First Sergeant James M. Norris, Milford. 
First Sergeant .Andrew J. Whittier, Corinth. 
First Sergeant William H. Coan, De.vter. 
Sergeant John J. Fogg, Bangor. 
.Serge.ant .-\le.\ander .Stevens, Bangor. 
Sergeant Israel Hodsdon, Corinth. 
Seigeanl I'^lisha Eddy, Corinth. 
Sergeant t.'harles F. Fitzgerald, De.xter. 
Sergeant Robert O. Otis, Dexter. 
Sergeant .\lbert F. Severance, Dexter. 
Sergeant Walter D. Jenness, Hermon. 
Sergeant .\lbert L. Jones, Holden. 
Sergeant Thomas Templeton, Milford. 
Sergeant Isaac Pratt, Oldtown. 
Sergeant Lycurgus Smith, Oldtown. 
Corporal John J. Fogg, Bangor. 
Corporal .-Mvin B. Judson, Bangor. 
Corporal Samuel M. Jack, Bangor. 
Corporal John W. Pettingill, Corinna. 
Corporal Elisha Eddy, Corinth. 
Corporal Nathaniel G. Hatch, Corinth. 
Corporal Daniel B. Herrick, Corinth. 
Corporal Israel Hodsdon, Corinth. 
Corporal Charles A. Whittier, Corinth. 
Corjjoral Hiram H. Burment, Dexter. 
Corporal Otis O. Roberts, Dexter. 
Corporal James D. Marsh, Dexter. 
Corporal .Mbert F. Severance, Dexter, 
Corporal Hiram F. Safford, Dexter. 
Corporal Thomas D. Sturdevant, Dexter. 
Corporal William Doe, Milford. 
Coiporal Thomas Templeton, Milford. 
Corporal George H. Morton, Oldtown. 
Corporal Isaac Pratt, Okltown. 

Corporal Samuel J. Clark, jr., Veazie. 
Corporal .Albert L. Jones, Holden. 
C-'orporal George E. Beale, Hudson. 
Corporal Lindall H. Whittier, Kenduskeag. 
Corporal Elias M. Kitch, Lincoln. 
Corporal Sylvester F. Lyon, Lincoln. 
Corporal .Amos P. McKenney, Lincoln. 
Corporal Luther G. Rogers, Lincoln. 
Corporal David C. Whitney, Lincoln. 
Musician Joseph F. Gretchell, Bangor. 
Musician Nathaniel R. Witham, Bangor. 
Musician Charles F. Tibbetts, Charleston. 
Wagoner James Boswell, Bangor. 
Wagoner Ivory Webbert, Bangor. 
Wagoner .Albion K. Matthew, Lincoln. 
Wagoner Joseph Doe, Milford. 


Hiram B. Bulger, Joseph Bulger, Moses Babcock, George \V. Black- 
more, Michael Brennan, .Alonzo Cilley, Clement M. Clark, Lemuel H. 
Darling, .Azro W. David, Charles V. Dudley, Francis J. Dudley, 
Joseph W. Estabrook, Martin Feeney, John Glover, Edward .A. Good- 
aid, George E. Harriman, George F. Holden, .A. Jellison, Percival 
Knowles, James .A. Lane, Thomas McCormick, Patrick McCnstle, 
William H. Moore, .Alonzo W. Moore, David E. Mills, .Alden F. Ran- 
dall, t'harles O. Randall, George W. Randall, Edward A. Richards, 
Dennis S. Roundy. James H. Roundy, William A. Sewall, Edward 
Short, Benjamin F. Scribner, Isaiah B. Scribner, David Severance, 
Frank Severance, Upton ¥. Smith, Wellington Sprague, James W, 
Sutherland, Charles B. Vickery, Turner Wade, William J. White. John 
J. Williams, George W. Yates, John Yates, Bangor; Albion K. P. 
Roberts, Bradford; Lewis .A. Willett, Bradley; William .A. Keene, 
Chester; .Andrew J. Tibbetts, Carmel; Edward Smith, .Alonzo D. Mil- 
ler, Ambrose Page, Charleston; Melvin S. Jellison, Clifton; Aaron 
Frost, Frank W. Titcomb, James C. Lander, Russell F. Parkman, 
Samuel Weeks, William Weeks, Corinna; Sumrter S. Bean, Lucius H. 
Bond, Charles W. Bradley, Orrin G. Davis (Band), Chester Dexter, 
Henry C. He.ild, William H. Herrick, Jerome Hyde, C. S. Patterson, 
George Robinson, Charles F. Tihbets, George D. Strout, Corinth; 
Israel P. Bates, John H. Bean, Daniel H. Campbell, William Craw- 
ford, Charles Dyer, Edward J. Sturtevant, Charles G. Flanders, Oliver 
Fuller, George F. Gould, James P. Lovejov, Sylvanus P. Lowell, 
.Alonzo R. Merrill, Harrison S. Norton. Charles F. Fisher, Edmund 
R. Phillips, William F. Royal, Lorenzo Russell, John Russell, William 

A. .Sewall, Milton R. Sampson, Dexter; Leonard Peabody, Dixniont; 
James McKinney, Enfield; Edwin S. Libby, Ira B. Tibbetts, E.xeter; 
Alonzo Batchelder, George W. Hatch, F'ifield Lyford, .Alvin K. Os- 
good, Wesley Osgood, C"harles C. Titcomb, Garland; George Emer- 
son, .Alden Kennedy, Greenbush; John M. Rice, Lyman F. Rice, 
Hampden; Isaac R. Waterbury, Howland; Chester J. Lancaster, 
Charles B. Mitchell, Stillman W. Strout, Hudson; Charles E. Atwood, 
George W. Mills, Harry F. Mills, James McCorrison, F. .A. H. Stack- 
pole, Kenduskeag; Calvin M. tlarey, William Ivmery, Lagrange; 
Mathew Green, George W. House, Henry (.). Morton, Lee; Thomas 
L. Hall, Joseph O. Turner, William W. Webster, Lincoln; Charles 
V. Dudley, Lowell; Hannibal H. Coomby, Mattawamkeag; Thomas 
W. Chick, Thomas Carrington, Joseph W. Kiggs, Green C. .Spencer, 
Milford; Aaron Crawford, Martin V. F;idridge, George W. Knight, 
Samuel Staples, Newburgh; Cyrus P. Brown, Newport; George J. 
Barritt, Phincas F. Bean, Joseph C. Blackman, Desire Cornean, Ly- 
man E. Grossman, Daniel Davis, Eliphalet W. Da\is, Albert N. 
Eaton, John W. Eaton, Samuel Fish, Oliver Graffam, Hezekiah B 
Harris, Hezekiah F. Harris, Oscar E. W. Hinkley, Charles A. Hughes, 
Alexander M.Hunt, Wayland P. Jacob, Charles W. Johnson, David 

B. Kieth, Joseph L. Kieth, James C. Knox, Edmund Leard, Benja- 
min C. Lisherness, Washington R. Mack, Andrew J. Miles, David C. 
Myrick, Andrew Oakes, Benjamin F. Pratt, Isaac Powell, Zenas D. 
Putnam, William F. .Sibley, Thomas P. Smith, James B. Soper, Lean- 
der C. Stitson, Oldtown; John F. Freeman, Eseck Kelley, Timothy 
Wethcrby, Orono; Charles H. Cobb, Orrington; Mark C. Jenness, 
Passadumkeag; Benjamin F. Goodwin, AsaG. Wiggins, Stetson; New- 
man A. Davis, Samuel N. Emery, Wallace Sweet, Veazie; Harmon S. 
George, Edwin Grunza, Charles Nickerson, Holden. 


This regiment was organized at Augusta, August 21, 
1 86 1, to serve three years, and left for Baltimore, Mary- 



land, on the 23d, where they encamped and remained 
until the 25th of October. On that day they moved to 
Washington, crossed the Potomac into Virginia on the 
8th of November, and were occupied in drill, camji and 
picket duty, until the 4th of April, 1862, when they joined 
in the advance toward Richmond. 'I'hey were under the 
fire of Fort Lee on Warwick Creek on the 5th, and after- 
wards participated in the siege of Vorktown, holding a 
position near Dam No. 3, until the evacuation of the 
place by the enemy. On the 5th of May they bore an 
honorable jjart in the battle of Williamsburg. On the 
evening of the 9th they moved to the Peninsula towards 
Richmond, participating in the engagement at Mechan- 
icsville on the 24th, and immmediatcly after the battle of 
Fair Oaks moved to the left bank of the Chickahominy, 
to Golding's farm, where they remained during the month 
of June, almost daily engaged with the enemy. On the 
27th the army commenced to change its base of operations, 
during which the regiment participated in the battles of 
Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, and Malvern Hill, 
after which they remained at Harrison's Landing, build- 
ing fortifications until the 13th of August, when they em- 
barked for Alexandria, and from thence proceeded to 
Bull Run, but did not participate in the battle which 
commenced on that day. The next d.iy they joined 
Oeneral Pope's forces at Centreville and retreated with 
them to Washington. On the 7th of September they 
joined in the iNLiryland campaign, participated in the 
engagement at South Mountain on the 14th, and bore 
an h(morable part in the battle of .\ntietam on the 17th, 
losing in killed, wounded and missing, 11 officers and 
TOO enlisted men, out of 15 officers and 166 enlisted men 
present. The strength of the regiment had, by this time, 
become so much reduced that it was too small for effect- 
ive field duty, and it was sent to Maine in October to 
recruit. The regiment enc.imped at I'ortland, where they 
remained until January 21, 1863, engaged in filling up 
their diminished ranks. On this day a battalion of five 
companies, which had been filled by consolidation, left 
Portland for the field, and on the 25th they rejoined their 
old command. Third Brigade, Second Division, Si.xth 
Corps, at \\'hite Oak Church, Virginia, where they re- 
mained encamped until April 28th, when they mo\ed to 
the heights o])posite Fredericksburg, and on May 2d 
formed a part of the stonning party which carried the en- 
emy's works on Cemetery and St. Mary's Heights. They 
were also engaged w^th the enemy on the 4th near Chan- 
cellorsville, where a desjierate battle had been fought the 
day before. Their casualties in those engagements were 
in killed, wounded and missing, 4 officers and 88 enlisted 
men. They participated in the Pennsylvania campaign, 
and were present at (lettysburg on the 2d and 3d of July, 
after which they joined in pursuit of the enemy; had an 
engagement with Stuart's Ccjvahy at Gainesville, Virginia, 
on the 19th of October, and participated in the action at 
RapiKihannock Station, November 7th. On the 27th 
they were in line of battle until 10 v. m., su|)porting a 
portion of the Third Corps in the action at Locust Grove, 
and advanced to Mine Run on the 28th, where, during 
the three succeeding days, they were in front and con- 

stantly engaged with the enemy's outposts. They re- 
turned and encamped at Brandy Station on the 3d of 
December, and there remained until May 4, 1864, when 
they crossed the Rapidan and engaged in the battle of 
the Wilderness on the sth and sixth ; also at Spottsyl- 
vania on the 10th, 12th and i8th, on which day they 
suffered severely, having 42 men killed. On the ist of 
Jime they reached Cold Harbor, where, on the 2d, they 
charged on and carried the enemy's fortifications, which 
they held until the 13th, and then marched towards 
Petersburg, where they arrived on the 17th, and partici- 
pated in the attacks on the Weldon railroad on the 24th 
and 30th. On the nth of July the regiment debarked 
at Washington, and on the i 2th was engaged in the de- 
fences of the city, and assisted in the defeat of the ene- 
my in its nearest a|)proach to the capital. On the 13th 
they marched up the Potomac and through Snicker's Gap 
to the Shenandoah, returning to Washington on the 23d. 
On the 26th, they again started u[) the Potomac, crossing 
at Harper's Ferry on the 29th, and matched to the 
vicinity of Charlestown, where they remained until 
August 2 1 St, 1864, when their original term of service 
having expired, the re-enlisted men and recruits were 
consolidated with the battalions of the Fifth and Sixth 
regiments, retaining the designation of the Seventh regi- 
ment until October, when it was changed to the First 
Veteran Volunteers. The officers and men whose terms 
of service exfjired August 21, 1864, returned to Maine, 
where they were mustered out and discharged from the 
United States service September 5th, at .Augusta, by Cap- 
tain C. Holmes, United States Ariuy. 

Captain William Crosby, Bangor, Co. A. 
Captain Cliarle5 D. Gilmore, B.angor, Co. C. 
Captain Geoige H. Bulcer, Bangor, Co. D. 
Captain George H. Bulcer. Bangor, Co. F. 
Chaplain Heniy Warren, Bangor, Co. G. 
Captain Edward H. Cass, Bangor, Co. H. 
Captain Henry C. Snow, Hampden, Co. H. 
I'irsl I^ieutenant folin A. Biclielder, Oldtown, Co. C. 
I''irst Lieutenant .Andrew M. Benson, Oldtown, Co. C. 
l''irsl Ijieutenant Benjamin 1'". Bicknell, Bangor, Co. C. 
First laeutenant George H. Buker, Bangor, Co. K. 
l-'irst Lieutenant Samuel .S. Mann, Bangor, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Henry W. Farrar, Bangor, Co. F. 
l'"irst Lieutenant ]oIin A. Baclielder, Oldtown, Co. G. 
First Lieutenant Thomas S. Cates. Bangor, Co. H. 
I'irst Lieutenant Henry Warren, Bangor, Co. II. 
First Lieutenant Andrew M. Benson, Oldtown, Co. K. 
F'irst Lieutenant William Crosby, Bangor, Co. K. 
Second Lieutenant William Crosby, Bangor, Co. B. 
Second Lieutenant Albert I'. Titcomb, Lincoln, Co. C. 
.Second Lieutenant Charles Lowell, Oldtown, Co. C. 
Second Lieutenant George H. Buker, Bangor, Co. D. 
Second Lieutenant Samuel .S. Mann, Bangor, Co. E. 
Second Lieutenant .Samuel .S. Mann, Bangor, Co. F. 
.Second I^ieutenant William Crostjy, Bangor, Co. G. 
.Second Lieutenant Henry C. Snow, Hampden, Co. H. 
Second Lieutenant Luther C. Fairfield, Bangor, Co. H. 
Second Lieutenant Warren T. Ring, Oldtown, Co. H. 
Second Lieutenant Henry W. F'arrar, Bangor, Co. K. 
Second Lieutenant George R. Coney, Oldtown, Co. K. 


First Sergeant Henry H. Warren, Bangor. 
First .Sergeant Andrew M. Benson, Oldtown. 
Sergeant William 1-1. I'itchcr. 
Sergeant William Crosby, Bangor. 



Sergeant Luther C. Fairfield. Bangor. 
Sergeant Frank B. Holden, Bangor. 
Sergeant .Samuel S. Mann, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles E. Robinson, Bangor. 
Sergeant Martin V. B. Hutchins, Brewer. 
Sergeant Ira F. Stinchfield, Lincoln. 
Sergeant John F. Tobin, Lincoln. 
Sergeant Charles Lowell, Oldtown. 
Sergeant Eli McLaughlin, Oldtown. 
Sergeant Warren T. Ring. Oldtown. 
Corporal Creorge M. Baker, Bangor. 
Corporal Benjamin Cates, Bangor. 
Corporal Charles H. Pierce, Bangor. 
Corporal Franklin Whittier, Bangor. 
Corporal David Thompson, Bradley. 
Corporal .Martin V, B. Hutchins, Brewer. 
Corporal .-Mbion .\. Messer, Enfield. 
Corporal George B. McKenney, Enfield. 
Corporal Josiah .Smith, Garland. 
Corporal .\ll)ion Hardy, Hampden. 
Corporal Lewis B. Hardy, Hampden. 
Corporal William E. Larrabee, Hampden. 
Corporal Jesse Blake, Holden. 
Corporal Sanford Bruce, Lincoln. 
Corporal Wyman B. Roberts, Lincoln. 
Corporal Ira F. Stinchfield, Lincoln. 
Corporal Warren .•\. McPhetres, Lowell. 
Corporal Moses W. McKay, Oldtown. 
Corporal Francis Laing, Passadumkeag. 
Corporal J oseph Loring. Passadumkeag. 
Corporal Hadley Fairfield, Patten, 
Corporal Samuel L. Kimball, Patten. 
Corporal Harmon S. ••Ulen, Winn. 
Wagoner Benjamin F. Brichnell, Bangor. 
W^ Isaiah .Allen, Lmcoln. 
Wagoner William Kennedy. Oldtown. 
Musician William A. Taylor, Burhngton. 
Musician Rueul D. Wooster, Hermon. 
Musician Benjamin W. Mitchell. Oldtown. 
Musician I. T. Stewart, Oldtown. 


Peter .\mes, Joshua A. Barker, John H. Brown, William P. Burgess, 
George R. Boyer, Henry Cowan, Henry A. Cole, William E. Chap- 
man, John Conway, Sumner H. Condon, Richard Davis, William H. 
Evans, Pat Earley, Henry W. Farrar, Pat McGowan, Thomas Malo- 
ney, John S. McLurc, Michael McLaughlin, James H. Hasey, John 
Isham, John Kinney, Timothy Lmnell, William Cliann, John S. Mc- 
Luer, DeWitt C. Morrill, Edwin E. .Small, George A. Stetson, .Alfred 
Townsend, Edward Sargent, Ira Webber, Frank W^ Whittier, Martin 
W. Tower, Bangor; Melville Marshall, Bradford; Edwin Jordan, 
Reuel X. Morris, Daniel D. Perkins, Colby Smith, Bradley: .Samuel E. 
Coombs, Jesse Blake, Brewer; .Albert F. Gates, Duncan McMullen, 
Sheldon R. Sibley, Burlington; Moses Palmer, John McGraw, C-arroll; 
1-^lisha C. Debeck, Charles H. Eddy, Clifton; Nathan M. Cooley, Co- 
rinna; Hibbard C. Leeman, Ira Linnell, John Roncon, George L. 
liuswell, Joseph R. Bawn. Frank J. White, De.Nter; George E. Bragg, 
Franklin Condon, Robert II. Morse, Di.vmont; Silas R. Rowell, Walter 
(iilger, Moses Giles, William C. Mann, Henry C. Hold, Orlando I. 
Rowe, Eddington; Charles N. Farnham, Edinburg; Albeit T. Curtiss, 
Warren Gray, .A. J. McKenney, James Towle, Enfield; .Alvah B. Doble, 
I'.tna; Franklin Young, E.\eter; John M. Garry, Luke Grover, John T. 
Smith, Garland; Alfred Cressey, Moses Giles, Greenlief B. Staples, 
Daniel M. \\'orcester, Charles Worcester, Glenburn; Daniel Floyd, 
Dennis Hartford, Llewellyn Pollard, Charles Snow, Hampden; Xewell 
I'omeroy, Solomon Holt, jr., Fred G. Thompson, John Thompson, 
Hermon; Joseph M. Blake, Holden; Joseph W. Ridley, Rufus K. 
.Stebens, Hudson; James .\. Thomas, Lee; David M. Knowlton, John 
P. Trask, Levant; Stephen Balf, Roscoe Doble, John Flemming, .Au- 
gustine Gates, .Andrew J. Hatch, Thomas S. Libbey, John M. Lindsay, 
Orrin Lombard, Johnston Lyon, Joseph Lyon, Benjamin F. Potter, 
Luther I. Turner, .Adrian E. Turner, .Alvin E. True, Osmund Warren, 
Samuel B. Bridges, Benjamin F. Davis, Peltiah B. Davis, .Andrew 
Dunifer, Michael H. .Smith, Lincoln; Henry C. White. Lowell; Frank 
O'Brian, Mattawamkeag; William H. Coolbath, Mattamiscontis; Wil- 
lis S. N. Lancaster, Maxfield; John Hanscom, James Shorey, Milford; 
Levi W. Chadwick, Elbridge G. Kclley, Edwin .Smith, Xewburg; Eben 

Dinsmore, Henry Davis, Levi L. Davis, Newport; Stilson E. Sibley, 
Leonard Milan, No. i Plantation; Felix Betters, James Carney, 
George Cole, Thomas Dougherty, Charles H. Dougherty, Folsom 
Dutton, Edward Feli.N, Thomas Fish, Calvin Gillisson, Oliver Hall, 
William W. Harris. George Kinsell, Octavius Liscott, Annis Morrill, 
Joseph Moreau, Joseph Neddo, Shepard Parmer, Alonzo Patten, 
Edward Pelkey, George W. Rines, Madison C. Rowe, Vander Sawyer, 
Jacob Weymouth, Henry M. Curtis, George R. Coney, .Abraham 
Grover, Wayland F. Jacobs, Calvin I^avitt, Sebatis Mohawk, J. W. 
Neddo, Benjamin Oakes, Thomas P. Smith, John I. .Seaton, John 
Tashoe, Oldtown; Ephraim K. Bartlett, Jesse Bartlett, Jedediah Hans- 
comb, George Lessor. Augustus O. Whitmore, Daniel W. Freeze, 
Eben Densmore, Joseph C. Kelley, John Lisbon, Orono; James Dol- 
loff, James Haynes, Luther Haynes, Royall Nash, Charles Grumm, 
Aaron Haynes, jr., Passadumkeag; Timothy Fowler, Andrew Kim- 
ball, Charles H. Noyes, Uriah F. Palmer, Thomas B. Powers, Russell 
Royall, Moses Palmer, jr., Robert Vance. Patten; Henry Wiley, 
Plymouth; Chandler Pike, William W. Plummer (band), William C. 
Stickney, Springfield; George W. Fogg, G. W. Hodgkins, Stetson; 
Jacob Holmes, SwanviUe; Nelson S. Fales, Thomaston; Charles 
Knowles, Edward Myrick, George E. Tilden, Troy; Henry O. Giles, 
Veazie; David B. Grassey, Edward Reynolds, Winn; James Pond, jr., 


This regiment was organized at Augusta, Maine, Seji- 
teniber 7, 1861, to serve three years, and left September 
loth for Hempstead, Long Island, New York, and sub- 
sequently for Fortress Monroe, Virginia, where they 
formed a part of General Sherman's expedition to Port 
Royal, South Carolina, which sailed October 29th. On 
the 8th of November, they landed at Hilton Head, 
where for several months they were engaged in throwing 
up breastworks, building fortifications, etc. On the ist 
of May, 1S62, they moved to Tybee Island and took 
a prominent part in the attack and capture of Fort Pu- 
laski, large detachments of the regiment having been 
detailed to man several batteries engaged in the bom- 
bardinent of the fort. From Tybee Island they returned 
to Hilton Head, and from that time until the spring of 
1863 were employed for the most jiart in doing guard 
duty at that place and at Beaufort, South Carolina. On 
the 19th of March, 1863, they were ordered to Jackson- 
ville, Florida, which they occupied after a spirited en- 
gagement with the enemy. On the 25th they made a 
reconnoissance on the line of the railroad toward Bald- 
win, engaged the enemy, and lost 2 men killed and 
I severely wounded. On the 29th they were ordered 
back to Beaufort, to make preparations to jiarticipate in 
the contemplated attack on Charleston, and embarked 
on the 3d of April for Stone River, where they lay on 
board transports during the bombardment of Fort Sum- 
ter on the 7th, after which they returned to Beautort, ar- 
riving on the 1 2th. Subsequently they were again or- 
dered to Charleston and embarked to proceed thither, 
but went no farther than Hilton Head, where they 
remained until the i4tli of November, then returned to 
Beaufort and there remained until the 2d of March, 
1864. On that day, 16 officers and 330 enlisted men, 
who had re-enlisted for an additional term of three years, 
were granted a furlough for thirty-five days, and pro- 
ceeded to Maine. The remainder of the regiment con- 
tinued at Beaufort until April 13th, when they were trans- 
ferred to the Department of Virginia, arriving at Glouces- 
ter Point on the i6th, and assigned to the Tenth Army 
Corj.)S. On the 26th tlie veterans rejoined the regiment, 



and on the 4th of May they moved to Bermuda Hun- 
dred, where they took part in all the active operations of 
the Army of the James. On the i6th they participated 
in the engagement at Drury's Bluff, losing 3 men killed, 
64 wounded, and 29 taken prisoners. On the 27th they 
proceeded to White House Landing, thence on the 31st 
to Cold Harbor, in the meantime having been perma- 
nently assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Division, 
Eighteenth Army Corps. On the morning of June 3d, 
they participated in the assault on the enemy's lines at 
Cold Harbor, losing during the day 10 men killed, 53 
wounded, and 16 taken prisoners. On the 12th they 
moved to White House Landing, and from thence to 
Petersburg where on the 15th, 16th, and 17th, they were 
engaged with the enemy. On the i8th, they made a 
successful attack and carried a portion of the enemy's 
line, losing 1 1 men killed and 39 wounded. From this 
time until the 25th of August they remained in the 
trenches in front of Petersburg, under continual fire and 
engaged in very exhausting duties. On that day they 
moved to the opposite side of the Appomattox, going 
into the works before Bermuda Hundred. On the night 
of the 28th of September, they crossed to the north side 
of the James River with the Eighteenth and Tenth 
corps, and were engaged in the assault successfully made 
the next morning on the enemy's works, near Chapin's 
Farm. On the 27th of October, they participated in the 
unsuccessful assault on the enemy's lines near the old 
battle-field of F'air Oaks, where they lost heavily. On 
the next day they returned to the trenches near Chajiin's 
farm. On the 5th of December, upon the re-organiza- 
tion of the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps, they were 
assigned to the Fourth Brigade, First Division, Twenty- 
fourth Corps, and moved near Deep Bottom, taking po- 
sition in the fort at Spring Hill. On the 10th of Decem- 
ber, they lost 5 men killed and 6 wounded, in the 
reconnoissance made by the enemy on the right of the 
Union lines in the vicinity of Sjiring Hill. 'J'hey re- 
mained near Spring Hill until the 27th of March, 1865. 
On that day the regiment proceeded towards Hati her's 
Run, where they arrived the next day and remained do- 
ing picket duty until the 2d of .^pril, when they partici- 
pated in the assault and capture of Forts Gregg and 
Baldwin, and on the 3d proceeded towards Burksville, 
which place they reached on the 5th. On the 6th they 
bore an honorable part in the engagement at Rice's Sta- 
tion, and on the 9th in that at Appomattox Court House. 
After the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox 
Court House, they, with the rest of the troops of the 
Twenty-fourth Army Corps, proceeded to Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, where they remained encamped until August. .\t 
that time they were ordered to Manchester, and there 
remained until November, when they were ordered to 
I'ortress Monroe, Virginia, at which place they remained 
until the i8th of January, 1866, when the regiment was 
mustered out of the United States service by Lieutenant 
M. Harper, Assistant Commissary of Musters, and pro- 
ceeded to .Augusta, where the men were paid and finally 


Lieutenant Colonel Joseph F. Twitchell, Patten. 
Major Joseph F. Twitchell, Fatten. 
Adjutant Spencer VV. Young, Fatten, 
(^uarterm.aster Stetson Sidelinger, Bangor. 
.Surgeon Faul M. Fisher, Corinna. 
.Assistant .Surgeon William K. lienson, Bangor. 
Chaplain Henry C. Henries, Lincoln. 
Ch.aplainJ. )•",. M. Wright, Camden. 
Coniniissary Sergeant .Stetson .Sidelinger, liangor. 
Hospital Steward .Alfred Walton, .Alton. 


Captain Jose])h F. Twitchell, Fatten. 
Captain America Walton, Patten. 
Captain John Conant, Bangor. 
Captain Henry Brawn, Oldtown. 
Captain HiHman Smith, Bradley. 
Captain Hiram N. Parker, Glenburn. 
First Lieutenant Luther B. Rodgers, Patten. 
First Lieutenant .America Walton, Patten. 
l*'irst Lieutenant Franklin E. Gray, Plymouth. 
P'irst Lieutenant George Capers, Exeter. 
First Lieutenant Samuel Gould, jr.. Dexter. 
First Lieutenant Horatio R. Sawyer. Bradley. 
First Lieutenant Henry Brawn. Oldtcvn. 
First Lieutenant Hillman Smith, Bradley. 
First Lieutenant John McCowan, Lagrange. 
First Lieutenant John L. Taylor. Hampden. 
First Lieutenant George A. Baldwin, Oldtown. 
Second Lieutenant Luther B. Rodgers. Patten. 
Second Lieutenant Lorenzo Warren, Patten. 
Second Lieutenant America Walton, Patten. 
.Second Lieutenant Spencer W. Young, Patten. 
Second Lieutenant George Capers, Exeter. 
Second Lieutenant Samuel Gould, jr.. Dexter. 
Second Lieutenant Walton H. Hill, Exeter. 
Second Lieutenant Hillman Smith, Bradley. 
Second Lieutenant John MeCowan, Lagrange. 
Second Lieutenant John L. Taylor, Hampden. 
Second Lieutenant Hiram N. Parker, Glenburn. 
Second Lieutenant Horatio B. Sawyer, Bradley. 


First Sergeant Howard Collins, Bradley. 
Sergeant Thomas W. Berry, Bangor. 
Sergeant Nathaniel Wentworth, Bangor. 
.Sergeant Lucius W. Elliott, Bradford. 
.Sergeant George .A llildwin, Bradley. 
Sergeant Horatio B. Sawyer, Bradley. 
.Sergeant Samuel Gould, jr.. Dexter. 
Seigeant George Capers, lixeter. 
Sergeant W. H. Hill, ICxeter. 
Sergeant Hiram M. I^arker, Glenburn. 
.Sergeant Stephen Danforth, zd, Lagrange. 
Sergeant Orlelus Stevens, Lagrange. 
Sergeant Daniel W. Ingersoll, Lincoln. 
Sergeant F-i>hraini P. White, Lowell. 
Sergeant Fernando Jellison, Milford. 
Sergeant Newell J. Givens, Newport. 
Sergeant Charles E. Parker, New port. 
Sergeant John B. Philbrook, Newport. 
Sergeant George A. Baldwin, Oldtown. 
.Sergeant .Vinerieus Walton, Patten. 
Corporal Moses I'Vench, Bangor. 
(_'orporal John Sample, Bangor. 
Corporal Ernest Ellsworth, Bangor, 
t.'orporal George Wheeler, Bangor. 
Corporal I^hilip H. Wall, Bangor. 
Corporal Edward M. Stover, Bradford. 
Corporal George A. Baldwin, Bradley. 
Corporal Timothy Crockett, Carmel. 
("orporal Lewis 1*". Leighton, Corinna. 
Corporal John C. Weeks, Corinna. 
Corporal Charles H. Mann, Enfield, 
(.-"orporal George Capers, Exeter. 
Corporal Walter H. Hill, JCxeter. 
Corporal Hiram .X. Parker, Glenburn. 



Corporal William H. Folsom. Ureenbush. 
CorponU John L. Tyler, Hampden, 
(--'orjsoral Daniel R. Boobier, Lagrange. 
Corporal Benjamin P. Hinckley, Lagrange. 
Corporal Leonard Keliher, Lagrange. 
Corporal Jonathan Knowles, Lagrange. 
Corporal Almond L. Sanborn, Lagrange. 
Corporal Erasius Noble, Lincoln. 
Corporal John T. Shaw, Lincoln. 
Corporal James Sawyer, Oldtown. 
Corporal John ('. Bachelder, Passadumkeag. 
Corporal .Amza Grant. Patten. 
Corporal Abraham Walton, Patten. 
Corporal Walker G. Harriman, Patten. 
Musician -Almond L. Sanborn, L.agrange. 
Musician Samuel C. Clark, Oldtown. 
Musician William F\irtridge, Oldtown. 
Wagoner Josiah Decker, jr., Lagrange. 


William H. Smith, John E. Merrill, A. G. Walton, William H. 
Norcross, .Alton ; Thomas D. Brown, Samuel P. Danforth, Malcom 
McDonald, .\rgyle: Thomas Burk, Patrick Carlton, William Caswell, 
Augustus Conant, James Curley, John A. Farnham, Jackson Hall, 
Joseph A. McClure, Abijah A. Roberts, J. Sanborn, Rodney C. Stet- 
son, Alanson C. Thomas, John Thornton, Joseph Adams, Eugene S. 
Chamljerlain, William Dugans, John Delien, Charles E. Dunning, 
( ieorge Kieth, William W. Reed, Charles Ellison, Albert N. Marsh, 
Alfred B. Merrick, John W. Melton, Ebenezer Smith, Nelson Wilt- 
shire, Lewis Wentwoith, William R. Fish, Leander H. Evans, Amos 
P. McKenney, Owen Monaghan, Jere Readson, John T. Webb, 
Leander Doyle, George N. Foster, Henry R. Nickerson, Bangor; 
Benjamin F. Brookins, William P. Emerson, George N. Huston, 
Albert F. Dearborn, Andrew G. Storer Bradford; Frank Mishon, 
Alvah A. Clewly, Solomon Cormiera, Edward F. Collins. George W. 
Collins, Thomas Violet, Bradley; John .S. Claphani, George McLaugh- 
lin, Carmel ; Joshua M. Page. Levi B. .Speed, Jared Hyde, Thomas 
Tarin, Henry McCoy, Charleston ; Daniel D. Shaw, John T. Shaw, 
Richard H. Shaw, Chester; William S. Given, Corinna ; Stillman 
Gupjjy, Henry G. Prescott, Corinth; John H. Briggs, Dennis Thomp- 
son, Edwin C. Copeland, De.\ter; Granville fi. Bean, George L. 
Crocker, William L. Howes, Dixmont ; Alfred Haskell, William 
Forbes, Enfield; James H. Emerson, Joseph Turner, Etna; Sylvanus 
C. .Andrews, Edwin Blanchard, James Osgood, Allen P. Walker, 
Charles F. .Atkins, Chandler Eastman, E.\eter; James Penderton, 
Nathan Larabee, Glenburn ; John H. .Avery, Simeon Pratt, Hezekiah 
Richardson, George W. Riggs, Columbus D. Tasker, Cornelius Flynn, 
(-jreenbush; Israel L. Hogan, Peter W. Witham; .Alonzo C. Hersey. 
lohn H. Small, Greenfield; Stetson Sidelinger, George W. Young, 
John L. Bean, Edward C. Betts, Hampden ; Samuel Sidelinger, War- 
ren Hall, .Albert T. Webber. Otis Whitmore, Hernion; Ephriam S. 
B,ailey, H olden ; Leonard P. Mann, Horatio B. Sawyer, Hudson; 
Nathaniel Henderson, jr.,; Jeremiah Bean, Jeremiah 
Boobier, Charles FJoodcn, William R. Bryant, Alvin L. Cary, Retire 
Freeze. Samuel Lamjjhire, Charles H. Littleheld, Samuel H. Murphy, 
William Sanborn, I^uther W. Spering, Edward Spring, Lagrange; 
John P.rinnin, Charles H. Burke, Lee; Hiram B. Morrey, Levant; 
.Ami Kimball, Adolphus Perry, .Addison G. Osborne, Lincoln; Tobias 
Lord. Albert L. Mclntire, Lowell; Charles Myrick, Mattawamkeag ; 
Stephen Inman, David Willett, John H. Jackson, Milford ; Ch.arles O. 
Gerald, Milton .Smith, Joshua S. Otis, Newburg ; David L. Boyle, 
Tobias .A. Fernald, Daniel Litchfield, .Allen P. McLure, Rodolphus 
Mills. Benjamin F. Smith, Warren C. Tibbetts, William F. Wheeler, 
Newport; James Early, No. 2, Range 6; James H. Clark, William 
Commier, Moses Grant, David Kno.\, Isaac Moores, George Richard- 
son, .Alpheus Spaulding; John A. Spaulding, William Spaulding, 
Charles Willett, Moses C. French, Boardman Davis, Alfred C. Rigby, 
Albert S. Russ, .Alfred R. Varncy, Orrin L. Richardson, Orrin P. 
Richardson, .Andrew Cakes, Oldtown; Sylvanus Bragdon, Renjatnin 
King, Orono ; Joshua E. Blackwell, Lewis Clement, jr., John Fitz- 
patrick, Peter Grmo, Joseph C. Hill, Daniel S. Legrow, Erastus Le- 
grow, Samuel D. Ix;grow, James IC. Parker, Francis Scribner, Martin 
H. Shaw, Robert Smart, Jethro H. Sweet. John Troop, Joseph E. 
Clark, Lyman P. DoUoff, Charles B. Heald, William Hackett, Jonathan 
A. Perry, Henry A. Ricker, Barzilla H. Ricker, William H, Scribner, 
Daniel W. Sawtelle, Patten; Awando H. Mitchell, Stacyville; Levi 
M. .Scribner, Charles R. Johnson, Springfield; Orren Brand, Veazie. 


This regiment was organized at Augusta, September 
22, 1 86 1, to serve three years; left September 24th, and 
arrived at Fortress Monroe, where they formed a portion 
of General Sherman's expedition for the capture of Port 
Royal, South Carolina. November 8th the regiment land- 
ed at Hilton Head. I'ebruary 7th, 1862, went to Warsaw 
Island, and on the 21st joined the e.xpedition which cap- 
tured P'ernandina, Florida. Remained at Fernandina until 
January 17th, 1863, when they returned to Hilton, 
South Carolina, where they did outpost duty until June 
24th; then moved to St. Helena Island. On the 4th 
of July they went to Folly Island, and on the loth 
landed on Morris Island, charged and carried the enemy's 
rifle-pits in front of their works. On the i ith they joined 
in the attack on F'ort Wagner, and only fell back when 
left alone by the other regiments and ordered to retreat. 
They also formed a part of the assaulting column in the 
attacks of the i8th of July and on the 6th of Sep- 
tember. Their casualties in the several assaults on Fort 
Wagner were over 300 men in killed, wounded, and 
missing. On the 30th of October they moved to Black 
Island, and remained there until February 10, 1864; in 
the meanwhile 416 of the original members re-enlisted 
for an additional term of three years. On that day they 
returned to Morris Island, when the re-enlisted men 
were granted a furlough of thirty days, and proceeded 
to Maine; the remainder of the regiment continuing 
there until the 18th of April, when they proceeded to 
Gloucester Point, Virginia, arriving on the 2 2d, and 
where the re-enlisted men rejoined the regiment on the 

On the 4th of May they sailed up the James River, 
disembarking at Bermuda Landing on the 5th. On the 
7th they engaged the enemy at Walthall Junction. On 
the 17th they engaged the enemy at Drury's Bluff. On 
the 20th they again engaged the enemy at Bermuda 
Hundred, losing 9 killed, 39 wounded, and 4 missing. 
On the istofjune they participated in the assault on 
the enemy's works at Cold Harbor, losing in the engage- 
ment 10 killed, 49 wounded, and 12 missing. On the 
23d of June they arrived in front of Petersburg, and on 
the 30th engaged the enemy, losing 10 killed and 39 
wounded; also, on July 30th, losing 7 killed, 34 wounded, 
and 5 missing. On the i6th and i8th of August they 
engaged the enemy at Deep Bottom, losing in the en- 
gagement 8 killed, 38 wounded, and 10 missing. They 
returned to Petersburg on the 20th, and there remained 
on duty in the trenches until September 28th. In the 
meantime, on September 21st, the original members, 
numbering 158 men, who did not re-enlist, lett the regi- 
ment for Maine, where they were mustered out and dis- 
charged the United States service, their term having 

On the 29th of Sei)tember the regiment, numbering 
195 enlisted men and 6 officers present, formed a jjart of 
the forces which made the assault on Fort Gilmore, and 
remained doing duty in the trenches at Chapin's Farm 
until the 26th of October. On the 27th they engaged 
the enemy at Derbytown Road; casualties 7 killed, 38 



wounded, 3 missing. After further service at Fort 
Fisher, Wilmington, and other points in North Carolina, 
the regiment was mustered out at Raleigh, July 13, 1865, 
and returned to Augusta for payment and discharge. 


Surgeon AUlen U. I'almer. Oroiio. 
Surgeon Delon H. Alibotl, Orono. Surgeon Delon H. .Abbott. Orono. 
Sergeant Major Dutsin I'. Dority, Bangor. 
Sergeant Major David O. Hoyt, I' 


Captain George W. Brown, Co. C, Newport. 
Captain Benjamin J. Hill, Co. D, Stetson. 
Ceplain George W. Cunimings, Co. I, Bangor. 
Captain Scollay D. Baker, Co. I, Bangor. 
Captain Billings Brastow, Co. I, Brewer. 
Captain Samuel .S. Mann, Co. K, Bangor. 
I'irst Lieutenant Klton W. Ware, Co. F, Orrington. 
First Lieuten.ant Benjamiji J. Hill, Co. H, .Stetson. 
First Lieutenant Scollay D. Baker, Co. I, Bangor. 
First Lieutenant Billings Brastow, Co. I, Brewer. 
First Lieutenant Dustin P. Dority, Co. I, Bangor. 
Second Lieutenant Dustin P. Dority, Co. B, Bangor. 
Second Lieutenant Billinjjs Brastow, Co. I, Brewer. 
Second Lieutenant i'llton W. Ware, Co. L Orrington. 
Secon<l Lieutenant Kdwin T. Clifford, Co. I, Hcrmon. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Brown, Co. K, Newport. 
Second Lieutenant Benjamin J. Hill, Co. K, Stetson. 


First Sergeant Thomas S. Shepard, Bangorf 
First Sergeant Richard Webster, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles E. Smith, Bangor. 
.Sergeant Forest R. Higgins, Bangor. 
Sergeant Dustin P. Dority, Bangor. 
Sergeant Warren E. Jordan, Bradford. 
Sergeant Levi J. Morrill, Brewer. 
Sergeant George H. Mower, Corinna. 
.Sergeant Hiram T. Bickford, Di.\mont. 
Sergeant Edwin T. Clifford, Hermon. CJcorge W. Brown, Newport. 
Sergeant John Daughcrty, Passadumkeag. 
Sergeant David O. Hoyt, 
Sergeant Benjamin J. Hill, Stetson. 
Sergecnt Thomas Kent, Veazie. 
Sergeant John W. Shaw, Veazie. 
Corporal James W. Bowman. Bangor. 
Corporal John D. Fitzpatrick, Bangor. 
Corporal William .S. Frazier. Bangor. 
Corporal William H. Moody. Bangor. 
Corporal Joseph D. Norcross, Bangor. 
Corporal Elijah .S. Pierce, Banger. 
Corporal .Albert R. Lord, Bangor. 
Corporal Warren E. Jordan, Bradford. 
Corporal Edwin R. Wadleigh, Brewer. 
Corporal Francis H. McLaughlin, Carmel. WinslowJ. Gordon, De.\ter. 
Corporal Harrison W. Mower, Dexter. 
Corporal Ariel R. Prescott, De.\ler. 
Corporal Jackson W. f:iark, Glcnburn. 
C^orporal Cl.arkJ. Hammond. Hermon. 
Corporal Oscar M. Whiting, Newport. 
Corporal William W. Lunt, Orono. 
Corporal Patrick Linch, Orono. 
Corporal Frank E. Pond, Orrington. 
Corporal William Daugherty, Passadimikeag. 
Corporal CJustavus H. Dinsmore, Stetson. 
Corporal Benjamin J. Hill, Stetson. 
Corporal Oliver H. McKcnny, Stetson. 
Musician Albert A. Adams, Hampden. 
Wagoner Charles D. Staples, Bangor. 
Wagoner DeWitt, C. Heald, Newport. 
Wagoner John Cunningham, Stetson. 


Moses H. Judkins, Daniel B. Shaw, .\llon; Wesley C. .\dams, Ed- 
ward Bowman, John W. Barker, lib Busha, Henry M. Bennett, Hiram 

F. Bell. James Moran, Joseph Duke, George H. Fuller, William Q. 
French, Edmund Gerrill, Thomas Hogan, Paul Page, Mark P. Nor- 
ton, Charles Smith, Silas H. Whiteliouse, Ira Martin, Leander B. 
Mitchell, Stephen J. Thomas, George M. .Avery Oscar F. Chase, 
Williard G. Cleaves, William V. Cunimings, Hugh H. Cameron, John 
B. Fitzpatrick, Lagassy Tuflile, Cyrus McKenney, Daniel Murry, 
David Pelkie, Joseph Winslow, Peter Walsh, Thomas Belcher, Harvey 
H. Chamberlain, Michael Collins, Horace B. Davis, Henry W. Drink- 
water, Edwin .VI. Davy, John F. Inman, W. Kelley, Hiram 
D. Odlin, Alfred L. Townsend, Owen Lynch, John Downing, George 
W. Furbu'sh, Benjamin Hurd, John W. Keene. jr., C. Lander, 
Dennis \Lnhana, William Montgomery, William B. Salmon. 
Orrin Scribner, John F. Stevens, Bangor; Elias G. Blake, John T. 
Blake, Nathaniel Blake, Lemuel H. M.ayo, John Rankins, Brewer; 
A. Crockett, George C. Fogg, David Perry, Llewellyn .Smith, 
Josiah Ward, Carmel; David J. Morrison, Carroll; Edward Willard, 
Joseph Ellis, George W. Thomas. Benson K. Geaton, George .A. Naf- 
ton, Alonzo F. Kimball, Charleston; George B. Fisher. Charles S. 
Stone, Henry F. Weymouth, John D. Young, Roscoe V. H. Knowles, 
George W. Knights, Irving M. Barker, Christopher C. Knowles, 
George H. Mower, Samuel Libby, Jonathan Libby, Leonard B. Dear- 
born, Charles Elder, Charles E. Thompson. Orrin Winchester, Stephen 
Bray, James W. Brown, Stephen S. Burrill, Daniel W. Osgood, Thos. 
McMann, Otis Brooks, William H. Moore, James Babb, William Bond, 
Henry F. Caswell, Fred W. Clements, James P. Ireland, .Azro Mills, 
Corinna; Charles Curtis, Alexander McQuinn, Elisha B. Richards, 
Corinth; William Farmer, Roscoe W. Mowerj Asa S. Russell, John 
Smith, David S. Snow, .Abisha S. Sturtevant, John Wilson, James S. 
Curtis, Thomas Linnare, Jacob P. Lane, Benjamin T. Palmer, John 
M. Dutlon, .Abial S. Gove, George G. Beard, Joseph Crowell, Thomas 
Farrar, George W. Holbrook, Seth I. Swanton, Dexter; Charles H. 
C'lark, John AL Crocker, George Gould, Benjamin Peabody, Llewellyn 
D. Smith, Charles F. Smith, Ephraim E. York, Benjamin W. Clark, 
George E. Davis, John C. Jones, S. .A. York, Dixmont; John H. Bur- 
ton, George W. Calef, John W. Davis, George W. Richardson, Ed- 
dington; Reuel W. Philbrook, Phineas L. Saunders, James M. Stevens, 
John D. Carson. Horatio F. Barden, Boardman C. Friend, Ozro 
Stevens, Noah W. Edminston, Etna; William H. Canning, David 
Brown, Bembridge B. Brown, Exeter; William W.Allen, Garland; Henry 
H. Pomeroy, Charles G. Staples, George R. Staples, Daniel Tibbetts, 
jr., Isaac Wooster, Glenburn; Timothy H. Rider, George H. Young, 
David S. Libbey, Josiah P. Littlefield, Greenbush; Thomas P. Hink- 
ley, Hampden; Howard Grant, .Albert R. Lord, Hermon; Henry C. 
Armington, John F. Burton, Alonzo B. Merril, Holden; Charles H. 
Davis, Edwin Hayes, Alphonso Haskell, Edward Haskell, James 
Brickett, Israel Bemis, Edward Lothrop, Horatio G. Kelley, George F. 
Waugh, Preserved B. Turner, Danville L. Wyinan, Howiand; 
Parks, Leonard .A. Cobb, Lee; Ira F. Eveleth, Orrin Nevins, Isaac 
Verrill, John Turner, Charles T. Turner, Levant; Willard Crocker, 
Adoniram H. Stinson, Lincoln; Marcellus V. Reed, .Amos Hodgdon, 
Merritt Southard, Bryden Spencer, William O. C. Mulligan, Milford; 
Lemuel Peabody, George O. Roberts, Newburg; Nahum Barnett, 
Marshall L. Colcord, John N. Gwin, Newport; Charles H. Kimball, 
Elijah Winslow, James .\. Dougherty, Fred .A. Michael, William Cum- 
mings, William Danforth, John L. Sp.aulding, John Lewis, Benjamin 
F. Neddo, George Patrick, Oldtown; Michael Collins, William Wilson, 
Elisha C. Martin, Thomas H. Bryant, Hannibal H. Perkins, Orono; 
Emery O. Giles, William S. Pond, Gilbert Ware, Orrington; Wesley 
Castigan, .Albert Nash,; Simeon Billings, James Davis_ 
Joseph B. Getchell, Charles A. Gilchrist, Titus Tonns, James M. W. 
Shaw, Benjamin R. Tilton, James W. Hodges, Nathan Hanscomb, 
James Gray, 2nd, John M. Dutton, George A. Tozier, Louis .Sandeau, 
Horace H. Gray, Augustus F. Rice, Plymouth; Peter N. Philbrook, 
Sidney II. Sinclair, Moses L. Ellis, Springfield; Daniel Berry, Allen T. 
Dinsmore, Newell J. Wiggins, Stetson; Moses (ioodwin, John E. 
Kent, Veazie; Hiram Twist, Woodville. 


organized at Cape Elizabeth, October 4, 1861, eight 
companies to serve two years from May 3d of that year, 
and two comjsanies to serve three years from October 
4th. Its service was mainly under Banks in North- 
ern Virginia, and under General Pojje and other com- 
manders of the .Xrniy of the Potomac. After the two 
years' men were mustered out, the remainder formed a 



battalion of tliree companies for duty as Headquarters 
Guard, Twelfth Army Corps. 


Corporal .N'atli.iniel F. French, liradford. 
Corporal Charles H. Carson, Bangor. 
Wagoner Charles B. Canney, Bangor. 


Levi T. Davis, Carmel ; William Peabody, Dixmont; Thomas 
Brick, jr., Joshua K. .Strong, ICnfield ; Nathan ICmery, Hampden; 
Hercules S. i-ernald, William Sibley, Lowell ; Levi U. Messer, U. B. 
McKinncy, Henj.imin Spencer, Uncoln. 


This regiment was organized at Augusta, November 
1 2, 1 86 1, to serve three years, and left on tlie following day 
for Washington, District of Columbia, where it arrived on 
the i6th, and remained encamped until March 28, 1862. 
On that day, with their division (Casey's), they proceeded 
to Alexandria, thence to Newport News, Virginia, where 
they remained until April 6th, On the 17th they pro- 
ceeded to Yorktown, and on the 29th had a sharp 
engagement with the enemy. On the 5th of May they 
bore a distinguished part in the engagement which took 
place at Williamsburg. They afterwards proceeded 
tow\ards the Chickahominy, which they crossed at Bot- 
tom Bridge on the 23d, and took a prominent part in 
the battle of Seven Pines on the 31st. After the battle 
of Seven Pines, they occupied the rifle-pits of the rear 
defences until June 4th, when they moved to the "Burnt 
Chimneys," and from tlience to Bottom Bridge. On the 
30th they participated in the battle of White Oak Swamp, 
after which they proceeded towards Harrison's Landing, 
where they remained until August 16th, when they left for 
Yorktown, at which place they remained until the 26th 
of December. On that day the regiment, with Naglee's 
brigade, embarked for North Carolina, and landed at 
Morehead City on the first day of January, 1863. On 
the 20th of January they again embarked on transports 
and started for Port Royal, where they landed on the 
loth of February. On the 4th of April they started for 
Charleston, and were present at the unsuccessful attack 
on that city by the ironclads, after which they returned 
to Beaufort, South Carolina, and there remained until 
June 4th, when they proceeded to Fernandina, Florida. 
On the 6th of October they were ordered to Morris 
Island, South Carolina, where they arnved on the 7th, 
and went immediately to the front. On the nth they 
were assigned to the First Brigade as artillerists, and for 
a long period were engaged day and night in shelling 
Sumter and the rebel works on Sullivan and James 

In April, 1864, they were assigned to the Third Brig- 
ade, First Division, Tenth Corps, and joined General 
Butler's command at Gloucester Point, Virginia. On 
the 5th of May they landed at Bermuda Hundred and 
participated in the engagement at Port Walthall Junction 
on the 7tli. They afterwards participated in the expedi- 
tion towards Petersburg, and in the battle fought at 
Chester Station on the loth. They also participated in 
the assault on the enemy's line around Richmond on the 
i2th, 13th and 14th; also on the i6th, losing in the 
several engagements 24 men killed and wounded. On 

the 17th they were again engaged with the enemy, 
and lost 26 men killed and wounded. On June 2d 
they assisted in repulsing the enemy's attack on the 
fortifications at Bermuda Hundred, losing 41 men 
killed and wounded ; and on the 16th participated 
in the movement resulting in the capture of the Hewlett 
House battery and entire line of rebel works in front of 
Bermuda Hundred. They also assisted in repulsing the 
enemy's attack on the 1 7th and 18th. .Subsequently they 
left the P.erinuda Hundred lines and proceeded to Deep 
Bottom, where they remanied until August, having 
meanwhile frecjuent skirmishes with the enemy, and par- 
ticipated in the capture of the rebel earthworks on the 
New Market road, where they lost 32 men killed 
and wounded. On the 14th of August they crossed to 
the north bank of the James river at Deep Bottom, and 
joined the Tenth Corps in its seven days campaign, par- 
ticipating in three battles. They charged once at Deep 
Bottom, twice at Deep Run, and repulsed three charges 
of the enemy on the i6th, and one on the i8th; their 
loss in killed and wounded in these several engage- 
ments was 10 commissioned officers and 144 enlisted 
men. On the 26th they moved to Petersburg, wliere 
they remained and took their share in the siege opera- 
tions at that place until the 28th of September, when 
they left for Deejj Bottom, and on the following day 
assisted in the capture of the heights known as "Spring 
Hill." Subsequently they participated in the movement 
towards Richmond, and on the 7th of October, in the 
engagement on the New Market road, in which they bore 
a prominent part. On the 13th they were heavily en- 
gaged in a battle on the Darbytown road, where they 
suffered a loss of 13 killed and wounded. They par- 
ticipated in the movement of October 27th, towards 
Richmond, and on the 29th in the recapture of the 
works across the Johnson plantation on the Darbytown 

On the 2d of November, one hundred of the regi- 
ment left the field for Maine, their three years' term of 
service having expired; and on the next day the remain- 
der of the regiment left for New York, having been one 
of the number selected to accompany General Butler, to 
assist in keeping the peace of the city at the Presidential 
election, after which they returned to the front. 

The total number of casualties in the regiment for the 
year 1864 were 363, viz: 74 killed, 274 wounded, 6 
missing, and [g taken prisoners. During the year they 
received 549 recruits; also a full company of volunteers, 
the Eighth of unassigned infiintry, organized at Augusta, 
Maine, December 17, 1864, to serve one year, the mem- 
bers of which were assigned and transferred to Compa- 
nies I and K. These accessions filling up the ranks of 
the regiment to the required number, it preserved its or- 
ganization and remained in service. 

During the first three months of 1865 the regiment 
was stationed near the New Market road, about ten 
miles from Richmond, and formed a part of the Third 
Brigade, First Division, Twenty-fourth Army Corps. On 
the 27th of March, with their division, they moved across 
the James and Appomattox Rivers and to the vicinity 



of Hatcher's Run, where on tne 31st they engaged the 
enemy, and remained exposed to their fire, skirmishing 
almost continually, until the 2d of April, losing mean- 
while 3 enlisted men killed, 2 officers and several enlist- 
ed men wounded, and i officer and 15 enlisted men taken 
]jrisoners. On the 3d of A])ril they participated in the 
assault and capture of Forts (Jregg and l'.aldwin, losing 
during the day 25 enhsted men killed and wounded, 
and on the 2d moved with the army in pursuit of Lee's 
forces. On the 9th they engaged the enemy at Clover 
Hill, losing 6 enlisted men killed, 2 officers and 29 en- 
listed men wounded. From the 25th of April to the 
24th of November, they were encamped near Richmond, 
Virginia, and on duty in that city, the greater part of the 
time. On the 26th of November they moved to Fred- 
ericksburg, and remained, doing patrol and other duties, 
until the middle of January, when they went to City 
Point for discharge. They were mustered out February 
2d, and left the ne.xt day for Augusta. 


Colonel Harris M. IMaisIed, Bangor. 

Colonel Jonathan A. Ilili, .Stetson. 

Lieutenant Colonel Harris M. I'laisteil, Bangor. 

Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan A. Hill, Stetson. 

Lieutenant Colonel Charles P. Baldwin. Bangor. 

Major Jonathan A. Hill, Stetson. 

Major Charles P. Baldwin, Bangor. 

Quartermaster Sergeant William H. H. Andrews, Newburg. 

Commissary Sergeant Samuel W. Lane, Bangor. 

Commissary Sergeant Joseph G. Ricker, Lee. 

Hospital Steward George C. Tha.xter, Lee. 

Drum Major and Quartermaster .Sergeant John Williams. Hampden. 

Principal Musician .-\bner Brooks, Corinna. 

Captain Charles P. Baldwin, Bangor, Co. B. 
Captain .Albert Mudgett, Newburg, Co. D. 
Captain Samuel B. Straw, Bangor, Co. E. 
Captain Francis W. Wiswell, Holden, Co. E. 
Captain George W. Small, Bangor, Co. E. 
Captain Francis W. Sabine, Bangor, Co. G. 
Captam Jonathan A. Hill, Stetson, Co. K. 
First Lieutenant Robert Brady, Enfield, Co. C. 
First Lieutenant John D. Stanwood, Springfield, Co. D. 
First Lieutenant Francis W. Wiswell, Holden, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Francis W. Sabine, Bangor, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Robert H. Scott, Bangor, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Joseph S. Bowler, Lee, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Albert (i. Mudgett, Newburg, Co. G. 
First Lieutenant Peter Bimker, Brewer, Co. G. 
First Lieutenant Benjamin B. Foster, Orono, Co. L 
Fisst Lieutenant Robert Brady, Enfield, Co. I. 
First Lieutenant Melville M. FoLsom, Newburg, Co. K. 
First Lieutenant Charles H. Foster, Stetson, Co. K. 
First Lieutenant Joseph .S, Bowler, Lee, Co. K. 
First Lieutenant Robert H. Scott, Bangor, Co. K. 
Second Lieutenant Jerome B. Ireland, .Newport, Co. B. 
Second Lieutenant John Williams, Hampden, Co. C. 
Second Lieutenant Gibson S. Budge, .Springfield, Co. U. 
Second Lieutenant Franklin M. Johnson, Springfield, Co. U. 
Second Lieutenant Samuel W. Lane, Bangor, C"o. D. 
Second Lieutenant |udson L. Young, Springfield, Co. D. 
Second Lieutenant I'rancis W. .Sabine, Bangor Co. E. 
Second Lii-utonant Lawson G. Ireland, Newport, Co. E. 
Second Lieutenant William P. Plaisted, Stetson, Co. G. 
Second Lieutenant George W. .Small, Bangor, Co. G. 
.Second Lieutenant George Payne, Plymouth, Co. G. 
.Second Lieutenant Charles A. Fuller, Corinth, Co. H. 
Second Lieutenant Jerome B. Ireland, Newport, Co. H. 
Second Lieutenant tJeorge H. Stratton, Winn, (_:o. I. 
Second Lieutenant .Albert G. Mudgett, Newburg, Co. K. 
Second LieiUenani William P. Mudgett, Newburg, Co. K. 

Second Lieutenant Charles H. Foster, Stetson, Co. K. 
Second Lieutenant George W. Small, Bangor, Co. K. 


First Sergeant Nathaniel R. Robbins, Bangor. 
First Sergeant George G. Blaisdell, Bangor. 
First Sergeant George H. Stratton, Winn. 
Sergeant Charles F. Wheeler, Alton. 
Sergeant John N. Weymouth, Alton. 
Sergeant Henry H. Davis, Bangor. 
.Sergeant Joseph Currier, Bangor. 
Serge-ant .Sumner K. Cushing. Bangor. 
Sergeant .Adelben Chick, Bangor. 
Sergeant Henry McCoy, Bangor. 
Sergeant .Alphonso Patten, Bangor. 
Sergeant George W. Small, Bangor. 
Sergeant Roger .A. Erskine, Bradford. 
Sergeant Henry B. .Stanhope, Bradford. 
Sergeant Peter Bunker, Brewer. 
.Sergeant Daniel T. Mayo, Carmel. 
.Sergeant George W. Clink, Clifton. 
Sergeant Charles Knowles, Corinna. 
.Sergeant Stephen Mudgett, Dixmont. 
Sergeant Robert Brady, Enfield. 
Sergeant Francis Ephraim, I-^nfield. 
Sergeant Judson W. Barden, Etna. 
Sergeant Henry Knowles, Kenduskeag. 
Sergeant John Finigan, Lincoln. 
Sergeant George W. Rowell, Medway. 
Sergeant Cyrus E. Bussey, Newburg. 
Sergeant William W. Foster, Orono. 
Sergeant Charles Watson, Orono. 
Sergeant |ohn F. Buzzell, Plymouth. 
Sergeant George W. Payne, Plymouth. 
Sergeant .Amos R. Pushaw, Plymouth. 
Sergeant Francis M. Johnson, Springfield. 
Sergeant Judson L. Young, Springfield. 
Sergeant William P. Plaisted, .Stetson. 
Sergeant Stinchfield .A. Leland, Winn. 
Sergeant David B. Snow, Winn. 
Sergeant Charles W. Trott. W'inn. 
Sergeant Arthur V. Vandine, Winn. 
Corporal Charles Babcock, .Alton. 
Corporal Charles F. Wheeler, .Alton. 
Corporal Charles G. L. .Aiken, Bangor. Calvin S. Chapman, Bangor. 
Corporal Ellas H. Frost, Bangor. 
Corporal Thomas T. Tabor, Bangor. 
Corporal Levi C. Smith, Bangor. 
Corporal .August D. Locke, Bangor. 
Corporal James W*. Perkins, Bangor. 
Corporal .\delbert Chick, Bangor. 
Corporal J aiues E Dow, Bangor. 
Corporal Fred H. Gorham, Bangor. 
Corporal George \\\ Small, Bangor. 
Corporal John E. Smith, Bangor. 
Corporal Daniel West, Bangor. 
Corporal J osiah Furbush, Bradford. 
Corporal Ira Weymouth, Bradford. 
Corporal George W. Collins, Bradley. 
Corporal Peter Bunker, Brewer. 
Corporal Daniel D. Noyes, Brewer. 
Corporal Stephen R. Bearce, Carroll. 
Corporal Patrick Dougherty, Carroll. 
Corporal William H. Girrell, Charleston. 
Corporal Charles Badge, Corinth. 
Corporal Cyrus Perkins, Corinna. 
Corporal Samuel Libby, Corinna. 
Corporal John B. .Alden, Dixmont. 
Corporal William H. Chamberlain, Enfield. 
Corporal Francis I'^phraim, Enfield. 
Corporal Leonard M. Witham, Enfield. 
Corporal J oseph W. Borden, Etna. 
Corporal Simeon Batchelder, Hampden. 
Corporaljohn Higgins, Hampden. 
C'orporal Andrew R. Patten, Hampden. 
Corporal Nathan .Averill. l^e. 
Corporal Joseph .S. Ames, Lee. 



Corporal Jotham S. Garnett, Medway. 
Corporal Cyrus E. Bussey, Newburg. 
Corporal John J. Hill, Newburg. 
Corporal Andrew J. Mudgett, Newburg. 
Corporal Charles Watson, Orono. 
Corporal James J. Baker, Orrington. 
C'orporal I.ysander H. I'ushaw, I'lyniouth. 
Corporal tJcorge H. Downs, I'lymoulh. 
Corporal (Jasper Hersey, I'lymoulh. 
Corporal John Dyer, Springfield. 
Corporal Benjamin Gould, Springfield. 
Corporal Hughey G. Rideout, Springfield. 
Corporal Frank E. Young. Springfield. 
Corporal Charles H. Foster, Stetson. 
Corporal Silas H. Kenney, Stetson. 
Corporal David B. Snow, Winn. 
Corporal I'harlcs W. Trott, Winn. 
Musician .\bner Brooks, Corinna. 
Musician John E. McKenny, Kenduskeag. 
Wagoner Joseph D. Ricker, De.xter. 
Wagoner Samuel Babb, Hudson. 
Wagoner John Ricker, Lee. 


Samuel Babb. Levi S. Bradford, James Bowley, Horace Burse, 
Moses Burse. Thomas Deray, .\ndrew C. Means, Albion Penny, John 
D. Walter, George H. Walton, Leonard H. Young, Alton; Joseph 
Emery 2d, Lewis Green, (Jeorge Merrill, Charles E. Elwell, Edward 
Laffin. Charles Sweeney, Josiah Felker, William Buswell, Charles P. 
Bazin, Edwin Elliott, Josiah H. Gordon, Edward W. Mills, Charles 
Rimbold, Frank L. Kenney. Charles Trask, Charles W. Lampcon, 
Charles M. Bunker. James M. Perkins, Sumner M. Bolton. John T. Stev- 
ens, Samuel M. York, .\lton; Charles A. Glidden, Charles P. Hubbard, 
Francis M. Johnson, Charles H. Jones, Norris Keefe, James Parker, 
Henry J. Ruck, Charles M. Prebble, Benjamin R. Smith, George War- 
rick. John W. Worcester, Bangor; Isaac T. Bailey, Frederic Brooking, 
Charles Bowker, Charles H. Clark, Lorenzo D. Clark, Jesse H. Chad- 
bourne, James Chadbourne, David E. Cunningham, Philip A. Dan- 
forth, Andrew B. Erskine, James Elliott, William M. Erskine, Joel D. 
Farnham. George D. French, Joseph .\. Ferguson, John Greene, Or- 
mandel V. Hebberd, James Hobbs, George M. Keiser, Daniel W. 
King, Lacassard Lassell, Prentice Preble, Henry W. Rider, Thomas 
J. Roberts, Asa V. Southard, Jonathan C. Spaulding, Hosea Staples, 
George H. .Strout, A. K. P. Twombly, Watson Ward, Bradford; 
Edwin F. Colins, Bradley; William H. Bean, William Keddle, Thomas 
A. Folley. Edward H. Hilton, Peter Bunker, Brewer; Jeremiah Fol- 
soni, Burlington; David .Simpson, Carniel; .^delbert J. .Mdrich. Silas 
M. Gates, William Shennan, Carroll; Samuel Copp, Zelord E. Car- 
penter, William C. Davis, Stephen C. Elwell, James Hamdcn, Charles 
F. Jack, Charles Johnson, Charles F. Rich, .Alfred P. Shute, Christo- 
pher C. Speed, Levi Stevens, .\lbert E. Turner, Leland F. Bridgman, 
Charleston; Ed\\in Savage, Ezekiel Savage, Chester; William H. Fogg, 
George W. Fogg, Clifton; Samuel Dean, Volney Sprague, Charles F. 
Morrill, John Knowles, Jesse R. Stone, Joseph R. Stone, Corinna; 
James Batchelder, Charles M. Dexter, .Abijah N. Clay, Walter 
I'rowell, Moses W. Fish, Thomas Sullivan, Moses F. Hurd, Charles 
A. H. Hurd, William H. H. Hurd, (5eorge O. Johnson, .Augustus 
Keiser, Joseph H. Knox, John Larry, jr., Linbyna Packard, Henry 
D. Prescott, Zachary T. Reynolds, Leeman R. .Smith, Thomas S. 
Smith. Charles E. Wyman. Clement C. Libby, Mory Mulliken, Wil- 
liam Nickeison, jr., John P. Nickerson, Corinth; Lorenzo D. Bickford, 
John P. Bickford, George L. Crocker, Oliver T. Ferguson, Lewis L. 
Gray, Joseph H'. Morsey, David Peabody, Erwin L. Prentiss, Dix- 
inont; Charles H. Springer, Dexter; Wells Maddocks, Eddmgton; 
Willard Whitney, E. Corinth; Albion A. Bands, Robert Brady, jr. , 
Silas Buswell, jr., William A. Buzzell, ICIijah B. Curtis, Phineas Ciu'tis, 
Zana Curtis, Levi .\. Coombs, William H. Darling, William B. Davis, 
Daniel Gray, Thomas Knowlton, Charles W. H. Jewett, Michael Mc- 
Devinof, Simeon F. McKenney, Nathan P. Messer, Nathan P. 
Witham, James M. Whittier, Enfield; Thomas Barker, Bowman 
Eldridge, Exeter; George VV. Buzzell, Etna; Henry .^. Mann, Thomas 
Nye. Glenburn; Eugene Braydon, Garland; Charles S. B. Hodgdon, 
William H. Houston, Samuel R. Buker, Greenbush; John Williams, 
Hampden; Abimeleck H. Annis, Freeman W. Annis, William Clark, 
Lemuel Overlock, Hermon; Michael Doyle, Holden; Charles H. 
Bean, Andrew H. Whitney, Robert Douglas, Charles H. Ham, .San- 
lord March, Franklin C. Rowe, Horace B. Sherbourne, Llewellyn R. 

Webber, Ira E. Parsons, Henry S. Rolfe, Daniel S. Percival, Hudson; 
Aaron W. Houston, George H. Smith, Warren S. Ladd, Kenduskeag: 
Enoch Flanders, Lewis .S. Henderson, George W. Jones, .Simeon 
H. Kinney, Warren W. Bishop, Lagrange; Joseph S. Bowler, Barte- 
mas Dunham, Philip Cobb, William Green, Henry F. Randall, Brain- 
ard A. Richie, Seth H. Riggs, Seth T. Salter, Charles H. Merrill, 
Ira C. Hermon, Bartemas Bartlett, William Bartlett, Charles H. 
Burke, Alonzo Carver, William Doble, Charles N. Foss, Joseph Hardin, 
Mathew P. House, Thomas M. Joidan, John B. Reed, George Robinson, 
Wentworth Staples, Joseph S. Rowles, Lee; John W. Elliott, Joseph 
Cooke, Moses F. Hurd, Thomas Reede, Benjamm F. Wing, Levant; 
-Asa A. -Athens, William .Athens, John C. Whitney, John M. Daley, 
Eleazer Hutchison, Lincoln; Andnew McKay, Charles N. Fogg, John 
G. McPhetres, Andoniram Sibley, Sumner Sibley, Lowell; Ellsworth 
B. Garnett, Medway; Charles F. Bickford, Timothy W. Ford, Mon- 
roe; Charles B. Abbott, Oscar F. .Abbott, George W. Bussey, Frank- 
lin F. Condon, Willard Davis J. B. Kelley, George .S. Kelley, Allen 

D. Holmes, Luther E. Maddocks, Charles E. Morton, Franklin A. 
Quinn, Robert Ricker, John Whitcomb, John Whitcomb, jr., New- 
burg; Jerome B. Ireland, I^aurison G. Ireland, Charles Miles, Joseph 

E. Nelson, John Wilson. Levi Pooler, Simeon Oakes, Lorenzo D. 
Stewart, Horace P. Robinson, Charles O. Varney, Newport; Charles 
B. Sartelle, No. 2. Ranges; John Ballard, Samuel A. Clark, Samuel 
.S. Hinkley, Michael Neddo, Peter Neddo, Adams Weaver, Frank 
Spaulding, Joseph Shepherd, John G. Quimby, John B. Weeks, Ed- 
ward Parkes, Joseph Lagassy, George A. Cron, John Spearin, Ezra F. 
Barnes, Albion P. Brickmore, George Cote, Oldtown; Nathaniel S. 
Davis, William Waite, Pattagumpus; Timothy W. Bean, Passadum- 
keag; George Innian, jr., Kelley, John Longley, Archibald 
P. Martm, John Mullen, George Sitel, Lorenzo R. McFarland, Orono; 
Andrew Osborn, Samuel Buzzell, William H. Conant, William C. Drake, 
Alva G. Glover, Wellington Leavitt, William F. Murray, Stephen 
Thurston, John W. Thurston, William R. Downs, Charles M. Prescott, 
Jonathan F, Knights, Plymouth; Hiram A. Cooper, Parker Downs, 
Stephen Frost, John N. Stanley, Prentiss; James B. Annis, James W. 
Bryant, Philo Bearse. John E. Bridges, John M. Rutherfield; Clark 
Cilley, Melville Comforth, George L. Cooper, John Day, Charles Dol- 
ley, Charles Downs, Prince E. Dunifer, Daniel S. Ellis, George H. 
Gerry, Ira Gould, Benjamin Guild, Leonard Leighton, Charles A. 
Lowell, David C. Philbrook, Ezra J. Philbrook, Jeremiah Philbrook, 
Zenas H. Rider, George M. Shepherd, Harvey C. Shepherd, Hiram A. 
Woodman. William P. Weymouth, George H. Woodward, Ezra C. 
Woodman, .Springfield; Charles .A. Cochran, Henry C. Dresser, 
Stephen S. Hubbard, Josiah M. Marble, Charles E. Hammons, Josiah 
Glastalve. Henry B. Cooper, Charles H. Abbott, Cyrus Woods, James 
V. Tabor, Horace .S. Kinney, .Augustus D. Locke, Thomas McKenney, 
William W. Morton, Marquis D. L. Osgood, Brook D. Stewart, 
Drummer .Sylvester, Charles Watson, Warren L. Whittien, Stetson; 
Wales E. Davis, Samuel Wentworth, Veazie; David Clendenain, Ed- 
ward Davis, Loring Gaiey, John Knox, C'harles Royal, George W. 
Young, Winn; Andrew J. Gardiner, Woodville; 'I'homas Nye, Orring- 
ton; .Stephen .\. Hind, John .A. Jordan, .Stetson. 


This regiment was organized at roriland, November 
16, 1 86 1, to serve three years, and left for Lowell, Mas- 
sachusetts, on the 24ih,where after being encamjjed several 
weeks, it embarked on board the steamshijj Constitution, 
January 2, 1862, constituting a portion of General But- 
ler's New England Division, designed for the capture of 
New Orleans. On the 19th of January they disembarked 
at P'ortress Monroe, and on the 4th of February i)ro- 
ceeded on their voyage, arriving at Ship Island on the 
1 2th. They remained at Ship Island until the 4th of 
May, then proceeded to New Orleans. On the 2 2d of 
June they |)articipated in the expedition to Manchac Pas?, 
where they engaged the enemy, and suffered a loss of 14 
killed and several wounded and taken prisoners. Sub- 
sequently they returned to New Orleans, where they re- 
mained until the 21st of October. On that day the 
regiment moved to Camp Parapet, and on the 19th pro- 
ceeded towards Baton Rouge, where they arrived on the 


2oth of December. During this march they were engaged 
in frequent skirmishes with the enemy, but met with few 

In the spring of 1863, during the early stages of the 
campaign, towards the reduction of Port Hudson, they 
performed an important part, assisting in covering the 
successful naval movement under Farragut, which resulted 
in his passing the enemy's stronghold with his fleet and 
communicating with the fleet above. Returning to Baton 
Rouge, they formed a portion of the expedition under 
General Grover, up Grand Lake, after which they par- 
ticipated in the Port Hudson campaign, losing 68 killed 
and wounded. On the 7th of July, immediately follow- 
ing the surrender of Port Hudson, they embarked for 
Donaldsonville, engaged the enemy at that place, and 
there remained about a month, when they returned to 
New Orleans. From thence they proceeded to Ship 
Island to protect that post from a threatening attack from 
Mobile, and there remained during the months of 
August and September ; then returned to New Orleans, 
remaining until January 3, 1S64, when they formed a 
]iart of an expedition to Madisonville, which they occu- 
lted until the i ith of March. On the 1 2th, two-thirds 
of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, who, April i6th, 
were furloughed and came to Maine, the non-re-enlisting 
men remaining at New Orleans. The furloughed men 
arrived at Portland on the 27th of April, and re-assembled 
there on the 27th of May, when they left for New York, 
where they arrived on the 3d of June and sailed for New 
Orleans on the 8th. Immediately upon their arrival at 
New Orleans on the i6th, they were ordered to Carrol- 
ton, and from thence on the 23d to Morganzia, where 
they arrived on the following day. 

On the 3d of July they proceeded to Algiers, and on 
the 13th sailed for Fortress Monroe, where they arrived 
on the 20th. From thence they proceeded to City 
Point, where they were ordered to report to General But- 
ler at Bermuda Hundred. Disembarking on the 21st, 
they proceeded on the same night to General Butler's 
position between the .\ppomattox and the James ri\ers, 
and there remained until the 28th, when they partici- 
pated in the movement of the Second Corps and General 
Sheridan's command across the James River. 

On the 31st of July they were ordered to Washington, 
thence towards the Shenandoah Valley, and joined Gen- 
eral Sheridan's forces at Berryville on the 17th of .Au- 
gust. On the following morning they moved towards 
Harper's Ferry as far as Charlestown, and took position, 
remaining until the 21st, when they retreated to Hall 
Town. On the 3d of September they proceeded up the 
valley and participated in the battle of Winchester on 
the 19th, losing in the engagement 2 commissioned offi- 
cers killed and 6 wounded, 12 enlisted men killed, 78 
wounded, and 15 missing; then they joined in pursuit of 
the enemy to Harrisonburg, where they arrived on the 
25th, and returned to Cedar Creek on the loth of Oc- 
tober. They bore an honorable part in the action at that 
place on the 19th, in which their casualties were as fol- 
low: I commissioned officer and 6 enlisted men killed, 
2 commissioned officers and 20 enlisted men wounded. 

2 commissioned officers and 51 enlisted men missing. 
On the 20th of October they moved to Strasburg, and 
shortly afterwards returned to their old position at Cedar 
Creek, where they remained until the 9th of November; 
on that day, with their corps, they moved back to the 
northern bank of the Opequan. 

The regiment was mustered out of service at Portland, 
Maine, December 7, 1864, the recruits and re-enlisted 
men, however, remaining in the field and being organized 
into a battalion of four companies. This battalion was 
afterwards ordered to Savannah, Georgia, where it was 
subsequently raised to a full regiment by the assignment 
of the Tenth, Twelfth, Fifteenth, Eighteenth, and Six- 
teenth Companies of unassigned infantry, organized at 
Augusta, Maine, in February and March, 1865, to serve 
one, two, and three years, and which were assigned as 
Companies E, F, G, H, I, and K, respectively. These 
companies were mustered out at the expiration of their 
term of service in February and March, 1866, the two 
and three years men, together with the battalion of vet- 
erans, remaining on duty at Savannah, Georgia, until the 
i8th of April, 1S66, when the whole battalion was mus- 
tered out of the United States service at that place, by 
Lieutenant J. Hartwell Butler, Commissary of Musters, 
Department of Georgia, under the provisions of War De- 
partment General Order No. 94, Series of 1865, and in 
pursuance of Special Order No. 7r, dated Headquarters 
Military Division of the Tennessee, April 10, 1866. 
They then took transports to New York, where the men 
were paid and finally discharged. 


Atljutant Lagrange Severance, Bangor. 
C^)uartermaster Charles H. Buswell, Bangor. 
.Surgeon James H. Thompson, Orono. 
Surgeon Eldiidge A. Thompson, Charleston. 
.Assistant Surgeon Eldridge A. Thompson, Ch.arleston. 


Captain .Alibolt Coan, Orono, Co. .\. 

Captain Joseph W. Tnompson, Bangur, Co. B, 

Captain John F. .\ppleton, Bangor, Co. H. 

Captain Henrj' L. Wood, Ue.xter, Co. 11. 

Captain Samuel F. Thompson, Bangor, Co. I. 

First Lieutenant Alfred U. Morse, Orono, Co. A. 

First Lieutenant Joseph VV, Thompson, Bangor, Co. B. 

First Lieutenant George Webster, Bangor, Co. C. 

First Lieutenant David B. Chesley, Lincoln, Co. D. 

First Lieutenant Abbott Coan, Orono, Co. F. 

h'lrst Lieutenant .Alfred R. Straw, Garland, Co. F. 

First Lieutenant David B. Chesley, Lincoln, Co. F, 

Second Lieutenant Edward H. B. Wilson, Orono, Co. F. 

Second Lieutenant Freeman H. Chase, Lincoln, Co. F. 

Second Lieutenant George Webster, Bangor, Co. H. 

Second Lieutenant Abram B. Coombs, Bangor, Co. I. 

Second Lieutenant Charles H. Bushwell, Bangor, Co. I. 


First Sergeant Joseph W. Thompson, Bangor. 
First Sergeant Charles J. Fletcher, De.vter. 
First Sergeant David B. Chesley, Lincoln. 
Sergeant Charles H. Buswell, Bangor. 
Sergeant William A. Garnsey, Bangor. 
Sergeant Lagrange Severance, Bangor. 
Sergeant Edwin S. Thompson, Bangor. 
Sergeant Lewis H. Walton, Bangor. 
Sergeant Daniel Wentworth, Bangor. 
Sergeant -Albion P. Sanders, Brewer. 
Sergeant Abbott Coan, Exeter. 
Sergeant Levi W. Edgerly, E.xeter. 


Sergeant Tristam C. Goding, Hampden. 
Sergeant John Haskell, Hermon, 
Serg.eant C'harles H. Freeman, Lincoln. 
Sergeant ICugene B. Stinson, Lincoln. 
Sergeant Alfred D. Morse, Oldtown. 
Sergeant Jedediah Greenlaw, Orono. 
•Sergeant I-'ranklin Lord, Plymouth. 
Corj)oral Hiram G. Clandge, Hangor. 
Corporal Jonathan N. Drew. Hangor. 
Corporal Reuben Gowen, Rangor. 
Corporal Ephraim (Juptill, Hangor. 
Corporal John Haskell, Bangor. 
Corporal William S. Hiiskcll, Bangor. 
Corjioral I-Yed A. Small, 
Corporal Daniel W'entworth, Bangor. 
Corporal Joseph (Jray, Bradford. 
Corporal Kugene Kingman, Dexter. 
Corporal Benjamin F. Walker, K.xeter. 
Corporal John Haskell, Hermon. 
Corporal William B. McKcnney, Kenduskeag. 
Corpoial William C. Hanson, Lincoln. 
Corporal Charles H. Stratton, Lincoln. 
Corporal George G. Thayer, Lincoln. 
Corpora' Eugene B. Stinson, Lincoln. 
Corporal (jeorge W. March, Newljurg. 
Corporal .Vugiistus H. Morrill, Oldtown. 
Corporal David S. I'orter, Oldtown 
Corporal John A. Decker, Orono. 
Corporal Marcena C. Gray, Orono. 
Corporal John B. Rowan, Orono. 
Corporal Benjamm F. Snow, Orringlon. 
Corporal Myron Webster, Orringlon. 
Corporal Michael Condon, Oirington. 
Musician Prentice P. Allen. Corrinna. 
Musician John H. Mettor, Dexter. 
Musician Joseph H. Johnson, Orono. 
Wagoner Lewis B. Hopkins. 


Jacob Bagley, ]eremy Baker, James Harris Benson, John Bilby, 
John M. Blanchard, Alvm Burbank, Edward C:. Charles, Michael Con- 
don, .Augustus Curtis, Jonathan W. Drew, Martin Drinkwaler, George 
W. Fraisei, .Augustus Gilbert, Walter Grogg, Thomas Hawkins, Asa 
Kimball, James Kirkpatrick, Noah .McKusick, William D. McLaugh- 
lin, Ivory Murray, Phineas Nickerson, Bryden S. Osborn, Thomas 
Petters, .Alanson Powers, Benjamin F. Prescott, .Samuel T. Pierce, 
I'".lmon P. Saunders, Stephen S. Sealand, Harrison Spencer, William 
H. Thompson, Henry G. Thompson, Charles H. Thorns, .Almon P. 
Tibbens, John W. Torsey, William H. Torsey, Hangor ; Joseph L. 
Forbes, Joseph .-\. Horlon, Bradford: .\bram H. Downes, Walter W. 
Gragg, Frederic A. H. Sanborne, Edwin J. W^ishburne, Henry C. 
Waterhouse, Brewer; Gabriel .\. Foster, Eliphalet Miller, Edward S. 
Page. .Aruna E. Peasley, Franklin Tibbetts, Burlington; .Albert Dough- 
erty, John McGuire, Carmel ; James Roach, Jonathan S. Hunt, Charles- 
ton ; Charles H. Stratton, Ira F. Stratton. George G. Th.ayer, Ches- 
ter; John R. BurriU, .Alvah R. Graffam, Samuel C. Graffam, Josiah P. 
Nickerson, Charles Nutter, Elijah G. Tibbetts, Bailey J. P. Washing- 
ton, Corinna ; Simon A. .Abbott, Hiram M. tjould, Charles P. Green, 
.Sullivan White, Dexter; Oscar Butler, Jerry R. Champeon, William 
Champeon, Luther M. Hill, Charles F. Milton, Alonzo Russell, Ben- 
jamin F. Russell, Calvin R. Seavey, Cyrus L. .Seavey. Harrison Willey, 
Jerry Young, Exeter; Isaiah .Adams, Stephen Berry, jr., Samuel Fox, 
Robert T. French, Wesley H. Handley. .Alfred R. Straw. Leonard H. 
Titcomb, Garland; ]ames W. Smith, Charles Tibbetts, (ilenbiirn; 
(_"harles .A. Williams, Greenbush ; John Litllefield, John C. McPhetres, 
Greenfield ; Jacob H. Palmer, Jesse N. Rines, Joshua C. Rines, Hamp- 
den ; (jeorge E. West, Holden ; Russell S. Tucker, Kenduskeag ; 
Enoch L. Tuck, Lee ; Herman C. Anthers, Hiram Dill, Aaron Han- 
son, Edwin Hanson. Joseph Hatch, Lincoln; George E. Caldwell, 
Seth Eastman. John Fox, Lowell; Robert J. Camp, Newburg ; Emery 
Allen, Jeremiah Kingston, David S. Porter. Philip A. Vickery, Old- 
town ; James M. .Andrew, Peter Rrochin, Charles .A. Buckley, William 
Buckley, Peter Butler, Josejih Clankay, .Alexander Clair, Joseph 
Cowen, Horatio Duplissa, Michael Estes, Stephen Estes, Phineas W. 
Fairbrother, Peter Hogan, Martin Kennedy, Zeph.aniah Neal, James 
Nelergrani, Edwin M. Paris, John C. Perkins, Maxim Rancho, Josiah 
Spencer, Mark Weeks, Martin J. Vinal, Peter firoochee, (jeorge But- 
ler. .M. Dean, Joseph I-'orlit:r, l.abrce, Reuben S. 

Garland, Spencer Sewell, Orono; William Johnson. -AUin B. Towle, 
Plymouth ; Moses B. Langley , Stetson ; Josiah Garnett, Winn ; Charles 
D. Garnett, Woodville. 


Tliis regiment was organized at Augusta, Maine, De- 
cember 13, 1 86 1, to serve for three years, but left for 
Boston, Massachusetts, l'"ebruary 18, 1862, where it em- 
barked on board transports on the 20th and 21st for For- 
tress Monroe, Virginia. P'roni thence on the 23d they 
sailed for Shij) Island, Mississipj.ii, where they arrived on 
the 2d of March, and there remained until July 5th, on 
wliich day detachments from the regiment were sent to 
garrison the several forts constituting the defences of 
New Orleans, and were engaged in such duties until 
September i, 1863, when the entire regiment was ordered 
to New Orleans to jierform provost duty. On the 24th 
of October, they embarked at Carrollton, Louisiana, for 
Te.xas, and landed at the island of Brazos de Santiago, 
near the mouth of the Rio Grande, on the morning of 
November 2d. They participated m the capture of 
Point Isabel on the 6th, and on the 15th formed a part 
of the forces which captured Mustang Island. On the 
27th of November they jiarticipated in the capture of 
Fort Esperanza, commanding Pass Caballo, the entrance 
to Matagorda Bay, where they remained encamped until 
February 18, 1864, when they were ordered back to 
Louisiana to rejoin the Nineteenth Army Corps at 
Franklin, and take part in the Red River campaign then 
about commencing. 

On the 15th of March they proceeded toward 
Natchitoches, where they joined General Banks' forces 
on the 2d of .\pril, and on the 6th moved toward 
Shreveport. Reaching Pleasant Hill on the 8th, they 
jjarticipated in the engagement at that place on the same 
day, and on the ne.xt day in tlie charge resulting in the 
comjjlete repulse of the enemy. They returned to Al- 
exandria, Louisiana, on the 25th of April, and to Mor- 
ganza Bend, Louisiana, on the 2 2d of May, after a 
fatiguing march, during which lines of battle had to lie 
rejieatedly formed to repel attacks. 

They remained at Morganza until the ist of July, 
when they were ordered north, and arrived at Fortress 
Monroe on the 12th,, thence jiroceeded to Washington, 
District of Columbia, where they arrived the next day, 
and encamped at Tennallytown, subsequently marching 
to Harpers Ferry, Virginia. On the 3d of August the 
re-enlisted men of the regiment proceeded to Maine on 
furlough, and there remained until the 27th of Sej^tem- 
ber, when they departed for the front, reaching Harpers 
Ferry on the ist of October. Communication with the 
front being then impossible, they were ordered to Mar- 
tinsburg, Virginia, (the base of supplies for Sheridan's 
whole army), where they remained on picket and jiatrql 
duty until the expiration of their original term of service, 
when the original members who had not re-enlisted re- 
turned to Maine, arriving at Augusta December 30, 1864, 
and were mustered out of the United States service at i)lace on the 6th of January, 1865, by Major J. W. 
T. Gardiner, United Stales .Army. 


Two hundred and eighty-two re-enhsted men and eighty- 
two recruits whose term of service had not expired, were, 
before the departure of the regiment from the field, or- 
ganized into a battahon, which was soon afterwards trans- 
ferred to and consolidated with the Thirtieth regiment of 
infantry, Maine volunteers. 


Captain Frederick A. Stevens, Co. E, Bangor. 

Captain William H. H. Walker, Co. A, Newburg. 

First Lieutenant William H. H. Walker, Co. A, Newburg. 

First Lieutenant Freeman W. Whiting, Co. C, Newport. 

Second Lieutenant William E. Cusliing, (Jo. I, Winterport. 

Second Lieutenant Ora Pearson, Co. I, Bangor. 


First Sergeant Ora Pearson, Bangor. 
First Sergeant Horace W. Sullivan, Hampden. 
Sergeant Daniel H. Capus, Bangor. 
Sergeant Levi L. Hawes, Bangor. 
Sergeant Arthur C. Williams, Hampden. 
Sergeant Taylor T. Clark, Hermon. 
Sergeant Charles A. Woodbury, Hermon. 
Sergeant Charles D. Billings, Newburg. 
Sergeant Benjamin B. Rose, Newburg. 
Sergeant Henry W. Brown, Newburg. 
Sergeant Hiram White, Oldtown. 
Corporal Daniel H. Capus, Bangor. 
Corporal John Gorst, Bangor. 
Corporal William B. Ray, Bangor. 
Corporal William Haseltine, jr., Carmel. 
Corporal Arthur C. Williams, Hampden. 
Corporal George Brackett, Hermon, 
Corporal Albert Bryant, Hermon. 
Corporal Taylor T. Clark, Hermon. 
Corporal Henry S. Kelly, Heimon. 
Corporal George H. Smith, Hermon. 
Corporal Charles A. Woodbury, Hermon. 
Corporal Abijah G. Allen, Newburg. 
Corporal John Lowell, Plymouth. 
Corporal .Andrew Ryder, jr., Plymouth. 
Corporal Joel Gates, Oldtown. 
Corporal Isaac W. McDonald, Oldtown. 
Corporal George L. Piescott, Oldtown. 


Joseph Whitcomb, Alton; Additon C. Benning, Phineas Clark, .Samuel 
Foloman, Thomas Clark, Samuel Gorst, Albion Grant, Alfred Joy, A. B. 
Merrick, John L. O'M.ira, William Plummer, Levi Stevens, Edward C. 
Tuttle, Eugene M. Williams, James H. Winslow, Bangor; Lorenzo D. 
Libby, Carmel; Daniel L. Bishop, Charleston; Erastus Bickfurd, 
Newell W. Smith, James A. Reed. Frederic A. Getchell, Nahum .\. 
Nason, Di.xmont; .Asa C. Brickett, Warren Doble, Etna; Alfred Bus- 
well, Charles W. Herrick, Daniel M. Miner, Glenburn; Kufus Johns- 
ton, Greenfield; Taylor Clark, Alvin W. Page, Zimri Piper, jr., William 
H. H. Walker, Hampden; Additon fienning, Cieorge Clark, Frank J. 
Hammond, Franklin Hammond, jr., John E. Holt, Edward Kelley. Kelley, George W. Light, Henry W. Light, Francis F. Over- 
lock, Andrew J. Smith. Hermon; Charles A. Elliot, Kenduskeag; Al- 
bert Annis, Levi P. Bowden, .Andrew J. Pomeroy, Gideon Pomeroy, 
Levant; George T. Eldridge, Newburg; Charles Bolbaston, Willi. im 
F. W. Canfield, David Carr, George F. Clark, Stephen Coffin, Corne- 
lius Dugan, John Dugan, Nathaniel Haskell, Nelson R. Jellcrson, 
George H. Jones, John Kelley, .Albert F. Knight, Charles A. I^ibby, 
James Smith, Thomas Spencer, Hugh Toomy, Dimmie B. White, 
Miles White, Charles Wheeler, Joel E. Wheeler, Oldtown; William 
Wilson, Patten. 


This regiment was organized at Augusta, Maine, from 
December 3d to December 17, 1861, to serve three 
years. They left for Boston February 5, 1862, and on 
the 8th sailed for Ship Island, Mississippi, where they 
arrived March 8th. They sailed for New Orleans May 
19th, and there remained until July 5th. On the 7th 

they embarked for Baton Rouge, where, on the 5th of 
August, they took a prominent part in the engagement 
with the enemy under General Breckenridge, losing in 
the engagement, in killed, wounded, and missing, 126 
men. On the 2pth, they lett Baton Rouge and i)roceed- 
ed to Camp Parapet, thence on the 26th to Carrollton. 
On the 7th of September they participated in the attack 
and capture of a camp of guerrillas at or near St. Charles 
Court House. On the 30th they were assigned to Gen- 
eral Dudley's brigade of Sherman's division, and on the 
26th of October returned to Carrollton, where they re- 
mained until December 13th, when they were ordered to 
lionnet Carre, thirty miles further up the river, and 
where they remained until May 7, 1863, employed in 
preventing smuggling through the rebel lines, and upon 
expeditions into ihe interior for the purpose of reconnois- 
sance and other objects. On the 7th of May they pro- 
ceeded towards Civiquis Ferry, and on the loth and nth 
were attacked by the enemy at that |)lace, and repulsed 
them on both days. On the 20th they proceeded to 
liaton Rouge, thence to Port Hudson, arriving at the 
latter place on the 22d. They [)arti( ipated in the as- 
saults on the enemy's fortifications at that place on the 
27th of May and on the 14th of June. From the 22d 
of June until the surrender of the place on the 8th of 
July, they remained in the trenches exposed to a heavy 
fire from the enemy's batteries. After the surrender of 
Port Hudson, they were stationed a short distance from 
that place on the road to Clinton, doing picket duty, 
until the 2 2d of August, when they proceeded to Baton 
Rouge; thence on the 3d of September with the expedi- 
tion to Sabine Pass, and afterwards to Algiers. After 
remaining a short time in Algiers, they proceeded to 
Brashear City, thence to Opelousas, which they reached 
on the 2ist of October. On the ist of November they 
proceeded towards New Iberia; reached Vermillion Ba- 
you after a march of two days, remained there until the 
1 6th, and then marched to New Iberia, where they 
remained encamped until the 7th of January, 1864. 

In the meanwhile, all but forty of the available men 
of the regiment having re enlisted for an additional term 
of three years service, on the loth of February they left 
New Orleans for Maine, having been granted a furlough 
for thirty days, and arrived on the 21st at Augusta, 
where they re-assembled at the expiration of their fur- 
lough. They left for Portland on tho 9th of April, and 
sailed on the following day for New Orleans, where they 
arrived on the 19th, and encamped at the "Parapet" 
until May 5th; then proceeded to B.tton Rouge, and on 
the 3d of July down the river to Algiers, prejiaratory to 
a then unknown sea voyage. On the 13th they sailed 
for Bermuda Hundred, Virginia; arrived there on the 
2 2d, and were immediately assigned to General Butler's 
command. On the 31st they proceeded to \Vashington; 
and, on the 14th, marched for the Shenandoah Valley 
by way of the Chain Bridge and Leesburg Turnpike, 
joining General Sheridan's forces at Berryville, Virginia, 
on the 1 8th. They jiarticipated in the battle of Win- 
chester on the 19th of September, losing 60 men in 
killed, wcjundcd, and missing; and were present at the 




assault and capture of Fisher's Hill, after which they 
joined in the pursuit of the enemy to Harrisonburg. 
Subseciuently they returned to Cedar Creek, and partici- 
pated in the engagement at that place on the 19th of 
October, losing 80 men, killed, wounde.d, and taken 

Shortly after the battle of Cedar Creek, they moved 
to a position near Kearnestown, where heavy works were 
erected, in which they remained until the 23d of Decem- 
ber, when the original members who liad not re-enlisted 
and whose term of service had expired were ordered to 
Maine for the purpose of being mustered out, the re- 
enlisted men and recruits whose term of service had not 
expired being organized into a battalion of four com- 
panies and remaining in the field. The regiment ar- 
rived at Augusta, Maine, December 30, 1S64, and was 
mustered out of the United States service by Major J. 
W. T. Gardiner, United States Army, on the 13th of 
January, 1S65. 

The battalion, composed of the re-enlisted men, form- 
ing four companies, lettered A, B, C, and D, remained 
encamped at Stevenson's Station, Virginia, until the 6th 
of January, 1865, when with the rest of the Second Di- 
vision, Nineteenth Army Corps, they proceeded to Balti- 
more, Maryland, and on the nth embarked for Savan- 
nah, Georgia, arriving on the 20th, and occupying that 
city until May 7th. 

On the 30th of March the battalion was increased by 
two new companies, the Thirteenth and Fourteenth of 
Unassigned Infantry; and on the loth of April by four 
more, viz: the Seventeenth, Twentieth, Twenty-second, 
and Twenty-third of Unassigned Infantry, all of which 
were organized at Augusta, Maine, in March and April, 
1865, to serve one year, and which were assigned as 
companies E, F, G, H, I, and K, respectively, thereby 
re-organizing the battalion into a full regiment. 

On the 6th of May the regiment moved towards Au- 
gusta, Georgia, arriving on the 14th, and remaining there 
until the 31st, when they were ordered back to Savan- 
nah, which ]jlace they reached on the 7th of June. On 
the 9th they proceeded to Darien, Georgia, and there 
remained, engaged m guard and patrol duty, until the 
28th of August, 1865, when the entire regiment was 
mustered out of the United States service by Captain 
Henry L. Wgod, Assistant Commissary of Musters, Dis- 
trict of Savannah, under War Department Circular No. 
30, Series of 1865, and in pursuance of instructions 
from Headquarters, Department of Georgia. On the 
I St of September they embarked for Maine, arriving at 
Augusta on the 17th, where the men were paid and 
finally discharged on the 28th. 


f "olonel Thomas \V. Porter, Bangor. 
I.iculenant-Colonel Thomas W. I'orter, Bangor. 
I.ieutenant-Colonel John K. Laing, Passadumkeag. 
Major Thomas W. Porter, Bangor. 
Major Jolin K. Laing, Passadumkeag. 
Adjutant Adolphus J. Chapman, Newburg. 
tjuartermaster Warren Crowell, Orono. 
Chaplain .Mvan J. Bates, Lincohi. 
iSergeanl-Major Wilham G. Lee, Bangor. 
IJuartermaster-Sergeant Warren T. Crowell , Orono. 

Commissary-.Sergeant William Jackman, Patten. 
Commissary Sergeant Henry C. Snow, Newburg. 
I*rincipal .Musician John .S. Smith, Bangor. 
Principal Musician Lmory Hall, Bangor. 
Principal Musician Carlisle P. Sawtelle, Newburg. 


Captain |ohn [. Quiniby, Orono, Co. B. 
Captain Warren Crowell, Orono, Co. C. 
Captain Nathaniel Sawyer, Di.vmont. Co. D. 
Captain William D. t hase, Oldtown, Co. D. 
Captain George W. Worster, Glenburn, Co. E. 
Cajitain John O. W. Paine, Bangor, Co. K. 
Captain Horace Blacknian, Bradley, Co. F. 
C'aptain John K. Laing, Passadumkeag, Co. V. 
Captain James B. Hill, Patten, Co. L 
(-'aptain Ir^ B. Gardiner, I\alten, Co. I. 
Captain .-Mbert L. Spencer, Bangor, Co. I. 
First Lieutenant Joseph D. Wood, Bangor, Co. A. 
First Lieutenant Malcom W. Long, Bangor, Co. B. 
l''irst Lieutenant William D. Chase, Oldtown, Co. D. 
First Lieutenant John O. W. Paine, Bangor, Co. D. 
First lieutenant John J. (Juiniby, Orono, Co. D. 
First Lieutenant George W. Worster, Glenburn, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Simon H. Boyd, Levant, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant -Adolphus J. Chapman, Newburg, Co. E. 
First Lieutenant Thomas W. Porter, Lowell, Co. F. 
First Lieutenant John K. Laing, Passadumkeag, Co. F. 
First Lieutenant Ira B. Gardiner, Patten, Co. I. 
First Lieutenant William [aeknian. Patten, Co. I. 
First Lieutenant Americus D. Harlow, Bangor, Co. L 
First Lieutenant Warren Crowell, Orono, Co. K. 
.Second Lieutenant Joseph W. Grant, Lowell, Co. A. 
Second Lieutenant John O. W. Paine, Bangor, Co. D.- 
Second Lieutenant Henry W. Robinson, Bangor, Co. D. 
Second Lieutenant John J. Quimby, Orono, Co. D. 
Second Lieutenant Edson Holmes, Bangor, Co. F. 
.Second Lieutenant William Jackman, Patten, Co. H. 
Second Lieutenant Charles Smith, Oldtown, Co. L 
Second Lieutenant Ira B. Gardiner, Patten, Co. I. 
.Second Lieutenant C'harles E. Blackwell, Patten, Co. 1. 
Second Lieutenant Wilson Crosby, Bangor, Co. I. 
Second Lieutenant Warren Crowell, Orono, Co. K. 


First Sergeant Joseph D. Wood, Bangor. 
First Sergeant Francis H. Blackman, Bradley. 
First .Sergeant Henry C. Snow, Di.xmont. 
Sergeant Richard Ashton, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles W. Cleaves, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles L. Doe, Bangor. 
Sergeant Allen B. Farrar, Bangor. 
Sergeant Henry W. Robinson, Bangor. 
Sergeant Joseph W. Wing, Bangor. 
.Sergeant George .A. Pritchard, Bangor. 
Sergeant Daniel O. Billings, Bangor. 
Sergeant Charles A. Clewley, Bradley. 
Sergeant James Garrity, Brewer. 
Sergeant David P. Edminister, Dixmont. 
.Sergeant Benjamin F. Simpson, Di.vmont. 
Sergeant James B. Craig, Dixmont. 
Sergeant George W. Worster, Glenburn. 
Sergeant David S. Worster, Glenburn. 
Sergeant Charles G. Niles, Glenburn. 
Sergeant .Albert Blackman, Greenbush. 
Sergeant James Rule, Greenbush. 
Sergeant .Andrew F. White, Greenfield. 
Sergeant .Simon H. Boyd, Levant. 
Sergeant John P. Hillsgrove, Milford. 
Sergeant Warren Crowell. Orono. 
Sergeant John J. Quimby, Orono. 
Sergeant John K. Laing, Passadumkeag. 
Sergeant Ira B. (Jardiner, Patten. 
Sergeant William Jackman, Patten. 
Sergeant Daniel Scribner, Patten. 
Sergeant Calvin Brickford, Plymouth. 
Sergeant William F. Jenkins, Woodville. 
Corporal Edward Bradford, Bangor. 



Corporal Seth Perkins, Bangor. 
Corporal Daniel McPhee, Bangor. 
C^orporal George W. Chamberlain, Brailford. 
Corporal Charles A. Clewley, Bradley. 
Corporal Daniel W. Hardy, Bradley. 
Corporal William H. Sawyer, Bradley. 
Corporal Weston Page, Burlington. 
Corporal George W. Taylor, Burlington. 
Corporal George Bean, Carmel. 
Corporal David M. Dill, Di.\mont. 
Corporal David P. Edminister, Dixmont. 
C'orporal .Stephen E. Harris, Di.xmont. 
Corporal James P. Harris, Di.vmonl. 
Corporal William M. Cobb, liddington. 
Corporal Franklin W. Betham, Enfield. 
(Corporal William E. Merrifield, Enfield. 
Corporal John J. Owens, Enfield. 
Corporal David S. Worster, Glenbmn. 
Corporal Oscar E. Blackwell, Greenbush. 
Corporal John Butler, Greenbush. 
Corporal William A. Doyle, Greenbush. 
Corporal Sylvester Quinn, Lagrange. 
Corporal John O. Allen, Lowell. 
Corporal Joseph W. Grant, Lowell. 
Corporal Charles S. Buswell, Maxfield. 
Corporal ."Mbert S. .Smith, Newburg. 
Corporal Daniel S. Jackson, Newburg. 
Corporal .Sullivan S. Perkins, No. I Township. 
Corporal James H. Cooper, Oldtown. 
Corporal Charles R. Horn, Oldtown. 
Corporal John Hayes. Patten. 
Corporal Joseph Preble, Patten. 
Corporal William F. Jenkins, Woodville. 
Musician Emory Hall. Bangor. 
Musician Carlyle B. Sawtelle, Newburg. 
Musician Dudley Miles, Oldtown. 
Wagoner John B. Lowell, Bangor. 
Wagoner Ozias P. Jackson, Oldtown. 
Wagoner M. H. Stetson, Oldtown. 


Isaac C. Brown, ."Mton; James M. Aiken, Josiah Hinds, Lewis Morri- 
son, John Murray, Zenas Goodell, Samuel Hail, William S. Laing, 
Charles M. Donald, Augustus J. Nickerson, Thomas Dana, William 
Dana, Malcolm W. I^ong, John Eldridge, jr., Sewall B. Lombard, 
James McGinnis, Malcolm W. Long, James Murray, Charles H. 
Stockwell, George A. Doe, Emery Hall, Roscoe L. Greene, Amos M. 
Spencer, Patrick Dougherty, Dudley Miles, Lemuel K. Arister, Albert 
L. Chick, Jesse A. Fairbanks, Patrick McCabe, William N. Gillis, Wil- 
liam L. Seavey, Horace F. Wood, John S. Smith, William H. Pritch- 
ard, James G. Percival, Bangor; William Bowley, Peter Misson, J. 
Sewell Pomeroy, Horace Sawyer, Stephen Call, Calvin Carter, Hiram 
E. Lord, Bradley; Isaac Brown, Ephraim Cunningham, Tristram H. 
Heard, jr., Algernon S. Miller. Harrison Moore, John Page, Thomas 
Warren, Burlington; William A. Carpenter, Frederick Tilton, Charleston; 
Warren N. Dill, Chester; Foster H. Staples, Clifton; Lleu'ellyn Cope- 
land, Luther Stubbs, Corinna; William J. Guffy, Corinth; John W. 
Burnham, Moses Cooks, Alexander Edminister, Lemuel P. Edminister, 
Daniel Edminister, jr., Joseph N. Edminister, Noah Edminister, Noah 
W. Edminister, James F. Emery, Foster C. Chase, Eli Cook, Fred A. 
Cushman, Benjamin H. Monk, Gershom C. Simpson, Charles F. Tas- 
ker, Thomas B. Hamilton, Charles W. Work, Otis C. Farnham, Clark 
L. Lakemont, Newell Larrabee, Joseph Littlcfield, David H. Morrison, 
Joseph Peabody, Daniel R. Sawyer, William M. Simpson, Benjamin F. 
Stevens, Albert S. York, Dixmont; Brainbridge Davis, Frank Sweet, 
Henry C. Sweet, Russell S. Towle, Eddington; Edward Betham, Jo- 
seph Burns, George W. Barnes, Levi Merrifield, Enfield; Benjamin F. 
Davis. Jonathan Dyer, Augustus Eldridge, Etna; George W. Harri- 
inan, Charles F. Staples, Glenburn; Charles W. Campbell, Arrona W. 
Douglass, Benjamin F, Folsom, Thomas N. Hill, Hiram M. Lowell, 
Eleazer Martin, Franklin Playze, John E. Playze, Harriman Pratt, jr., 
William H. Pratt, Leonard Richardson, Charles W. Spencer, Green- 
bush; George Mclnlire, Cyrus Maxwell, Hampden; George F. San- 
born, John 'I". Bradbury, Hermon; William Wallace. Holden; Reuben 
H. Brawn, John H. Emerson. Lewis F. Mason, Betiiuel Mason, How- 
land; Isaac Cunningham, Hudson; Reuben L. Gould, Lewis Smith, 
Kenduskeag; Riley Weeks, Lagrange; Charles H. Bailey, Michael 
Gulivan, William P. Hatch, Joseph Nute, Abithar R. Wiggin, Lincoln; 

Edward Booden, Daniel D. Castigan, Isaac W. Clark, jr., Asa Fogg, 
James E. Grant, .Arthur N. Given, Charles W. Henderson, Abraham T. 
Kimball, William Kimliall, Hiram Knowlton, Abraham Miles, Elbridge 
Miles, Josiah Miles, John Wharton, Lowell; George W. Brown, Cyrus 
Emery, Leonard G. Freeman, Jesse B. Lancaster, Rodney Q. Lancas- 
ter, Robert R. Moulton, Benjamin Thomas, Maxfield; John Di.xon, 
William W. Johnston, Dennis Newman, Oscar W. Reed, James Sweet- 
man, Milford; Virgil C. Newcomb, Alonzo Newcomb, Pearl B. 
Day, Newburg; Elbridge Applebee, Fred W. Johanett, John F, Dix- 
on, Henry Howard, Newport; Finley Cameron, Alden B. Smith, James 
Stacy, Robert E. Stacy, William W. Woodbury, Stacyville; George 
Forrest, Stetson; John C. Averill, Reuben Bryant, Joseph F. Cobb, 
James H. Cooper, Henry F. Dicker, William E. Dutton, Charles R. 
Horn, Francis M. Spencer, Alexander WiUey, Stillwater; William R. 
Averill, Abraham Baker. Ivory Barker, Jeremiah Carson, William C. 
Gray. Amariah C. Hopkins, George W. Jackson, James Moran, Samuel 
W. Langley, William Quimby, George F. Hopkins, Nelson Stafford, 
Charles W. Willey, Oldtown; John Estes, Orono; Edward T. Eldridge, 
Orrington; George W. Morrill, Henry Lancaster, Passadumkeag; 
Charles E. Blackwell, Carleton Clapp, Augustine Craig, William H. 
Craig, James W. Fairfield, Nathan W. Jameson, Wyroan B. Mor- 
grage, Daniel Wescott, Patten; Samuel H. Huston, John F. Prescott, 
Irving F. Richford, Jeremiah Towle, Stephen Towle, David Sawyer, 
Plymouth; Silas Hathorn, Charles H. Rollins, Veazie; Charle.*^ L. 
Smart, Whitney Ridge. 


The regiment was organized at Augusta from the 6th 
to tlie 31st of December, 1861, to serve three years. 
They left for Portland, February 27, 1862, where, after a 
delay of several days, they embarked on board the shijj 
Great Rejaiblic, which conveyed them to Shiji Island, 

From the 19th of May to the 8th of September, they 
were encamjied at Carrollton, Louisiana, and on the nth 
landed at Pensacola, Florida, where they remained until 
the 2 1 St of June, 1863, when they left for New Orleans, 
arriving the next day, and immediately jnoceeded on a 
reconnoissance to I'hibodeaux, during which they cap- 
tured a large number of the enemy. They returned to 
New Orleans on the 25th, and on the 23d of October 
joined General Banks's expedition to Texas, landing on 
the island of Brazos Santiago on the 2d of November. 
On the 15th they proceeded towards Mustang Island, 
where they landed on the i6th, and on the following 
day formed in line of battle to storm the enemy's works. 
So completely surprised were the rebels at the appear- 
ance of the force before their works, that they immedi- 
ately surrendered. Crossing Aransas Pass to St. Joseph 
Island, on the morning of the 2 2d, and from thence to 
Matagorda Island, they held the advance in the expedi- 
tion against Fort Esperanza, in Matagorda Bay, and ren- 
dered conspicuous service in the capture of that strong- 
hold. While at Matagorda Peninsula, where they 
remained from January 17, 1864, to February 28th, 
three-fourths of the original members of the regiment 
re-enlisted for an additional term of three years. On 
the 28th of February, they left for Algiers, Louisiana, 
arriving on March 3d ; from thence on the 6th [jtoceed- 
ed to Franklin, Louisiana, where they arrived on the 
8th, and were assigned to the Second Brigade, First 
Division, Nineteenth Army Corps. 

On the 15th of March, in common with General 
Banks's forces, they took up the line of march, and on 
the 8th of April jjarticipated in the battle of Pleasant 
Hill. Early on the morning of the loth they com- 



menced falling back, to the Mississippi River, participat- 
ing in the battles of Cane River Crossing (April 23d) 
and.Mansura Plains (May i6th), in both of which bat- 
tles they were subjected to a heavy artillery fire, meeting, 
however, with no casualties, and arrived at Morganza on 
the 20th of May. 

During the month of June they were ordered to New 
Orleans; took transjiorts July 5th for Fortress Monroe, 
Virginia, where, after arrival, six companies were ordered 
to Bermuda Hundred, the remainiui^ companies partici- 
pating in the campaign up the valley, in pursuit of Ear- 
ly's raiders. The command was re-united at Monocacy 
Jun<tion, Maryland, August 4th. 

The regiment having almost unanimously re-enlisted 
as veterans on the 25th of January, 1864, without 
receiving its veteran furlough at that time, received a 
furlough of thirty-five days, August loth, proceeded to 
Augusta, Maine, and returned to the field September 
27 th. 

Early in October the regiment left Harpers Ferry, 
Virginia, and proceeded to Martinsburg, where they 
remained until the 7th of January, 1865. The original 
members of the regiment, who had not re-enlisted and 
whose term of service had expired, were mustered out 
of the United States service, January 18, 1865, by Cap- 
tain James Y. Fitts, Commissary of Musters, Nineteenth 
Army Corps, but the large number of re-enlisted men 
and recruits whose term of service had not expired, 
together with a number of volunteers, drafted men, and 
substitutes, forwarded from Camp Berry, Portland, 
Maine, were sufficient to reorganize the regiment. 

On the 19th of April they were ordered to Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, and encamped at Tenally- 
town until the 31st of May, when they embarked for 
Savannah, Georgia, arriving on the 4th of Jime. On the 
13th of June they again embarked on board transports 
and proceeded to Georgetown, South Carolina, where 
the regiment was assigned to the Third separate brigade, 
Department of South Carolina. They remained in that 
department engaged in guard and patrol duty until the 
5th of July, 1S66, when they were mustered out of the 
United States service, at Charleston, South Carolina, by 
Major Leslie Smith, ('ommissary of Musters, Depart- 
ment of the Carolinas, in accordance with telegraphic 
instructions from the War Department, dated May 18th, 
1866, after which they proceeded to New York, where 
the men were paid and finally discharged. 


(Juarlerm.Tster Henry A. Whitney, Orono. 
Commissary Sergeant Fred W. Elder, Dexter. 
Hospital Steward Charles I'. Storer, De.\ter. 
Drum Major John Gould, Bangor. 


Captain Joseph .■\. Clark. Garland, Co. C. 

Captain John B. Wilson, Exeter, Co. H. 

Captain John B. Nickels, Corinth, Co. H. 

Captain .Alonzo Coan, E.\eter, Co. H. 

Captain Michael Boyce, Bangor, Co. I. 

Captain William H. Boyce. Bangor, Co. I. 

Captain Michael Boyce, Bangor, Co. K. 

First Lieutenant John B. Nickels, Corinth, Co. H. 

First Lieutenant Thomas H. Wentworth, Corinth, Co. H. 

First Lieutenant William H. Carr, (iarland, Co. H. 

First Lieutenant William H. Boyce, Bangor. Co. I. 

First Lieutenant Alonzo Coan, E.veter. Co. K. 

.Second Lieutenant Harrison G. I'rescott, E.wler, Co. H. 

Second Lieutenant Thomas H. Wentworth, Corinth, Co. H. 

Second Lieutenant .-Monzo Coan. lixeter. Co. IL 


First Sergeant Otis Gilmore, Bangor. 
First .Sergeant Alonzo Coan, E.veter. 
First Sergeant George Smith, Garland. 
I''nst .Sergeant Benjamin True, Garland. 
.Sergeant James F. Doyle, Bangor. 
Sergeant Martin Sweeney, Bangor. 
Sergeant Robert Wilson, Bangor. 
Sergeant Thomas H, Wentworth, Connth. 
.Sergeant Rinaldo Butters. E.MCter. 
.Sergeant Horace Mayo, E.teter. 
Sergeant John L. Russell, E.veter. 
Sergeant Joseph A. Clark, Garland. 
Sergeant William Mansfield, Garland. 
Sergeant Joseph W. SkiUin, Garland. 
Sergeant Giles .Straw. Garland. 
Sergeant Luther V. Gilmore, Holden. 
Sergeant Otis Gilmore. Holden. 
Sergeant Charles F. Jordan, Oldtown. 
Sergeaiit Henry A. Whitney. Orono. 
Corporal Michael Harrington, Bangor. 
Corporal Roderick McNeil, Bangor. 
Corporal .Andrew Cavanah, Bangor. 
Corporal William Chaplin, Bangor. 
Corporal Joshua L. Tebbitts. Bangor. 
Corporal James Garrity, Brewer. 
Corporal Henry W. Gay, Charleston. 
Corporal Evander O. Curtis, Corinth. 
Corporal Jasper J. Fisher. Corinth. 
Corporal Chesley Shaw. Corinna. 
Corporal John L. Russell, E.Keter. 
Corporal Joshua Gammon, Exeter. 
Corporal Byron Lilihy, I'Zxeter. 
Corporal Franklin B. Trickey, Exeter. 
Corporal William H. Carr. Garland. 
C^orporal Joseph A. Clark, Gariand. 
Corporal William Mansfield, Garland. 
C^orporal Joseph W. .Skillin, Garland. 
Corporal George Smith, Garland. 
Corporal (iiles Straw, Garland. 
Corporal Luther V. Gilmore, Holden. 
Corporal Lorenzo D. Page, Kendu-.keag. 
Corporal Seth Salter, Oldtown. 
Corporal Alfred Marshall. Springfield. 
Corporal Charles H. Carpenter, .Stetson. 
Corporal Joseph Davis, Veazie. 
Musician George H. Ferguson, Stetson. 
Wagoner Darius W. Bump, Bradford. 
Wagoner Benjamin T. Hubbartl. Garland. 


Edward Cyr, Melville Crawford, I'hilip I^anglair, Alton ; James 
Brennan. Michael Battles, John Campbell, lames Campbell. Richard 
Cooper, Richard Donald, Joseph Dailey, Jolin Donroe, Patrick Gavin, 
Martin Higgins, Patrick Jordan, John Kelley, James Logan, Charles 
Murry, John .McKenney, Michael O'Sullivan, Henry H. Howe, Frank 
Howe, Patrick Powers, Charles V. Gray, James Mishoe, Samuel Mil- 
ler, James St. Pierre. John C. Williams. Michael Boyce, Mark W. 
Crocker, George Forrest. Hugh Miller, Joseph W. Williams, William 
H. Boyce. James H. Duffy, Alexander Belonger, George W. Dean. 
Aaron Getchell, Lucius W. Gilbert, .Alexander Niven, George H. 
Rand. Henry Young, Benjamin G. Young, John L. Bonney. Robert 
Clark, John Rutlcdge, Hugh Rutledge. Thomas Hamilton, James 
Hunter. Moses E. Brown. Wellington D. Hunton. Cornelius Mahoney. 
Michael Quigley. William S. Smith, James Sweeney, Smith. 
Patrick Somers, Patrick Stone. Michael Shangluissey, Nelson Wiltshin. 
Bangor; Joseph Cyr. Joseph G. Smith. Benjamin F. Ballard, James M. 
Colley, William Farring, Bradley; John Young, John H. French, James 
A. Garland, John Lamphier, .Almon Strout, John T. Baker, Benj.amin 
F. Bowlings, Bradford; John Hanlon. Elias Thayer. George Webster, 
Elisha I'.edell. Edwin B. Bates, James Russell, Charles E. Brown, 
William Barlram. (Jeorge A. Smart, Calvin G. Roberts, Henry Dick- 



enson, Brewer; James G. Crawford, James G. Buswell, George A. 
Buck, Henry Tapley, George B. Webber, Carmel ; John Kearney, 
James A. Ballard, Alexander S. Davis, Eugene S. Joselyn, Daniel 

B. Butler, Gershom L. Butler, Stephen W. Girrell, Leonard Jelli- 
son, James Noble, David A. Page, Charleston ; Almon Clark^ 
Alexander Henley, George G. Pierce, Alphonso L. Ober, William 
White. George B. Webber, James Ballard, Martin Boyle, N'ewell ]. 
Bradley, Allan R. Hunting, John D. Hunting, John H. Megguirc, 
Frank P. Roundy, John C. .Sweet, John Walker, Corinth ; Ansel Han- 
nan, John H. Maines, Corinna ; Charles C. Daniels, Fred W. Elder, 
Charles P. Storer, Dexter ; Ira T. Penney, Eddington ; Samuel A. Pres- 
cott, Joel A. Friend, George W. Sylvester, Etna; Alexander Eraser, Henry 
W.Russell, John. Souse, Wm. Willard, Joshua L. Lowell, Charles F. Dear- 
born, George W. Gammon, Charles W. Greely, Jeremiah R. Leathers, 
John C. IJbby, George T. Marsh, Horace L Neal, Samuel Robshaw, 
Asa M. Stevens, Leander M. Tibbetts, Melvm Tibbetts, Exeter; James 
Doyle. BartlettC. Wliite, Greenfield; Robert T. French. AsaH. Hath- 
away, Dennis Griffin. Hollis Mansfield. Austin Ramsdell. Isaac Little- 
field, Seth R. Doan, HenryJ. Brown, Jedediah Cole, Stephen R. Cann. 
Isaac R. Fall. Peleg Fogg. .Samuel Goodwin. Frederic Haskell, Benjamin 

C. Hatch. Newry Ramsdell. Garland ; William H. McGrine. Samuel 
Hutchinson. Henry Pettengill, Ambrose F. Tyler. Frank Page. Lubin P. 
Higgins.John Vassure. Calvin Raynes, Glenburn ; George B. Candage. 
SamuelV. Hartford, Hampden; Charles A. Trask, Holden; James Cham- 
berlain, Josiah M. Goodwin, Eben Robbins, Warren N. Harriman, 
Guslavus V. Wilson, Olivers. Barker, James Chamberlain, jr.. Oscar 
Coombs. Warren Robbins, Hudson ; Albert Brown. Daniel Clement. 
Abner F. Clement, Simeon R. Roberts, Henry J, Hussey. Charles 
O. Turner. Kenduskeag ; Daniel S. Delano, Lee ; Jacob Eldridge, 
George Englehardt. George E. Turner, David Mcintosh. Levant ; 
Alfred Hastings, Jeremy Dupont, James Kearney, Erastus Adams, jr.. 
Jefferson Bowden, George L. Thompson. Lincoln; John .Sutter. Mil- 
ford, John H. Allen, Newburg; William Williams. Newport; Luther 

F. Quimby. Chester S. Mansell, Stephen Burtsell, James M. Phelps. 
George H. Troombly, James Bumham, William Stuart, Andrew J. 
Waltz, William Vancour. Oldtown ; Seth A. Colburn, Fred F. Bond. 
Daniel Peavy. William Butler. George W. Hall, Orono ; James A. 
Sutter. Fred W. Wichman. Thomas Noble, Orrington ; Jeremiah 
F*arevvell. Patten; Moses Miller. Mattawamkeag ; Calvin Cooper, Owen 
Tobin. Plymouth: Charles E. Lewis. Springfield; John P.Abbott. 
Richard H. Daniels. James W. Keyes. Sherman Boobar. Henry Lang- 
ley, Albion K. P. Moore. John McKenney, .Stetson ; Charles Giddes. 
Veazie : William F. Jenkins. Horatio Jenkins. Woodville ; Willard 

G. Wilcox. Winn. 


TJiis regiment was organized at Augusta, Maine, 
August 14, 1862, to serve three years. Left for Washing- 
ton on the 19th and there remained encamped until 
the 7th of September, when, having been assigned to 
Taylor's Brigade of Hooker's Corps, they proceeded to 
Frederick, Maryland, and from ihence to Rappahannock 
Station, Virginia. While there they were transferred to 
Duryea's Brigade of Reynold's Corps, and on the 23d 
arrived at Brooks' Station on the Acquia Creek & 
Falmouth railroad. On the 13th of December they took 
an honorable part in the battle of Fredericksburg, losing 
in killed, wounded and missing 226 men — nearly fifty 
per cent, of their number engaged. On the 14th 
they re-crossed the Rappahannock river, and encamped 
near Fletcher's Chapel, where they remained until the 
28th of April, 1863, when they took part in the Chan- 
cellorsville campaign, and were in position on the ex- 
treme left of the army, at Fitz Hugh's Crossing, three 
miles below' Fredericksburgh, until the 2d of May, on 
which day they marched to the extreme right at Chan- 
cellorsville, and on the 5th re-crossed the river, encamp- 
ing near White Oak Church. 

On the 1 2th of June they proceeded towards Pennsyl- 
vania, arrived at Gettysburg on the ist of July, and then 

were engaged with the enemy every day until the 4U1. At 
the close of the 4th, all that remained for duty of 248, 
officers and men, who entered the engagement on the ist, 
were 2 officers and 15 enlisted men. This remnant of the 
regiment participated in the pursuit of the enemy, reached 
Rajipahannock Station on the morning of the 26th, and 
there remained encamped until the 1st of August. They 
afterwards particijiated in the movement to the Rapidan, 
retreating from the latter place, with the army, on the 9th 
of October. 

They also partici[)ated in the movements against the 
enemy at Mine Run, and on the 30th of November 
formed a part of the charging column intended to storm 
the enemy's works, but the orders being countermanded, 
they returned to Kellys Ford ou the 3d of Deceinber, 
thence on the 24th proceeded to Mitchells Station, where 
they remained encamped until April 26, 1864. 

On the 4th of May they crossed the Rapidan at Ger- 
mania Ford, and bivouacked near Wilderness Church. 
On the 5th, 6th and 7th they engaged the enemy 
at that jjlace, and on the 8th participated in a charge 
on the enemy's lines at Spottsylvania Court House. 
Their loss in killed, wounded and missing was nearly one 
hundred men On the 10th they participated in the 
charge upon the enemy's lines at Laurel Hill, and lost 
50 men, killed and wounded. 

On the 23d they crossed the North Anna river, at Jer- 
icho Ford, and then took part in the engagement which 
occurred there. On the 24th they occupied and de- 
stroyed the railroad, remaining in that vicinity until the 
26th, when they recrossed the river and proceeded to 
Mangohick; thence, on the 28th, down the Pamunky 
river to Hanovertown, where they formed in line of battle 
and erected breastworks. On the 30th, they reported to 
General Lockwood, and took position near Bethesda 
Church, where they remained, engaged in skirmishing and 
throwing up entrenchments, until the 5th of June. On 
the 1 6th they crossed the James river, and advanced to 
near Petersburg, (jn the 17th, they supported the Ninth 
Army Corps; paiticijjated in an assault on the enemy's 
works, which was partially successful, and gained 
jjossession of the Norfolk railroad. On the i8th of 
August they took an active part in the attack and cap- 
ture of the W'eldon Railroad, losing a number of officers 
and enlisted men taken prisoners, and thirty wounded. 
They remained in position at the "Yellow House" until 
the 25th, when, with their division, they were withdrawn 
to the rear as a reserve. 

On the 15th of September they made a successful re- 
connoissance in the direction of the South Side Railroad; 
and on the 16th were assigned to garrison Fort Wads- 
worth, on the Weldon Railroad, which they occupied till 
the 5th of December, when they rnoved to the Jerusalem 
Plank Road. In the meanwhile the Second Company 
of Unassigned Infantry, organized at Augusta, Maine, 
September 23, 1864, to serve one year, joined the regi- 
ment, and was assigned as Comjjany A. On the 7th of 
December they formed a jwrt of the expedition to the 
Weldon Railroad and participated in its destruction, re- 
turning to their position near the Jerusalem Plank Road 



on the 1 2th, and there remained, performing the usual 
routine of camp duty, until the sth of February, 1865. 

On the 6th and 7th of February they participated in 
an engagement near Hatchers Run, losing 3 men 
killed, 60 wounded, and 11 missing, and returned 
to their camp near the Weldon Railroad on the nth. On 
the 31st of March they participated in the battle of 
tlravelly Run, losing i man killed, 4 wounded, and 
24 missing, and on the ist of April in the capture 
of the enemy's works near the South Side Railroad, 
their casualties in the latter engagement being 1 man 
killed and 12 wounded. On the 2d of April they 
joined in the pursuit of Lee's torces to Appomattox 
Court House, where they remained until the 15th, when 
they proceeded towards Manchester. They remained at 
Manchester until May 6th, and on that day left for 
Washington, L)istrict of Columbia, where they remained 
encamped at Balls Cross Road until June 5th, when in 
compliance with orders from the War Department, the 
regiment was mustered out of the United States service 
by Captain Walter F. Chesley, .Assistant Commissary of 
Musters, and on the 6th of June placed en route for the 
State Rendezvous, at .Vugusta, Maine, where the men 
were paid and finally discharged. The officers and men 
whose term of service did not expire prior to October i, 
1865, were transferred to the Twentieth Maine Volun- 


LiciUcnaiU-L'ulunel .\ugustus B. Farnhani, B.ii.gor. 
Major .\iigu-slLis li. Kariiham, 15aiigor. 



I'reeman Brackett, Marcus D. Kingsbury, Richard .Soule, Bradford ; 
Hugh Conway, Hampden; James Fahey, David D. Hanson, Milton 
W. Ricl<er, George Hart, Bangor; Willard Lancaster, Hudson; James 
I.attaie, Mattamiscontis; .Austin I^oor, Patten; James S. Kyle, Chester; 
Janu-s I.eavitt, Lincoln. 


(jeury<* .\. Bagley, Henry Mansfield, Greenbush; Fiyron B. Brown, 
Jc)M'|)h H. .Survey, .Mden Hackett, Patten; Zebulon VVhiltaker, Clifton; 
Gilman Lawrence, .Newport; Asa C. Lampher, Bradford; Willianj B. 
Monroe, Greenfield; Prank B. Miller, Orono; Charles L. Peasley, lin- 
fu-ld; Joseph Wilson, Hudson; Peter Bull, Charles and Walter k. 
Chamberlain, Leonard H. L'lapp, Stillman V. Davis, .Alson L. Day, 
Cyrtis Kinery, .Abner K. Hall. James and William D. Keliev, Joseph K. 
IVlkev, Richard fJ. Porter, .Albert Rainer, Charles G. Reed, Bangor; 
Nelson A. i'owcrs, Medway. 



Seth .Mien. HoiaceKellogg, Russell D. Loyal, Patten; Alfred Bishop, 
William Brown, Frederick Bishop, Edward C. Cook, Milton W. kicker, 
B.ingor; Elias Huiuphrey, Hampden; Calvin A. Glidden, Plymouth; 
|olm W. and -Andrew Dillingham, John D. Graves, Hermon; Martin 
Harmon, Winn; Charles W. Hanson, Lincoln; William IL Reed, 
Stetson: John O. .Allen, Lowell; Robert .M. Smith, John C. Hinkley, 
jr., Leonard Gross, William Farrar, Oldtown; James H. Fir.ickett, 
Otis (letchell, Thomas G. Erskine, Alton; Nathaniel Lamb, Thomas 
O. Freeman, Greenbush. 


Albion K. Daggett, Benjamin F. Grant, Ch.arles Marshall, George 
k. Mann, Theodore M.alone, .Alexander F. Mylne, John Mahoney, 
James McPlierson, Bangor; Albert M. Coffin, Carroll; Horatio W. 
Inman, Ch.arles H. Kneeland, Howard Mallett, Lee; ICdward P. Sil - 
ley, l.owill; losepli W. I 'arsons, Hermon. 



.Sergeant Hiram H. Houston, Newport. 
Coiporal George W. Williams, Newport. 
Musician Charles tL Ring, Newport. 


Charles .Abbott, Horace W. Bolton, Lorraine A. Daniels, Jeremiah 
Grindell, jr., Joseph F. Knight, Charles C. Lyon, Melbourne C. 
Spalding, Andrew J. Tibbetts, Clark R. Towle, Mark Towie, Newjjort; 
Isaac .Arnold, Joseph T. .Arnold, Bradford; Daniel O. Bickmore, Wil- 
liam O. Burnham, Daniel Davis, William Dickey, Moses Haskins, 
Oldtown; Luther J. Babcock, Edinburg; Elbridge P. Crocker, l^owell; 
William H. Crabb, Franklin .N. Baston, James Fahey, George Hart, 
John Hayden, Hugh Kelley, Rcuel Phillips, .Abner W. Perkins, Frank 
A. Roberts, Paul Sideau, Henry J. Smith, William VV. .Smith, Bangor; 
Daniel Davis 2d, Winn; I^enuiel N. Cole, .Samuel Patndge, Hamp- 
den; Isaac H. Fairbrolher, William H. Hanscom, Samuel W. Page, 
.Samuel S. Sumner, Orono; James Howard, jr., Medway; Andrew J. 
Riuuiells, PaltagLuupus; Henry .A. Doir, Brewer. 



Warren Butters, Exeter; Theodore Russell, Samuel Pierce, Hudson; 
Thomas J. Gould, Dixmont; Benjamin F. Grant, Bradford; Edwin G. 
Hammond, Lincoln; Thomas D. Page, Burlington; Lloyd D. Rowe. 
Charles E. Rogers, .Springfield; William H. Speed, Charleston; Gorge 
W. Tucker, Lee; Alfred N. Grossman, Alton; .Stewart N. Inman, 
Desira S. \'eancour, Orono; Ciiarles Keisser, Kenduskeag; John F. 
Murphy, .Andrew J. Smith, Joel Tibbetts, Michael O'Conner, Bangor; 
Henry Oban, Oldtown; .Albert Pickering, Holden; Alonzo .S. Withee, 



Michael Doyle, (ieorge .A. Field, Brewer; Isaiic Holbrook, Ply- 
mouth; Amasa P. Libby, Chester Nelson, Lincoln; Isaiah Lyons, 
Springfield; .Samuel Merritt, Laforest F. CJifford, Bangor, Russell F. 
Parkman, Zoeth E. Stubbs, C'orinna ; William S. Rogers, Carmel ; 
Davids. Scott, Chester; Wallace L. Holmes, Levant; Rodney Leavitt, 
Drew Plantation ; David B. Longee, Plymouth ; William McBrien, 
Oldtown ; Albert Treat, Bradford. 


Captain John .Ayer, Bangor. 

Captain John D. Conley, Bangor. 

I-'irst Lieutenant Israel H. Washburn, Orono. 

.Second Lieutenant Israel H. Washburn, Orono. 

.Second Lieutenant John D. ConJey, Bangor. 


.Sergeant [ohn D. Conley^ Bangor. 
Corporal Stephen Hines, Bangor. 
Corporal Thomas D. Witherly, Bangor. 
Corporal Nelson Hewey, Veazie. 
Corporal Frederick L. Ladd, KendusktMg. 


Ezekiel M. Banks, John H. Everett, Leonard E. Kenniston, Thomas 
IC. Kenniston, William B. Nason, Kenduskeag; Dudley B. Dean, Wat- 
son D. Bean, MosesJ. Rubert, John L. Sawyer, Passadumkeag; [ohn 
M. Durgin, Charles Hathorn, Ve.azie; Timothy A. George, Holden; 
James H. Thayer, Roscoe T. Griflin, Clarence L. Hodsdon, Wilham G. 
Fisher, James Maloney, David McElroy, Jasper H. Nash, Michael 
Carey, Edwin W. Hamilton, Charles E. Hatch, John J. Maiston, 
Martin VV. Dugan, (Seorge W. Felker, John Farley, .Albert Garland, 
Albert Hoyt, Henry A. Heal, Bangor; William E. Annis, Charles B. 
Dore, Hermon; Wilbur F. Chase, Chester; Joseph Simpson, Corinth; 
Lyman .Smith, Mt. Desert; Martin L. Whitlen, Etna; Joseph A. Gray, 
Plymouth; James J. Kingsbury, Holden; Dennis A. Jenkins, Wood- 
ville; Retire Freese, jr., Lagrange. 



Thomas Foley, Corinth; Petet B. Brann, .Andrew |. Brycr, Charles 
L. ('ummings, (Jeorge Clark, James T. Dilling, Augustus c. Lincoln, 
Muses Tarbox, jr., Ralph VV\nian, Joliii W. Worcester, Daniel Mc- 



Neil, Leonard P. Martin, Bangor; Jeremiah Banks, James Dutton, 
Woodville; William D. Blayden, Hudson; Asa Booker, Exeter; Ira 
Barnes, Josiah Collins, Lee; Josiah Cornish, Medway; William Frazier, 
jr., Reuel M. Whittier, Hernion; James Sentlen, Burlington; Moses 
Spencer, Corinna; John B. Wentworth, Orrington; William W. Rob- 
bins, Patten; Albert Lyshon, Oldtown; Gorham McPhcters, John Mc- 
Pheters, Orono. 



Walter M. Browne, Hezekiah Browne, Lee; John B. Bumiiy, Daniel 
Bell, Joseph Bell, jr., Charles Emerson, Hazen M. Shaw, Orono; Calvin 
W. Heath, George F. Hill, John F. Cloyes, George C. Biiir, George L. 
Cole, John Curran, Frederick C. Robinson, Eli C. Lyons, Frank Pooler, 
Gilbert Simons, William Gilbert, Bangor; Edwin A. Bennett, No. 2, 
R. 3; Silas C. Doblc, Roscoe Doble, Isaac Drew, Lincoln; Samuel A. 
Foster, Hampden; George W. Fisher, Brewer; Levi R. Gray, Oldtown; 
Augustus Hines. Etna; John T. Nason, Bradley. 


This regiment was organized at Portland, Maine, in Au- 
gust, 1862, to serve three years, and left August 21st for 
Washington, District of Columbia., where they occupied the 
line efforts on the east side of the Anacosta and north side 
of the Potomac rivers, until the 7th of October, when they 
crossed into Virginia and joined General Berry's Brigade 
of Birney's Division. They participated in the battle of 
Fredericksburgh on the 13th of December, losing 2 men 
killedand 19 wounded. On the 15th they re-crossed the 
Rappahannock, and remained encamped at Falmouth, 
Virginia, until the 1st of May, 1S63, when they took part in 
the Chancellorsville camijaign, engaged the enemy on 
the 2d and 3d, and re-crossed the river on the 6th. 
Their casualties in the campaign were i commissioned 
officer and 3 enlisted men killed, 5 commissioned officers 
and 59 enlisted men wounded, and 45 taken prisoners. 

On the 2nd of July they arrived at Gettysburg, 
and were engaged with the enemy on that and the fol. 
lowing day, losing in the engagement i officer and 17 
enlisted men killed, 7 officers and 105 enlisted men 
wounded, and 2 taken prisoners. 

On the 27th of November they took a prominent part 
in the battle of "Oiange Grove," in which their loss was 
1 officer killed and 2 wounded, 6 enlisted men killed, 
42 wounded and i missing. On the 1st of December 
they returned to Brandy Station, ind there remained en- 
camped until the 25th of March, 1864, when they were 
assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division of the 
Second Army Corps. 

On the 3d day of May they advanced towards the 
Rapidan, which they crossed on the 4th, and partici- 
pated in the battle of the Wilderness on the :5th and 6tli. 
Their casualties during the two days were 24 men killed, 
147 wounded, and 12 missing. On the 12th they partici- 
pated in the charge of the Second Corps upon the 
enemy's lines, losing 3 men killed, 40 wounded and 10 
missing. From this time until the 21st, the regiment, 
although under fire a large portion of the time, did 
not suffer any loss. On the 23d they joined the 
Fi'th Corps near the North Anna river, and participated 
in a charge which resulted in driving the enemy across 
the river and gaining possession of the bridge, losing 
during the day 4 men killed and 17 wounded. 

On the 2d of June they marched to Cold Harbor, 
and on the 3d and 4th were tmder fire in the re- 

serve, several men being wounded by shells. On the 
5th, 129 men were transferred to this regiment from the 
Third Maine volunteers. They remained in the works 
near Barker's Mills until June 12th, when they moved 
towards Petersburg, crossing the Chickahominy on the 
13th and the James on the 14th. On the 16th they 
made two unsuccessful attempts to capture the enemy's 
works, in which their loss was 7 killed, 48 wounded and 
5 missing; and on the i8th in an assault upon the enemy's 
lines, they lost 6 men killed and 18 wounded. From this 
time until July 25th they were engaged in erecting forti- 
fications and do'ing picket duty. On the 26th they 
joined in the expedition across the Ajipomatto.x and 
James rivers to Strawberry Plains, returning on the 28th. 
Subsequently they encamped near Fort Sedgwick, where 
they remained until February 5, 1865, in the meanwhile 
taking part in the raid on the Weklon Railroad, under 
General Warren. On the 5th of February they moved 
to Hatchers Run, and participated in all the movements 
and engagements of the Second Cor|js in that vicinity 
until the 29th of March, when they re-crossed Hatchers 
Run. Early on the morning of the 30th they ad- 
vanced upon the enemy in line of battle, and secured a 
position by throwing up earthworks. At night they 
moved to the left, and took position near the Boydton 
road. On the 1st of May they left Burksville for Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, arriving in that city on the 
15 th. 

On the 4th of June the regiment was mustered out 
of the United States service at Baileys Cross Roads by 
Captain Charles H. Hayes, Assistant Commissary of 
Musters, under the provisions of War Department Gen- 
eral Order No. 94, series of 1865, and in pursuance of 
Cleneral Order No. 140, Headquarters Army of the Po- 
tomac, 1865. On the day of muster-out they left for 
Maine, and arrived at Portland on the 8th, where the 
men were paid and finally discharged on the loih. The 
officers and enlisted men whose term of service did not 
e.xpire prior to October i, 1865, were transferred to the 
First regiment Maine heavy artillery. 


.\ssistant Surgeon Louis E. Norris, Hampden. 


J.uiies I'icketl, Charles Beal, David Berry, Orrin M. Crumniett, .\1- 
bion T. Carter, Benjamin A. Clifford, James Flye, Roswell Read, Janie 
Hennessy, Bangor; Jeremiah B. Atkins, Levant; Oscar F. Abbott, 
Charles H. Beal, Nevvburgh; Nathaniel .A.Atkins, Exeter; John O- 
.Adams, Warren Bates, jr., Veazie; Edwin P. Boobier, Mattamiscontis; 
George W. Brown, .\lton; David L. lioyd, Kenduskeag; Walter H. 
Randall, Dixinont. 



Llewellyn Cleaveland, Orrington; Ezra T. Carpenter, George W. 
Chase, Charleston; Orr Cunnningham, Greensbush; Albert P. Clark, 
Charles Clark, Corinth; Andrew I. Chadbourne, Bradford; Lawrence 
Connor, Veazie; Dennis Cronan, Orono; John T. Clark, Corinna; John 
N. Curtis, Dexter. 



lulward L. Blake, William F. Frost, Biewer; Peter W. Guthrie, 
Andrew M. Garhiiid, Charles D. Mowey, Daniel Young, A. G. Fur- 
busli, lamii ll.iriett, .Alonzo J. Morrison, Charles H. Patten, William 



A. Sibley, 'rrislruni H. Warren, John Williams, Bangor; John B. 
Crockett, Cyrus W. Emerson, Stetson; Alpheus Downs, John Don- 
ovan, Benjamin Eddy, Kenduskeag; Thomas J. Chase, Carmel; Wil- 
lavd K Campbell, Clifton; John H. Davis, Orono; Charles Dearborn, 
\'cazie; William T. Fletcher, Greenbush; Maik W. Furbush, James 
M. Mitchell, Bradford; James P. Flagg, Stephen Richards, Oldtown; 
Edward Gilkey, Holden. 



Joshua L. Farrar, I'^llis .\. Ciilman, Corinth; Sylvester Bunipus, Lee; 
Marsliall A. Grant, Hermon; Albert Grant, Hudson; Moses Goss, 
Gorham 1'. Hubbard, Charleston; Lincoln (}iven. Brewer; Samuel .S. 
Gilpatrick, Veazie; Martin .A. Hardy, Carmel; Greenlicf Haney, Kcn-; Thomas B. Hamilton, Bethuel Heath, James H. Thompson, 
Bangor; Edward I-. Hunt, Oldtown. 



.N'elson Hart. William L. Hodsdon, John F. Johnston, William Land, 
Charles E. Lord. Robert Mctjregor, Thomas M. Blake, Eliphalet Emery, 
Isaac W. Sanborn, Bangor; Thomas D. Jordan, Exra Mitchell, Old- 
town; Tobias E. Johnson, Veazie; John A. Joselyn, ICxeler; George W. 
Kiaser, Hudson; Charles Kimball, Carmel; John W. Kingsbury, 
Bradford; William A. Langley, Stetson. 



ICdward .\llen, Frank Davis, Bangor; .Archibald McPhetres, D. 
.MiTrifield, George H. Thompson, Orono; Patrick McOvery, Charles- 
ton; John Mcpherson. Carmel; Nathan L. Marden. Veazie; .Augustus 
.A. McClure, Samuel J. Lee, Hudson; Richard E. Myrick, Mt. Chase; 
Charles O. Perry, Brewer; Charles H. Tuck, Lee. 



.Alden M. Brown, Plymouth; William H. Curtis, Dexter; Randall 
N. Cochran, Jelhro S. Getcliell, William Perkins, Thomas Patten, 
Charles Randlelt, John Robinson, William Ritchie, Thomas W. Bill- 
ings, Warren .Sturdivant, Bangor; Benjamin Estes, David Legrow, 
Orono; Clifton C. Huckins, Charleston; Joseph A. Merrill, William 
(;. Peake, .Alton; George Ordway, Exeter; Isaac H. Philbrook, Green- 
field; Ichabod F. Partridge, Samuel Raynes, Carmel; A. H. Quimby, 
John G. Hammons, Etna; Calvin H. Kowe, Bradford; Alonzo E. 
Randall, Dixmont; Moses McPheters. Greenbush; George R. Sibley, 



(-'arrol (i. Bicklortl, John 1 'arrigan, Moses L. .Strickland, Bangor; 
.Asbrcy F. Haynes, Benjamin F, Welch, Passadumkeag; Moses 
Ranney, jr.. Stetson; Roswell W. Rich, lixeter; Willis .A. Rollins, 
Corinth; Jeremiah .Smith, Mattawamkeag; Charles I.. Sanford, Brad- 
ford; Newell Scribner, Charleston; Charles Sloneman, .Alton; David 
Southard, Thomas Benjamin, Bradford: Joseph H. Shapleigh, Veazie; 
Hollis B. .Spaulding, Oldtown; George H. Thompson, Orono; Dennis 
Higgins, Hampden; Benjamin Kimball, Koyal M. Kneeland, Frank 
Paul, Lincoln; Edward York, Corinth. 



Stephen Silk, Frederick A. McKenney, Martin Welch, Bangor; Asa 
V. Smith. William Thomas, Veazie; .Amos B. Stearns, Timothy Whit- 
ney, Hudson; Daniel W. Sylvester, Albion Stevens, Joseph Souther, 
Stetson; Samuel E. Stone, Lewis P. Hambert, Brewer; I^evi C. Titus, 
Exeter; Isaac L. Twombly, Milford; John Sawyer, Hampden; Joseph 
O. Turner, Lincoln; Daniel Washburn, Oldtown; Lyman F. White, 



Captain James O. Thompson, Etna. 


I-'leazcr Hutchinson, Orrison Ripley, Lincoln; Nathaniel F. Lambert, 
Hudson; James O. Thompson, Etna. 


This regiment was organized at li;itli, Maine, August 
25, 1862, to serve three years, and left on the 27th Cor 


Washington, arriving in that city on the 29th. They 
crossed to the Virginia side of" the river and were as. 
signed to garrisoning Foits Baker, Davis, Duj^ont, and 
Mahan, where they remained until the latter jiart of Sej)' 
tember, when they marched to Frederick, Maryland, 
which place they left October 3d, for H irper's Ferry, 
where they were attached to Gorman's Brigade, in How- 
ard's Division. 

During a successful reconnoissance in force October 
1 6th, to Charleston, they were for the first time under 
fire, and acted creditablv. On their return they went to 
Bolivar Heights. 

On November 23d they were enraniped about five 
miles from Fredericksburg, and on December 13th jjartici- 
jsated in the battle at that place. On the isth they re- 
crossed the river and went into camp near Falmouth, 
where they remained tintil the close of April, 1863. 
- On the 27th of April, with their division, they were or- 
dered to co-operate with General Sedgwick in the attack 
upon the heights of Fredericksburg, and w'ere assigned 
the duty of guarding the telegraphic communication be- 
tween the left wing of the army and General Hooker's 
headquarters, in which position they remained until May 
3d, when they were ordered to Fredericksburg, and on 
the 5th removed the jiontoon bridge at that jilace, under 
a severe fire from the enemy. 

On the ist of July they arrived at (iettysburg and on 
the 2d and 3d were hotly engaged with the enemy. 
They went into action with 440 officers and men, and 
their loss during the two days was 12 officers and 220 
enlisted men killed and wounded. Subsequently they 
crossed into Virginia by way of Harper's Ferry, ]and on 
the 13th of September co-operated with General Gregg's 
cavalry across the Rappahannock, compelling the enemy 
to fall back beyond Culpeper. They remained on duty 
on the Rajjidan until October 8th, when they returned 
to Culjjeper, and on the 12th engaged the enemy at 
Bristow Station, losing man killed and 13 wounded. 
November 26tli they joined in the movement to "Mine 
Run," and on the 6th of December went into camp at 
Stevensburg, where they remained until May 3, 1864. 
On May 4th they crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, and 
on the 5th and 6th were engaged with the enemy at 
Todd's Tavern and at the Wilderness. Their loss in the 
several engagements was very severe. On May loth 
they formed a portion of a column which twice assaulted 
the enemy's position across the Po River, and on the 
1 2th participated in the famous assault of the Second 
Corps. On the 24th they were engaged with the enemy 
at the North Anna river, crossed the Pamunkey river 
on the morning of the 28th, and on the ist of June 
participated in the engagement near Bethesda Church. 
On the 3d they stormed the enemy's works at Cold Har- 
bor and lay under a galling fire all day. On the 13th 
of June they jnoceeded towards Petersburg, went into 
position in front of that city on the 15th, formed. the 
extreme right of the assaulting column on the i8lh, and 
afterwards participated in the attack ujjon the enemy's 
inner line of works. On the 2 2d of June they jiartici- 
pated in the engagement near the Jerusalem I'lank Road, 



during which their casualties were numerous and many 
being prisoners. On the 26th of July they joined in the 
movement to Deep Bottom, enyai^ed the enemy at that 
place, and returned in front of Petersburg on the 30th, 
where they remained encamped until the 15th of August, 
when they again proceeded to I )eep Bottom, returning 
on the 2rst. On the 23d they proceeded to Ream's 
Station, and on the following day were engaged in the 
destruction of the Weldon Railroad. On the 25th they 
were engaged with the enemy and returned to Petersburg 
on the 26th. Their loss in this engagement was heavy. 

On the 20th of September they moved into the line 
in the immediate front of Petersburg, where they were 
exposed to the fire of artillery and sharp.shooters day 
and night until the 26th of October, when they marched 
across the Weldon Railroad, and on the 27th participated 
in the engagements at Hatcher's Run and near the 
Boydton Plank Road. 

On the 3is*t of October they occupied Fort Haskell, 
in the front line, exposed as before to the continued fire 
of artillery and sharpshooters, and remained there un- 
til the 30th of November. On that day they moved to 
near Patrick Station, the terminus of the Grant Railroad, 
and went into winter quarters. 

The regiment left camp May 3, 1864, with 22 officers 
and 46S enlisted men. Of tlie 277 men transferred, 
June iSth, from the Fourth Maine Volunteers, there were 
in the field, 57 men. A new company, the Fifth of 
Unassigned Infantry, organized at Augusta, Maine, 
October 5, 1864, to serve one, two, and three years, 
joined the regiment, October 22d, with 3 officers and 64 
enlisted men; making a total of 25 officers and 589 en- 
listed men. The casualties during the year 1864 were 
as follows: Killed inaction, 61 men; wounded and died 
of wounds, I officer, 39 men; wounded exclusive of 
those died of wounds, 16 officers, 283 men; taken pris- 
oners by the enemy, i officer, 133 men. 

On the ist of January, 1865, the regiment was en- 
camped in front of Fort F^mory, near Petersburg, Vir- 
ginia, and remained there until February 5th, when, with 
their division, they joined in the movement to Hatchers 
Run, and there remained encaiiijied until the 29th of 
March. On that day they marched out on the Vaughan 
road and made a successful reconnoissance to Dabney's 
Mills, which position they occujjied without opposition. 
On the 30th and 31st of March they were engaged with the 
enemy at Fort Powell, which they entered on the 2d of 
April, and afterwards joined in the pursuit of Lee's 
forces, overtaking them near Amelia Court House on the 
6th of April and pursuing them all day. On the 7th of 
April they had a spirited engagement with the enemy at 
High Bridge on the Lynchburg Railroad, and saved 
from destruction the railroad and foot bridges across the 

On the 2d of May they left Burksville for Washington, 
District of Columbia, and encamped at Baileys Cross 
Roads on the 15th. 

In obedience to orders, the regiment was there nms- 
tered out of the LTnited States service, May 31st, by 
Captain H. Y. Russell, Assistant Commissary of Musters. 

The officers and men whose term of service did not ex- 
pire prior to October ist, 1865, were transferred to the 
First Regiment Maine Heavy Artillery. The regiment left 
camp for home June ist; arrived on the 4th, at .'\ugusta, 
Maine, where the men were paid and finally discharged 
on the 7th. 


Assistant .Surgeon Fred G. P.irker, .Stetson. 
Hospital Steward Delon H. .\bbott, Orono. 



Henr\- 11. Laneaster, Stetson: Richard .Mlurn. Ranger: Jeremiah 
Avery, Greenfield; George Eil<er, Glenljtirn; William Babcock, New- 



Edgar S. Batchelder, Garland; William P. Howe, Charles F. Jewell, 
Dixmont; David King, Jason S. Russell, Benjamin F. Call, .4bijah M. 
Clay, George Drake, Judson De.vter, David Estes, John Elden, George 
W. Field, Ezabulon Robinson, Bangor; Charles H. Prescott, Edwin 
Smith, .Albert .Staples, Newburg; Sylvanus (". Rose, Bradley; William 
'i'. Smith, Hampden. 



William H. Ames, Plymouth: James H. Flanders, Garland; David 
E. Cunnitigham, Bradford; Charles A. Rowes, Eddington; Don Car- 
los St. Clair, Brewer; Alney W. Titus, De.\ter; William M. White, 
D.ivid Hewy. Moses H. Hubbard, .Samuel I'. Eanib, Bangor. 

William F. Moody, James Redikin, Bangor; Emery .A. McAllister, 



.Sewall B. Blake, Dexter; Reuben Knowles, jr. , Joseph March, Win- 
field; .S. Treat, David Howey, Moses H. Hubbard, ICrnest Merton, 
Bangor; Simon H. W^illey, Exeter; Kingsbury Tibbetts, Springfield; 
Isaac L. .Sanborn, Newport. 



Charles F. Clark, William Howard, Bangor; Timothy Murphy, 
Orono; Frank A. Curtis, Horatio N. Washburn, Bangor; Luther 
Wheaton, Joshua B. Whitney, Greenbush. 



Orrin Bridges, Alonzo Cummings, Cornelius C'armody, James S. 
Spencer, Richard .Mlum, Bangor; Jeremiah Towle, Enfield; Elisha P. 
Smith, Chester; Mellen Eastman, Charleston, Hejiry Crosby, Hamp- 
den; George Biher, Glenburn. 



James Wyman, Hermon; Columbus G. Bradford, Byron G. Waters, 
Patten; Frank Fields, Charles B. Whitney, Levi M. Reed, Lee; Ben- 
jamin F. Leavitt, Levant; John McLaughlin, Springfield; George A. 
Rines, Charles Rose, George Cox, Bangor; Stephen H. Merrow, Old- 



Joseph Broathvay, Orono; .Vndrew J. Miles, Elijah Ware, John B. 
Walker, Oldtown; John H. Sanders, Lincoln; William H. Sperrin, 
Milford: Edwin Savage, Chester; Alfred B. Towle, Lagrange; Lyman 
P. Fowles, Edgar A. .Stanley, Edward E. Kent, Brev\cr; Frank Flye, 
John H. Saunders, Eangor; Theodore M. Wragg, Lowell; Edward 
York, Hermon. 



James H. Knights, .Mbert G. Rand, Bangor; Charles M. Dorrity, 
Corrnth; Charles B. Flinn, Levant; Charles Holmes, Willis M. Porter, 



James Sniilh, Oldlown; Josiali H. Porter, Elisha Simpson, John 
Simpson, hradford; Newell B. Tilton, Etna; Amos M. Page, Kendus- 
keag; Solomon T. Trott, Amos C. Trott, Winn. 


This regiment was organized at Portland, Maine, 
August 29, 1862, to serve three years. Left September 
3d, for Boston, whence they sailed in the steamer Mer- 
rimac for Alexandria, Virginia, arriving on the 6th, and 
proceeding the ne.xt day to Washington, where they went 
into camp near the arsenal grounds. In a few days 
they marched rapidly toward the field of active opera- 
tions in Maryland, until they reached the battlefield of 
.\ntietam, and were drawn up in line of battle, but not 
ordered forward, being a portion of Butterfield's Brigade, 
of Porter's Division, which was held in reserve. They 
afterwards encamped near Antietam Ford. 

At the battle of Fredericksburg, on the 13th of De- 
cember, they were under fire for the first time, and 
rendered conspicuous service, being under the hottest 
fire for thirty-six hours, after which they were withdrawn 
to the city, where they bivouacked a few hours, then re- 
crossed the river and encamped near Falmouth, where 
they remained until the battle of Chancellorsville, in 
May, 1863. During the battle of Chancellorsville they 
were detached to guard the telegraph line, and although 
exposed to artillery fire, suffered no loss. On the 20th 
of May they joined in the movement towards Pennsyl- 
vania, engaged the enemy near Middleborough, Virginia, 
on the 2ist of June, and after a sharp fight drove them 
to Upperville, losing in the engagement i man killed and 
8 wounded. They arrived on the battlefield of Gettys- 
burg on the 2d of July, and on that day were hotly en- 
gaged with the enemy, losing 3 commissioned officers 
killed and 134 enlisted men killed and wounded. On 
the 3d they were under heavy fire of artillery, but took 
no active part, and on the 5th joined in the pursuit of 
the enemy ; participated in a skirmish on the Sharpsburg 
Prke, on the loth, and took part in the affair at \Yapping 
Heights on the 23d. Returning from Manassas Oap, 
they encamped at \Varrenton and Beverly Ford until 
the 1 6th of September, when they moved beyond Cul- 
peper. On the loth of October they participated in 
the movement to the Rapidan, retreating the next day 
through Culpeper, across the Rappahannock river, and 
supported the Second Corps in the engagement at Bris- 
tow Station, on the 13th. 

On the 7th of November they took part in the assault 
and capture of the enemy's works at Rappahannock 
Station, losing i man killed and 7 wounded, and after- 
wards moved across the river at Kelleys Ford. On the 
28th they joined in the movement to the Rapidan, where 
they were in |)osition before the enemy's works until De- 
cember 3d, when they formed the rear guard ot their 
corps on the retreat from that place, and on the next day 
went into camp near Rappahannock Station, \'irginia. 
They remained in winter quartets at Ra]jpahannock Sta- 
tion until May i, 1864. On the 4th of May they 
crossed the Rapidan at Germania Ford, and on the fol- 
lowing day were hotly engaged with the enemy on the 
left of Locust Grove Road, with a loss of i officer and 

10 men killed, 58 men wounded, and 16 missing. On 
the 6th of May they remained in line of battle in front 
of the works, losing 2 men killed and 10 wounded. On 
the 7th they advanced upon the enemy's line to ascer- 
tain his position and force, and were withdrawn after a 
loss of 2 officers killed and i wounded, and 2 enlisted 
men killed and i o wounded. On the 8th they proceeded 
to Spottsylvania Court House, and formed in line of bat- 
tle at Laurel Hill. They were then ordered to report to 
General Crawford, commanding Second Division, Fifth 
Corps; advanced toward the enemy, and lay under a 
heavy fire until 6 r. m., when they assisted in repelling 
the enemy's charge, losing i officer and 5 men killed, 2 
officers and 13 men wounded, and 2 men missing. 

From the 13th to the 20th they occupied rifle pits in 
front of the enemy near Spottsylvania, and lost 4 men 
killed. On the 23d they crossed the North Anna river, 
and participated in the action at that place; thence 
pushed on to the Virginia Central Railroad, a part of 
which they destroyed. 

On the 30th they advanced towards Hanover Court 
House, skirmishing with the enemy and forcing him back 
during the entire day. Fighting being renewed on the 
3d of June, they again engaged the enemy and assisted 
in compelling them to fall back to the rear of a swamp 
to a second line of works, losing 2 enlisted men killed, 
I officer and 23 men wounded, and i missing. On the 
13th they crossed the Chickahominy, and arrived in front 
of Petersburg on the i8th, where they remained en- 
trenched and under fire until August x 5th, when they were 
withdrawn, and on the iSth assisted in the capture of the 
Weldon Railroad. They remained on the Weldon Rail- 
road until September 30th, when they moved with their 
division and charged the enemy's works at Peeble's Farm, 
across an 'open field, under a terrible fire of musketry 
and canister. They afterwards assisted in checking the 
enemy's advance, and held their ground. Their loss in 
these actions was 1 officer and 6 men killed, and 50 men 

On the 2d of October they moved to the front and 
threw up earthworks, where they remained until October 
27th, when they took part in a reconnoissance to Hatchers 
Run, losing i man killed and 2 wounded. Afterwards 
returned to their former position and remained building 
forts, strengthening works, etc., until December 6th. On 
the 7th they joined the expedition to the Weldon Rail- 
road, which they struck at a point between Stony Creek and 
Jarrett's Depot, and assisted in the destruction of about 
twenty miles of this road ; then returned and went into 
camp near the Jerusalem Plank Road, where they re- 
mained until February 5, 1865, when they moved to 
Hatchers Run and took part in the action at that place 
on the 6th, with but slight loss. They remained in camp 
at that place until the 29th of March, when they moved 
across the run and suppoited General Chamberlain's 
Brigade in the action on the Quaker Road. The follow- 
ing day skirmished with the enemy and gained posses- 
sion of the Boydton Road. On the 31st they were en- 
gaged in the action at Gravelly Run, and on the ist of 
April at Five Forks. At the latter place they were one 


History of penobscot county, matne. 

of the first to gain the works of the enemy, where they 
captured one battle Hag and a large number of prisoners. 
They afterwards joined in the pursuit of the enemy and 
came up with them on the 8th at Appomattox Court 
House. At the time of the surrender of the rebel army 
the regiment was skirmishing with the enemy, and at the 
completion of the terms of surrender, was one of the 
regiments designated to receive the rebel arras. On the 
iSth they proceeded towards 'W'ashington, where they 
arrived on the 12th of May. 

On the 51)1 of June the enlisted men whose terms of 
service expired prior to October i, 1865, were mustered 
out and most of the officers discharged. Subsequently 
the men remaining of the Sixteenth Maine Volunteers 
and the First Regiment of Sharpshooters, were consoli- 
dated with the Twentieth, and the regiment thus re-organ- 
ized remained in service until July 16, 1865, when it was 
mustered out of the United States service near Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, by Captain Charles F. Sawyer. 
Assistant Commissary of Musteis, Third Division, Provi- 
sional Corps, in accordance with orders from the War De- 
partment. They arrived at Portland, Maine, on the 20th, 
where the men were paid and finally discharged on the 


Colonel Charles D. Gilniore, Bangor. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles D. Gilmore, Bangor. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas D. Chamberlain, Brewer. 

Major Charles D. Gilmore, Bangor. 

Surgeon John Benson, Newport. 

Assistant Surgeon Charles G. .Stevens, Bangor. 

Chajjlain Luther P. French, Corinth. 



Roliert T. Atherton, William A. Estes, Frank L. Grindle, Joseph 
Grindle, Charles H. Hodgkins, Ezra B. Marden, Augustus McLaugh- 
lin. Joseph S. Robinson, Henry A. Scribner, Benjamin'W. Tapley, 
George W. Young, Bangor; Martin S. Bodwell, John K. Luddon, 
William H. Higgins, William C. Hanson, George H. Perry, Lincoln; 
Thomas Daughcrty, Passadumkeag; Abner L. Hanscomb, William 
Sprague, Lee ; (ieorge E. .S. Hutchins, Carmel ; Franklin Lawry, 
Charleston ; William R. Ladd, Franklin Ramsdell, Garland ; Charles 
R. Oliver, Carroll ; Henry Pickard, Hampden ; ICdward R. Sanborn, 
Lagrange , Robert Tibbetts, .Springfield. 



First Lieutenant Royal B. Decker, L.agrange. 
Second Lieutenant Royal B. Decker, Lagrange. 


Corporal George H. Moulton, Lagrange. 


Edward K. Carver, Royal B. Decker, .Alhanan L Dyer, Daniel 
Hanscomb, .Seth H. Libbey, Edmund R. .Sanborn, W^illiam S. San- 
born, Wilson A. Decker, Lagrange; William L. F'rees, Maxfield; 
Harrison Goding, Ban,gor ; .August N. Luf kin, Charles E. Bowker, 
Orrington ; John F. Clifford, Hemion ; William A. Drake, Chelsea; 
Sewall Douglass, Veazie ; Charles A. Elliott, Kenduskeag ; Joseph W. 
Grenier, Alfred R. Gray, Theophilus E. Smith, Brewer ; William Hus- 
sey, Dixmont; John C. Hinkley. jr., Oldtown ; Alphonso H. Mitchell, 
Isaiah Strout, Francis A. Strout, Corinth ; James Sharrett, Mal- 
ta wainkeag. 



Corporal Vincent W. Pinhorn, Orrington. 


Henry A. Carpenter, Charleston; Samuel F. Mallett, Lee; Waldo 
P. Odlin, David H. Royal, John Healey, Benjamin Labrose, Samuel 

J. Nichols, William Shaw. Bangor; John H. Wentworth, Veazie. 
James W. Collins, Allen Harmon, W^mn ; Charles H. Folsoni, New- 
burg ; Lyman !■-. Gould, Dixmont ; William M. Hooper. Dexter ; 
Charles H. Haskell, Greenfield; Rufus L. Jones, Carmel; William R. 
Prescott, Corinth. 



Captain Isaac W. Haskell, Garland. 

First Lieutenant Edward B. Fifield, Dexter. 


Sergeant Louis (_iould. Dexter. 
Sergeant George W. Card, Dexter. 
Sergeant fonathan G. Johnson, Garland. 
Corporal Benjamin P. Parker. Dexter. 
Corporal Alonzo M. Fogg, Ciarland. 
Corporal John M. .Safford, Corinna. 
Corporal Luther M. Rideout, Garland. 
Corporal ]ohn S. Stevens, Exeter. 
Corporal Albert J. Swanton, Dexter. 
Corporal Michael Shay, Bangor. 
Corporal John Lynes, jr. , Bangor. 
Wagoner Ebenezer S. Allen, Garland. 
W.agoner Dennis S. PuUen, Dexter. 


George E. Atkins, Garland; Daniel A. Bosworth, Arthur A. Berrey, 
Bezeliel W. Burnham, Henry A. Chamberlain, Elisha S. Coan, George 
W. Jones, Sumner Knox, Warren C. Leighton, Christopher Penning- 
ton, Seth Ramsdell, Job Ramsdell, Sumner L. Skillins, Thomas J. 
Skillins, Henry A. .Swett, John D. Twombly, Garland; Albert G. 
Stanwood, Winn; .Albert S. Twining, Newburg; Calvin P. Allen, Isaac 
C. Barker, James A. Brown, James M. Blanchard, Leander Shaw, 
John M. Ramsdell, Exeter; Peter Augustine, Enoch .Ayres, George T. 
Bailey, Daniel L. Clark, John P. Crocker, Morrill G. Curtis, George 
A. Crocker, Augustus Ellis, Cyrus S. Greeley, Edwin R. Littlefield, 
James W. Nutt, Eli L. Prescott, Stephen A. Prescott, Amos Roberts, 
jr., Joseph Southard, Edward .Swanton, Dexter; Otis Smith, jr., 
Samuel A. Smith, George R. Rich, Daniel Foss, Albert H. Norcross, 
.Aaron M. Page, Charleston; James .Anderson, Peter D. Brackett, 
James Hickey, James Kelley, Elsbra McCoy, Michael J. McPhee, 
James McMahon, Edward K. Spaulding, James Wallace, Bangor; 
Benjamin W. West, Orrington; Rufus B. Harmon, Leander M. Libby. 
Willard S. Ricker, Corinna; P'ranklin Cunningham, Marcus D. Kings- 
bury. Bradford; Nathaniel G. Gould, Brewer: Horatio W. Iiinian, 
Charles H. Kneeland, Lee. 



Sergeant W. H. H. Hasey, Ban.gor. 


John Conway, Sewal M. Cowan, William H. Chambertain, Edwin 
Frederick, William F. Mills, William H. Wentworth, James Fahey, 
John M. Sherwood, Thomas Twomey, Horace Knight, Paul .Sideau, 
Bangor ; Sidney H. Sinclair, Springfield ; Charles A. Whitney, Etna ; 
Daniel Donavan, Kenduskeag; Lewis F. Morse, Veazie ; Joseph T. 
Arnold, Isaac Arnold, Bradford; Andrew J. Runnells, Patagumpus ; 
FYank A. Roberts, Hudson ; John Martin, James Bradley, Edward 
Carroll. Corinna ; Hugh Kelly, Daniel O. Bickmore, William O. 
Burnham, Oldtown; Isaac H. Fairbrother, Orono ; Elbridgc P. 
Crocker, I^owell ; Daniel Davis 2d, Winn. 


Musician Michael Quimby, Bangor. 
Wagoner Crosby N. Crocker, Bangor. 


Cyrus liray, John F. Cliffoid, Daniel J. Culson, F-^lijah Carr, .Ansel 
G. Emery, Charles F. Hall, William A. Neal, Edmund Gordon, Henry 
Reaviel, William A. Soule, William N. Witham, Robert A. Witherell. 
Oscar Wyer, Henry Haye, Dezerd Vencour, Francis Wright, Bangor; 
Dennison Ward, Henry Oban, Oldtown ; Alfred M. Grossman, Alton ; 
Edwin D. Gould, Brewer; Edwin B. Hammond. Lincoln; Thomas D. 
Paige, Burlington ; Albert Pickering, Holden ; Samuel Pierce, Hudson ; 
John J. Smith, Orono; Joel Tibbetts, Glenbum. 




Captain Thomas D. Chamberlain, Brewer. 

First Lieutenant Thomas D. Chamberlain. Brewer. 


Musician N'atlianiel L. ."^wett. Orrington. 


Charles N. Ayer, Frank Burr. Charles W. Currier, William D. Kelly. 
Brewer; John M. Sherwood. Fred C. Robinson. Charles E. Dunn, 
)uhn F. Cloves. Samuel W. Veazie, Albert L. Spencer, Kli C. Lyons, 
Bangor ; Mareellus Blake, Joseph A. West, Carmel ; Nelson Powers, 
Medway, John B. Bumby, Frank B. Miller, Orono ; Edwin A. Ben- 
nett, No. 2. R.'3; Byron B. Brown, Patten; Roscoe Doble, Silas C. 
Uoble, Lincoln; Cyrus ICmery, Maxfield ; Augustus N. Lufkin, 
i )rrington ; William B. Monroe, Greenfield ; Henry Mansfield, Green- 
bush ; John T. .N'ason. Bradley; Charles L. Praslee. Enfield. 



Second Lieutenant Edward R. Sanborn, Lagrange. 
Second Lieutenant William C. Bailey, Garland. 


Serge.ant .\ndreu J. Tozier, Plymouth. 
Sergeant Thomas D. Chamberlain. Brewer. 
Musician Edwin J. Baker, Oldtown. 
Wagoner John .^tockman, Oldtown. 


William H. Chamberlain, BelaL. Fowles, CJowen \\'. l-'owics, Medway; 
Charles L. Torrey, John \l. Sherwood, Patrick Hamesburg, William 
Kirteld, Jasper H. Nash, James Maloney, (!'harles E. Hatch, Henry A. 
Heal, Benjamin F". Grant, William P. Fisher, John Farley, Michael Carey, 
Frank L. Williams, George Whitney, William Debeck, lidward Fred- 
erick, Parmenas E. Folsom, Charles W. Jackins, Frank Johnson, 
.Stephen H. Matthews, George Miller. Isaac F. Orcutt, Moses G. Rice, 
Isaac N. Lathrop, Bangor ; Horace Wyman, Lincoln ; Edmund R. 
Sanboni, Lagrange; Bancroft Lambert, Bradley; Hiram H. Chesley, 
John E. Chase. Edmund (.Joft", Sylvester McLellan, Patten ; Charles 
B. Dore, Wilham E. Annis, Hermon ; Wilbur F. Chase, Chester ; 
Thomas Oscar, Lee; William H. Cates, Carmel; Lorenzo Grant, 
Hudson ; Ephraim L. Sherman. Camden. 



First Lieutenant John M. Sherwood, Bangor. 


Andrew Bryer, Martin P. Leonard, Moses Tarbo.x, jr., Ralph W. 
Wyman, John W. Worcester, John Mahoney, Bangor; Moses D. 
Spencer, Corinna ; William D. Blagden, Hudson; Ira Barnes, Josiah 
Collins. Lee; Josiah Cornish, Medway; Hugh Conway, Hampden; 
William J. Frazier, Hermon; William H. P^oss. Orono, AIe.\ander 
Mylne, Glenbrun ; .-Xlonzo Newcomb, Newburg ; John Patterson, 


Captain Charles L. Strickland, Bangor. 

First Lieutenant Edmund R. Sanborn, Orono. 


Amasa W. Fickett, Samuel H. Winchester, William Blake, Michael 
Doyle, George A. Fields. Brewer ; Charles T. \'arney, William 
Mehegan, .'\ndrew Hayman, James Frazier, John Flinn, James 
.S. Fo.\. James F. Dinsmore, John Casey, Hiram Clark, Andrew 
Franquer, Charles A. Crabb, Charles Couillard, Hiram Chrisly, 
Samuel A. Collins, Lewis D. .\llen, Bangor ; .Adelben .Allen. Rodney 
Leavitt, Drew Plantation ; Thomas O. Freeman, Greenbush ; Albert 
Treat, Bradford ; Hiiam Brawn, John Brawn, Freeman O. Gullifer, 
Oldtown; Edmund R. Sanborn, Lagrange; Henry L. Bloodworth, 
Nelson Chester, Lincoln; Thomas L. Berry, De.xter ; William Brown, 
Orono; James S. Brackett, Alton; Charles A. Gilman. Palten ; John 
D. Graves, Hermon ; Calvin A. Glidden, Plymouth ; David S. .Scott, 
Chester ; Zoeth E. Stubbs, Corinna ; Lesor Schwenor, Orrington. 


Organized at Augusta, October 14, 1862, to serve 
nine months. Mustered out August 27, 1S63. 


William H. Condon, John C. Craig, Joseph L. Emery, James M. 
Verriill, Dixmont. 


This regiment was organized at Bangor, October 10, 
I S62, to serve nine months, and left on the 21st for Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, arriving in that city on the 
24th. On the following day they were ordered to Ar- 
lington Heights, Virginia, and assigned temporarily to 
the Tiiird Brigade, Casey's Division. They remained 
at Arlington Heights until the 3d of November, when 
they were ordered to Fortress Monroe, Virginia, where 
they arrived on the 7th, thence proceeded to Newport 
News, and there remained until the 2d of December. 
On the 4th of December they left for New Orleans, ar- 
riving in that city on the isth, and immediately pro- 
ceeded to Baton Rouge, which they occupied on the 
17th. On the 31st they were assigned to the F'irst 
Brigade of Grover's Division. They remained at Baton 
Rouge until the 13th of March, 1863, when they took 
l^art in a reconnoissance to the rear of Port Hudson, 
after which they returned to Monticello Bayou. On the 
26th of March they joined the e.\pedition up the Atcha- 
falaya Lake, and on the 13th of April .safely landed at 
"Irish Bend," where, after crossing the Bayou Tcche, 
they encamped for the night. Early on the morning of 
the 14th they moved in the direction of Franklin, met 
the enemy, and after a sjiirited engagement, drove them 
from the field. On the 15th they were ordered to gar- 
rison F"ranklin, where they remained until the 25th, then 
proceeded to New Iberia. On the 6th of May they 
moved towards Port Hudson, arriving at that place 
on the ist of June, and on the 9th participated in an as- 
sault on the enemy's works, but were compelled to fall 
back and were soon after withdrawn, returning to their 
former duties. On the 14th of June they again partici- 
pated in an assault on the enemy's works, which, how- 
ever, was unsuccessful, and after dark they were withdrawn 
and returned to the position they occupied before the 
battle. After the surrender of Port Hudson, on the 8th 
of July, they were quartered inside the works, and there 
remained until the 24th, when they started for Maine, 
passing up the Mississippi by boat to Cairo, then by rail 
to Bangor, where they arrived on ^he 6th of August, and 
were mustered out and discharged the United States 
service on the 15th of the same month, by Lieutenant 
F. E. Crossman, Seventeenth United States Infantry. 


Colonel Simon (j. Jerrard, Levant. 
Adjutant Frank G. Flagg, Hampden. 
.Assistant Surgeon Jason Huckins. Levant. 
Chaplain John K. Lincoln, Bangor. 
Sergeant-Major Roscoe G. Rollins, Bangor. 
(Quartermaster-Sergeant Edward M. Young. Kenduskeag. 
Commissary-Sergeant William Lowney, Bangor. 
Fife Major (jeorge W. Grant, Bangor. 



Cai>lain Henry Crosby, Hampden. 

First Lieutenant James W'. Williams, Hampden. 

First Lieutenant George E. Brown, Hampden, 



Second Lieutenant James P. Ireland, Corinna. 
Second Lieutenant Hiram T. Batcbelder, Hampden. 
Second Lieutenant Gibson C. Patten, Corinna. 


Sergeant George K. Brown. Hampden. 
Sergeant Hiram T. Batchelder, Hampden. 
Sergeant Samuel iVI. Honisted, Hampden. 
Sergeant Daniel T. Mayo, Carmel. 
Sergeant Gibson C. Patten, Corinna. 
Sergeant Joseph E. Joy, Hampden. 
Sergeant John E. Tribou, Hampden. 
Sergeant Austin Pomroy, Hampden. 
Corporal John M. Sullivan, Hampden. 
Corporal Alfred W. Blissell, -Argyle. 
Corporal John S. Ward, Hampden. 
Corporal George W. Knowles, Hampden. 
Corporal James Patten, jr. , Hermon. 
Corporal Sumner Smith, jr. Hampden. 
Corporal Daniel Smith, jr., Hampden. 
Corporal Melvin F. .\very, Hampden. 
Corporal Aloiuo Y. Foster, Newburg. 
Corporal Abram G. Gerow, Newburg. 
JMusician Melville Walker, Hampden. 
Musician William F. Walker, Hampden. 
Wagoner Isaiah C. Deane, Hampden. 


Justin B. Atkins, Charles E. Blaisdell, George C Blaisdeli, William 
F. Blaisdell, William O. P. Co])eland, Edward Copp, Owen k. Hale, 
Wilbur F. Hubbard, Lewis F. Leighton, Charles H. Leighton, Isaac 
Morse, Forest E. Stewart, Leonard Palmer, David F. White, Lewis W. 
White, Abram Young, Luther Young, Alfred Veazie, Corinna ; Bart- 
lett Bradford, William W. Bradford, Jason L. Bussell. Robert Bussell, 
Prentice M. Mayo, John D. Morton, Ichabod F. Partridge, Daniel B. 
Smith, Carmel ; Gershoni W. Clifford, Charles W. Fletcher, Cyrus E. 
Hewes, Frank H. Jewell, C'leves C. Tracy, Hermon ; Alber C. Dyer, 
Etna; Daniel W. Emerson, Charleston ; Alonzo Y. Foster. .Augustus 
Newcomb, Newburg; William W. Freeze, Lorenzo Grant, Isaac 
Mann, Alexander Mann, Mark T. Marsh, Argyle; J.imes .Speed, jr., 
Bradford; Hiram Stone, Bangor; Henry M. Cole, Zenas Cowan, 
Jonathan P. Emerson, John Emery, jr., John F. Goss, Samuel Hitch- 
cock, Cyrus Humphrey, jr., Edward Humphrey, John B. Humphrey, 
Ephraim S. Knowles, John W. Knowles, Daniel Lake, George F. 
Loring, Thomas B. Lufkin, Ale.\:ander Mann. Mark T. Marsh, Malachi 
McAuliffe, .Alonzo E. Miller, George A. Miller, George W.